US 2216802 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
F. s. EASTER. 2,216,802
commu; uEANs Filled Jan. 13, 193s 2 sheets-'sheet 1 l Oa. 8, 1940.
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F. S. BASTER cooLIuG uEANs Filed Jan. 15, 1939 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented Oct. 1940 PATENT OFFICE COOLING MEANS `li'oreot S. Banter, Cleveland Heights, Ohio, asaignor to The White Motor Company, Cleveland, Ohio Application January 13,1939, Serial No. 250,702
My invention pertains to a cooling system and more particularly to a pair of separate water circulating systems for an internal combustion engine.
A further object has been to divide the cooling medium into two` independent systems, one reacting directly through theengine block comprising exhaust passages, exhaust valve seats and exhaust valve stem guides; whereas, the second y lo system is for cooling the head which covers the head and also so dispersed by' means of partition forming ribs in the water jacket as to serve to reinforce the head or to strengthen the roof g of `the combustion chamber and to also serve to supply additional radiating surfaces. The interior construction of the head' is so designed that the velocity of the water flow is high at the entry side where are located those sections of the several combustion chambers which constitute the detonation control areas; whereas on the outlet side the velocity of the water iiow decreases as it moves over the combustion chamber roof so that the velocity has dropped considerably on the outlet side which is nearer thosefsections of the combustion chambers which have the greatest heat l loss to cooling. Moreover, oppositely disposed,
longitudinally lextending header passages, which extend alongside the subjacent row of valves and cylinders, are of progressively increasing size each end of the latter.
'I'he following advantages are realized by my design of partitionedhollow head:
(1) Increase in the effectiveness of the detonation control area of the combustion chamber by removing a great amount of heat there.
(2) Increase of the eiliciency oi the combustion cycle by transference of a minimum amount of heat at the high heat loss or ignition area.
(3) Decrease of the rate` of carbon build-up inside of the combustion chamber by keeping the latter operating at the correcttemperature and thereby increasing the stability and efficiency of the engine over a longer period of time.
The two independent circulatory systems may from the longitudinal middle of the head toward (Cl. 12S-173) circulate the cooling water into a common radiator or into two separate radiators and connecting manifolds might optionally be employed to. accomplish a uniformity of ow through various parts of the engine. 5 The advantages of-my invention as contrasted with the conventional cooling vsystems are:
(l) A maximum flow to the valve seats and valve stem guides without having the same water travel over the combustionchamber, to realize 1 longer mechanical life and higher'thermal eiliciency.
(2) Cooling of the head'and therefore of the combustion chamber by specially directed and metered flow from its detonation` control area l to its high heat loss orl ignition area, resulting in diierentials of heat and of heat transference to give higher thermal eiliciencies and a mini-l mum carbon accumulation.
Adverting "to the drawingsm Figure l is a plan view, partly in section along line I-I of Fig; 3 through the head ofso much of an internal combustion engine as has operative association with my invention.
Figure 2 is a partial plan section taken in a n plane slightly below the top of the cylinder block as indicated'by the line 2-2 in Figure 3. c Figure 3 is, a vertical section on zigzag line 3 3 of Fig. 1.
Figures 4, 5 and 6 are corresponding sectional o detail views taken respectively on lines 4 4, l-S and 6-6 in Fig. l.
Figure 'l is aview corresponding to Fig. 3 of a slightly modiiiedform in which the outlets from the engine oi' the two circulatory systems are adjacent to each other in a unitary structure.
An engine block I comprises along opposite sides respectively, six cylinder barrels 2,'six exhaust passages 3, six exhaust valves 4 and ay somewhat intricate water jacket which includes a section 5 envelopingmthe exhaust passage 3 as 0 shown in Fig. 3.
A twin pump unit 6 includes one pump chamber 1 which discharges through a pipe 8 which enters the water jacket of. the engine block at 9, then flows through a middle cross passage I0 45 andthence into a longitudinally extending passage Il which, as shown in Figures 2 and 3, ex-
tends between the row of cylinders and exhaust passages and discharges by ilow around the exhaust valve seats and around the exhaust pas- 5f" connected with a. conduit il which discharges into the top of one radiator I4 having a capped fill opening I. As merely exemplified in Fig. 1 the radiator I4 is a unitary structure with another radiator, though completely separated therefrom by a partition I6. From the lower end of the radiator It, return to the pump chamber 1 is through a conduit I1. The customary fan I8 is shown rotatably mounted behind the radiator and with a belt drive I9 in common with the twin pump.
A hollow head 2li to be mounted upon the top of the engine block receives water at the middle of its one longitudinal side through a conduit 2| connected with the other pump chamber 22 and discharge of the water from the opposite longitudinal middle of the head is through a conduit 23 which is connected with the top of a companion radiator 2li having a capped inlet 25. Connection between the bottom of the radiator 24 and the pump housing 22 is established by means of a conduit 26. It will be observed that the radiator I6 happens to be illustrated as larger than the radiator 20. but itwill be understood that their relative sizes are not of vital consequence to my invention and might be varied to suit differing engine designs. Compressed between the deck of the engine block I and the bottom -of the head 2li is the customary, appropriately apertured gasket 21 and a series of twenty-three bolts 28 which serve to secure the head to the block. The head has upwardly arched sections to define the roofs 2S of six com'- bustion chambers each of which communicates with one of the cylinder barrels and extends over one of the exhaust valves 4 and is furthermore provided with a water chamber 39 extending across from one of its longitudinal sides to its opposite longitudinal side. Each combustion chamber roof is intersected by a spark plug 3i having terminals 32 and 33 located at the high heat loss area of the combustion chamber roof.
As may be observed in Fig. 3 the vertical dimensions of the water chamber vary in a direction from side to side having a greater dimension 84 over the water outlet or ignition side of the combustion chamber than the dimension 35 over the cylinder barrels or detonation control areas which are nearer the inlet side of the head. Generally, the height oi the cham'ber 30 progressively in: creases from one side to the other or from the inlet side where there is a longitudinally extending header passage 36 toward the outlet side where there is a comparatively larger longitudinally extending header passage 31.
Extending crosswise or in a direction from inlet to outlet side and over each combustion chamber, the head is interiorly provided with five partitions 38, 39, 40, 4I and 42 as clearly shown in Fig. 1, 'I'hese partitions are so angularly related with respect to each other that they form cross passages therebetween which progressively increase in width, measured longitudinally of the head,
from the inlet header 36 tb the outlet headerf31.
progressively varying distances from the outer walls of the two, headers or so that a line drawn through the extremities of all the partitions in one longitudinal half of the head and along each longitudinal side thereof is not parallel with the corresponding outer wall of the header, Figures 4, 5 and 6 illustrate the varying sizes of the headers on planes passing through each of the three middle partitions di! and in said three figures the three sectional planes of the headers, progressing in a direction from the middle of the head toward either of its ends, are marked by the numerals 53, M and d5. By this duplex arrangement of varisized headers and also vari-sized crosswise passages a more balanced water cooling distribution is eiected so that each combustion chamber is cooled to substantially the same extent regardless oi its proximity to an end of the engine. The double variation in size of each of the crosswise passages, both vertically and relatively transversely is calculated to realme higher thermal eiliciencies and a minimum accumulation of carbon due to predetermined metering of the now and its cooling effect with a differential as between the ignition area oi a combustion chamber and its detonation control area.
The modification of Fig, 7 illustrates an engine block 58 having an inlet il to its water jacket and an outlet i3 adapted to communicate with a pipe i9 containing a thermostat ile, the pipe 9 being, however, an integral part of a head EI provided with an inlet 52, having an inlet header 53, and ,y
outlet header 5t, partitions 55 therebetweeen, and outlet pipe 5e interiorly though separate from the pipe 49 and containing a thermostat 51. It is to be understood that the pipe 4Q returns water to one radiator whereas the pipe 58 delivers it to a companion radiator. f
It is to be realized that the scope of my invention comprehends many equivalent constructions. The showing of the drawings and the particular descriptions are merely specific exempliiications of a plurality of mechanical embodiments and arrangements.
1. In an engine, a cylinder block and a water- ;lacketed head forming in conjunction with each other a combustion chamber, said head being formed interiorly with a plurality of passages extending across from one side thereof to the other side, said passages being of predeterminedly varying size, and means for circulating water through said head.
2. In an engine, a cylinder block and a water- ;lacketed head forming in conjunction with each other a combustion chamber, said head being formed interiorly on opposite sides with headers and also with a plurality of partitions therebetween, said partitions forming passages of progressively varying size in a certain direction and a water circulatory system connected with said headers.
3. In an engine, a cylinder block and a waterjacketed head forming in conjunction with each other a combustion chamber, said head being formed interiorly on opposite sides with headers and also -with a plurality of partitions therebetween, said partitions forming passages of increasing size from one end of said chamber toward its other end and means for circulating water through said head.
4. In an engine, a cylinder block and a waterjacketed head forming in conjunction with each other a combustion chamber, said head being formed interiorly with a plurality of passages extending from side to side, said passages each being of varying size in two relatively transverse through said head.
5. In an automotive vehicle, a water circulatory system comprising, a composite engine case includingV a water-jacketed cylinder lblock and a water-Jacketed head, a pumping mechanism, a pair of water-cooling radiators and complemental connections between said block, head, pump and radiators, said cylinder block and head jackets being closed with respect to each other within said engine case. 4 6. In an automotive vehicle. a water circulatory system comprising, a water-jacketed head, a pumping mechanism, a water-cooling radiator and complemental connections between said head, pump andradiators and partitions forming variable sized passages within said head jacket for effecting differential velocities of water ,flow
'7. An oblong water-jacketed internal combustion engine head having an inlet and an outlet, said head being formed` interiorly with crosswise extending passages each of varying size from end to end and being also formed with header passages extending along opposite sides, said header passages communicating with each of said crosswise passages. the size of one corresponding set of ends oisaid crosswise passages furthermore varying directly as their distances from the longitudinal middle of said head.
8. An internal combustion 'engine head formed with a water chamber of varying height and havv ing an inlet at its side oi' least height and having an outlet at its side of greatest height and cross- 9. An oblong water-jacketed internal combustion engine head having a middle inlet and a middle outlet; said head being interiorly formed with crosswise extending passages each of varying size from its one end towardjts other end and said head being also formedfinteriorly with header passages extending along opposite sides oi' the head and transversely with respect to saidorosswise extending" passages, said header passages communicating with each of said crosswise passages, there being a direct ratio between the size of ends of said crosswise passages along a longitudinal half oi the head and the distances of such ends from the nearest longitudinal end of said head. p
10.. In a water circulatory system for an internal combustion engine, the combination of a pump, a water jacketed head formed with groups of partitions of Varying height, a radiator, a conduit from said pump to the portionsof the partitions which are of minimum height, a conduit from the portions of said partitions which are of maximum height t0 said radiator and a .conduit v