US 2218175 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Patented Oct. 15, 1940 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE STRUCTURAL TOY Henry R. Mack, Philadelphia, Pa. Application August 15, 1939, Serial No. 290,148
This invention relates to structural toys and is concerned primarily with joint elements employed for the purpose of maintaining other structural elements in assembled relationship.
Structural toys of the type with which this invention is concerned ordinarily include a plurality of structural elements usually .of different characteristics. The theory of use of these toys is that the structural elements are to be combined in various ways to provide different type structures. Thus from one set of a. given number of structural elements a wide variety of structures may be produced.
This principle which underlies the use of the toy set as an entirety is in accordance with the present invention carried over into the joint elements themselves.
The present invention has in view, as an important object, the provision of a plurality of joint parts which may be assembled in a wide variety of ways to provide a large number of joint elements that in turn may be employed in the structural toys as the elements which join the structural elements in their assembled relationship.
In providing these joint parts which are to be combined and assembled to provide a complete joint element it becomes necessary to provide means for maintaining the joint parts themselves assembled. Accordingly, the invention has in view, as a further highly important objective, the provision of a structural toy of the character above noted in which each joint element is made up of two or more parts, and which parts are maintained assembled by the structural elements of the set.
More in detail this invention contemplates the provision of structural elements in the form of girders or similar parts which are designed to cooperate with the joint parts to maintain the joint parts assembled to provide a complete joint element.
Another object of the invention is to provide a structural toy set of the character above noted in which such structural elements as the girders are of a highly simplified construction whereby the manufacture of the same is rendered easy and cheap. In obtaining this objective the invention has in mind the folding of a strip of sheet metal into a substantially rectangular girder construction having a seam along one side. This seam, together with the detent structure incorporated in the opposite walls on each side of the seam, facilitates in assembly of the beam with the joint elements.
Another object of the invention is the provision In carrying out this objective the invention hasin mind the provision of two distinct types of connection. One type of connection is intimately associated with the factor of assembling joint parts to provide a joint element. Thus each joint part is, in accordance with this invention, of a channel construction, and has small recesses formed on the exterior of the angles defining the channel. An exterior recess on one channel member is designed to complement the corresponding recess on another channel member placed immediately adjacent thereto to define a complete recess for receiving a detent carried by one of the beams or girders.
The other type of connection does not involve the factor of maintaining the joint parts assembled. Each of the joint parts is, in most cases, intended to carry one or more sets of spaced parallel tongues that are formed with recesses or openings. These tongues project outwardly from the channel construction of the joint parts, and are intended to be inserted in a beam or girder With a slight amount of collapsing or compression attending the insertion. When so inserted the recesses cooperate with detents projecting inwardly from the beam or girder to establish the detachable connection.
When joint elements are provided ance with the precepts of this inventio sible to provide joints that heretofore unknown in this art. Certain of the are formed with the recesses in the bases of the channels. Thus the recess in one base may complement a recess in another base assembled therewith to provide an opening through which one of the beams or girders may pass.
A further more detailed object of the invention is the provision, in joint parts of this type, of recesses of the character above noted which provide for assembling the girder in a position in which the sides of the girders are disposed at angles of 45 or 135 with respect to the bases of the channelmembers. The recesses are also so formed that the position of the girders may be changed so that certain sides thereof are parallel to the "bases of the channel members, while other n accordhave been sides are disposed normal thereto.
This objective is achieved by forming in each joint part, at the bases of the channel, a recess that is defined by a plurality of pointed notches with the walls defining each notch being disposed at an angle of 90 with respect to each other,
joint parts" it is poswhile the walls of adjacent notches are at an angle of 135. Thus when one joint part is assembled with another similar joint part, one alternate set of points define one rectangular recess for receiving a girder, while the intermediate alternate set of points define another rectangular recess which positions the girder at an angle of 45 with respect to the position attained by the first set.
Another type of joint part which is provided by this invention is that in which the channel structure is maintained intact, but in which recesses are formed in the joint parts in construction removed from the base of the channel, and these recesses are also intended to receive and accommodate the beams or girders.
Various other more detailed objects and advantages of the invention will in part become apparent, and in part be hereinafter stated, as the description of the invention proceeds.
The invention, therefore, comprises a structural toy set including joint elements each of which is made from a plurality of joint parts, the structural beams or girders of the set functioning to maintain the joint parts in assembled relation to provide a complete joint element. Novel connections between the beams or girders and the joint elements are provided, and provision is made for assembling the beams or girders in recesses in the joint parts in a new way. With joint parts of the character above noted it is possible to provide a joint element in which certain joint parts maintain other joint parts in assembled relation.
For a full and more complete understanding of the invention reference may be had to the following description and accompanying drawing, wherein Figure 1 is a perspective view of a beam or girder which is made in accordance with the precepts of this invention,
Figure 2 is a side elevational showing of one joint part,
Figure 3 is a similar side elevational showing of another joint part,
Figure 4 is a side elevational view of still another joint part,
Figure 5 is a similar view of another joint part,
Figure 6 is a perspective view of two other joint parts in assembled relation,
Figure 7 shows still two other joint parts in assembled relationship and the two modes of attachment whereby the beams or girders are attached thereto,
Figure 8 is an elevational showing of an arrangement in which four joint parts are assembled with certain of the joint parts maintaining other joint parts in the assembled relation,
Figure 9 is an elevational showing taken normal to the showing of Figure 8 of the same assembly of joint parts,
Figure 10 is a perspective view of still another type of joint part,
Figure 11 is an elevational view of a joint element which may be included in the set but which does not partake particularly of the characteristics above set forth, and
Figure 12 is a similar view of another joint element of this type.
Referring now to the drawing, and more parti'cularly to Figure 1, a structural beam or girder of the type intended to be included in a toy set which is made in accordance with this invention is referred to generally by the reference character G. This girder G is shown as being of a rectangular formation that is defined by .walls l0, ll, i2 and I3. It will be noted that the wall l3 includes a seam at [4. In order to render the manufacture of the girder G as simple and cheap as possible the invention has in mind the folding of a strip of sheet metal into the formation illustrated. Such a mode of manufacture obviously dictates the presence of a seam such as that shown at it. However, the present invention takes advantage of the presence of this seam by forming the walls i0 and I2 with the detentsdesignated i5. Thus there may be a slight amount of give between the walls i0 and I2 themselves, which give is, of course, an incident to the seam I4.
The detents, which are referred to as an entirety by the reference character i5, may assume any form desired which will have the efiect of providing opposite inward projections, although the invention has particularly in mind the illustrated construction in which leaf springs inthe form of tongues ii are cut out from the walls i0 and i2, respectively. These tongues l6 are then deformed, as by subjecting the same to the action of a die, to provide inwardly projecting dents or projections designated l1.
Inasmuch as it is often desirable to light up certain of the structures which are made by the set it is important to provide for the wiring of such constructions. Accordingly each of the girders G ordinarily includes, in one wall thereof, a recess such as shown at I8, and which recess is intended to accommodate wiring.
In each of Figures 2 to N), inclusive, there is shown a joint part which is intended to be combined with any of the other joint parts to provide a joint element. While each of the joint parts illustrated is of a construction different from every other joint part, they all have certain constructional features that are common to them. For instance, each of these joint parts includes a channel bar construction comprising a base l9 and side walls or flanges 20 which are substantially normal to the base l9. Moreover, at each end of each joint part, on the exterior of the angles joining the side walls or flanges 20 to the bases l9 are formed recesses 2i.
Referring now more particularly to Figure 2, the joint part shown therein is referred to in its entirety by the reference character A, and is shown as comprising the channel part construction above described. Each of the side walls 20 of the channel bar construction is enlarged centrally thereof to provide semi-circular hub portions 22. These hub portions 22 are spaced apart in a manner corresponding to the spacing of the side walls 20. Each of the hub portions 22 carries a'plurality of outward radially extending tongues 23,in this instance three in number, and each of the tongues 23 is formed with an opening or recess shown at 24. The base i9 and each of the hub portions 22 are cut away to provide recesses of the character identified by the reference character X.
It will be noted that the recess X on each hub 22 is defined by a plurality of points 25 with the side walls of each point disposed at an angle of 90 to one another. Moreover, there are points 28 intermediate the points 25, and the side walls defining the points 26 are at an angle of 135 with respect to each other. This same angle of 135 is carried out in the relation of the base I! to the walls of the recess which join in therewith.
Referring now to Figure 3, it will be noted that a slightly diiferent type or joint member which is referred to in its entirety by the reference char- Figure 2, the only difference between the twojoint parts being that in the joint part B there are two of the sets of tongues 23 projecting radially outwardly from the hubs 22, whereas in Figure 2 there are three of these sets.
It is evident that with the joint parts A and B assembled with the bases I 9 abutting one another the recesses X complement each other to provide an opening girder G may be received in each alternate set of the points 25. When positioned in one set of the points 25 certain walls of the girder G will be parallel to the will be normal thereto. When positioned in the rectangular recess defined by the other set of the points 25 the walls of the girder G will be disposed at an angle of 45 or 135 with respect to the bases l9.
It is further noted that when the joint parts A and B are assembled in the manner above noted the recesses 2| complement each other to define a complete opening or recess for receiving the projections I! on the detents I5. Moreover, when the channel structures including the walls or flanges 28 are inserted in a girder G the latter is eifective to maintain the assembled relation.
Passing on to Figure 4, another joint member identified as C is therein illustrated. This member C comprises the usual channel construction including the base I9, side walls or flanges 20, and the recesses formed at 2 In the joint parts C central hubs are carried by the walls or flanges 20, but these hubs are of a different formation from that shown in Figures 2 and 3. The hubs of the joint part C are identified as 21, and each is formed with a rectangularly shaped recess 28 that is adapted to receive a girder G. On each side of the, recess 28, and projecting outwardly from each of the hubs 21, are the usual tongues 23 formed with the openings 24.
The joint part shown in Figure 5 is identified by the reference character D, and is of the same general construction as the joint member C shown in Figure 4, the only diiference in the two being that there is only one set of the tongues 23 projecting from one side of therecess 28.
Referring now more particularly to Figure. 6, this view develops two joint parts E and F in their assembled relation. Each of the joint parts E and F is of the same general character as the joint parts A and B shown in Figures 2 and 3. However, the joint part E difiers from the joint part A in that the central tongues 23 of the joint part A are omitted. The joint part F is also of the same general construction as the joint part A, but difiers therefrom inthat the tongues 23 at each side of the central tongues are omitted.
Figure 6 develops the manner in which the recesses 2| complement each other. when the channel bar constructions are assembled. It also develops the manner in which the recesses X complement each other. 1
Figure 7 is a view similar to Figure 6 developing still two other joint parts which are identified as H and I. The joint part H includes the ing from the hubs in which the corners of the bases l9, while the other walls channel bar' construction that is common to all of the parts, and the walls 28 also carry hubs 22 of the type shown for the joint parts A, B, E and F. However, there are no tongues outstand- 22 in the case of the joint part H.
The joint part I is of substantially the same construction as the joint part H with the exception that one set of tongues 23 extend outwardly from the hubs 22in the angular position more closely adjacent the bases.
This view shows the manner in which abutting bases l9 andthe walls or flanges 20 carried thereby are assembled and receivedin the extremity .of one of the girders G. This view also shows the manner in which the tongues 23 are received in extremities or another girder G.
Figures 8 and 9 show the joint parts A and B assembled in substantially the same way as E and F are depicted in Figure 6, that is the recesses X complement each other to provide a complete opening. Instead of one of the girders G passing through this opening the joint parts C and D are assembled therein.
It will be noted that the recesses 28 in these parts C and D provide an assembled channel bar construction of a general H-shaped formation, the exterior dimensions of which are substantially the same as those of the girders G. Thus the parts A and B maintain the parts C and D in assembled relation.
Figure 10 shows still another type of joint part which is similar to the parts C and D, and which is identified as J. This part J is substantially the same as the parts C and D, with the exception that the projecting tongues 23 are entirely omitted.
' Figure 11 shows a joint element which may be included in the set, but which does not partake of the characteristics of the joint elements above described. The joint element of Figure 11 is identified by the reference character K, and is shown as comprising rectangular ,end parts 29 each wall of which is formed witha'recess 30 that is adapted for cooperation with the projections IS. A central hub portion 3| is spaced from the end parts 29 by cylindrical portions 32.
The joint element K may be assembled with the other joint parts such as by having the hub 3| received in the opening defined by the recesses X when joint parts E and F are assembled in the manner shown in Figure 6.
Another joint element L of the same general type as the joint elememt K is shown in Figure 12. In this joint element the end part 29 at one end is omitted.
It is evident that any of the joint pa-nt-s A, B, C, D, E, F, H, I or J may be assembled with any other of the joint parts of the same group to provide a complete joint element. The joint element is maintained in assembled relation by the insertion of the walls in the meeting basis |9 in the extremity of the girder G. The insertion is maintained by the reception of'lthe projections IT in the recesses 2|. Other girders G may be assembled with the joint element by inserting any set of tongues23 in the extremity of the girders in which event the projections I! of the detents l5 will be received in the openings 24.
Thus, with a comparatively small number of joint parts it is possible to provide a large number of joint elements. With eight joint parts it is possible to provide 28 difierent joint elements of .two parts each. Furthermore, provision is made for having the girders pass through the joint parts in the provision of the recesses X and 28.
While preferred specific embodiments of the invention are hereinbeiore set forth it is to be clearly understood that the invention is not to be limited to the exact constructions illustrated and described, because various modifications of these details may be prbvided in putting the invention into practice within the purview of the appended claims.
I claim: v
1. In a structural toy of the character described, a plurality of joint parts 01' diflferent structure, any two of said joint parts being adapted to be assembled to make a complete joint element, and detachable means for maintaining said joint parts in assembled relation.
2. In a structural toy of the character described, a plurality of hollow girder elements, a plurality of joint parts any two of which are adapted to be assembled to make a complete joint element, said joint parts being insertable in the ends of said girders to establish and maintain their assembled relationship, and means for establishing a detachable connection between said girder ends and said joint element.
3. In a structural toy oi the character described, the combination with a girder carrying a detent of complemental joint parts which when assembled define a recess receiving said detent.
4. In a structural toy of the character described, a joint part comprising a channel member having a base and side flanges, the exterior of the corners joining said base and side flanges being formed with recesses, another joint part of a channel bar construction having recesses corresponding to and complemental to the recesses in said first mentioned joint part, a girder, and a detent carried by said girder detachably received in the depression defined by said complemental recesses when said joint parts are assembled.
5. In a structural toy of the character described, a joint part comprising a channel member' having a base and side flanges, a pair of spaced tongues projecting outwardly from said side flanges and formed with openings, the exterior of the corners joining said base and side flanges being formed with recesses, another joint part of a channel bar construction having recesses corresponding to and complemental to the recesses in said first mentioned joint part, a girder, and a detent carried by said girder detachably received in the depression defined by said complemental recesses when said joint pants are assembled.
6. In a structural toy of the character described, a pair of complemental joint parts which when assembled make up a complete joint element, each of said joint parts being of channel bar construction defined by a base and side flanges, the base and side flanges of each channel bar construction being cut away centrally thereof to provide a recess, and a girder positioned in the opening defined by said recesses.
7. In a structural toy of the character de-- scribed, a pair of complemental joint parts which when assembled make up a complete joint element, each of said joint parts being of channel bar construction defined by a base and side.
consisting or a channel bar construction-defined by a base and side flanges, the side flanges of one part being enlarged centrally thereof to provide hub parts, said hub parts being formed with a rectangularly shaped recess that is spaced from the base of said channel bar construction, and a girder positioned in said recess.
9. In a structural toy or the character described, a pair or complemental joint parts each consisting of a channel bar construction defined by a base and side flanges, the side flanges of one part being enlarged centrally thereof to provide hub pants, said hub parts being formed with a rectangularly shaped recess that is spaced from the base of said channel bar construction, a girder positioned in said recess, a pair of spring tongues extending from said hub parts, each of said tongues being formed with an opening, a
hollow girder having an end receiving said spaced tongues, and detents carried by said girder detachably received in said openings.
10. In a structural toy of the character described, a pair or complemental joint parts each consisting of a channel bar construction defined by'a base and side flanges, the side flanges of one part being enlarged centrally thereof to provide hub parts, a plurality of pairs or tongues extending radially from said hub parts, each of said tongues being formed with an opening, a plurali-ty of rectangularly shaped hollow girders corresponding in number to the number of said tongues, each of said girders receiving a pair of said tongus in one end thereof, and detents carried by said girders received in said openings.
11. In a structural toy of the character described, a joint comprising a pair of spaced facings, said facings being divided on a planenorml to said facings, and detachable means for maintaining said facings in assembled relation.
12. In a structural toy of the character described, a joint comprising a pair of channel members, each of said channel members having spaced iacings and a base, the base of one channel member abutting the base of the other channel member with the respective faces of said channel members in substantial alignment, and means for maintaining said channel members in assembled relation.
HENRY R. MACK.