|Publication number||US2220482 A|
|Publication date||Nov 5, 1940|
|Filing date||May 12, 1938|
|Priority date||May 12, 1938|
|Publication number||US 2220482 A, US 2220482A, US-A-2220482, US2220482 A, US2220482A|
|Inventors||Buckminster Fuller Richard|
|Original Assignee||Phelps Dodge Corp|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (23), Classifications (7)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Nov. 5, 1940. R. B. FULLER PREFABRI CATED BATHROOM Filed May 12, 1938 '7 Sheets-Sheet 1 l VENTOR R/CHARD Bl/C/fM/MSTf/i FULLER ATTORN EY FIG.1.
,Nov. 5, 1940. R. B. FULLER PREFABRICATED BATHROOM Filed May 12, 1958 7 Sheets-Sheet 2 FIG. 2.
l N V E NTO R RICH/1RD B (/C/fMl/VS 7 El? FULLER ATTORN EY Nov. 5, 1940. R. B. FULLER PREFABRICATED BATHROOM '7 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed May 12, 1938 INVENTOR RICH/1RD BUC/lM/NSTEF FULLER FIG. 3. 2 ,J
Nov; 5, 1940.
R. B. FULLER PREFABRICATED BATHROOM Filed May 12, 1958 III: a l
7 Sheets-Sheet 4 N VE N TO I? F/Cf/ARD BUCK/ 10K575 FULLER ATTORNEY Nov. 5, 1940.
Filed May 12, 1938 7 Sheets-Sheet 5 106 i 41 4 43 W 136 1594 1 we I; W M
E HM i k l 116 1 i i w w U 11 40 180 g '181 :29
11o 47 2 r I 54} 24 8?. ,2 1 .ml'll flh l 3o I I 30 i INVENTOR RICHARD Bl/C/fM/MSTffiFl/LLER A ORNEY NOV. 5, 1940. FULLER 2,220,482
PREFABRI CA'IED BATHROOM Filed May 12, 1938 7 Sheets-Sheet 6 IP/Cl-M/FD F IG. 6.
' ATTORNEY Nov. 5, 1940. RB. FULLER PREFABRICATED BATHROOM Filed May 12, 1938 7 Sheets-Sheet 7 FIG. 9.
INVENTOR UC/fM/MS'TEI? FULLER RIC/MED B ORNEY lllfilllllll 'M Patented Nov. 5, 1940 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE PREFABRICATED BATHROOM Application May 12, 1938, Serial No. 207,518
This invention relates to a prefabricated building unit suitable for use as a bathroom.
Attempts have been made heretofore to provide prefabricated bathrooms with the object of lowering the cost of building a bathroom into a dwelling. Such bathrooms, however, by reason of their great weight and more or less conven-' tional construction, have involved relatively high costs by the time they have been shipped and installed ready for use. Furthermore, such bathroom units as heretofore known have been large- 1y designed for introduction into a new building under construction and have not been particularly practical for installation in a dwelling already built without involving too great an expense.
It is an object of my invention to provide a compact, light, prefabricated bathroom which may be readily installed either in a dwelling under construction or in a dwelling that is already built.
It is another object of this invention to provide a prefabricated bathroom of such a compact construction that it can be separated into a few 5 sections which may be readily carried by hand through a doorway and up a staircase of the average house.
It is another object of this invention to provide a prefabricated bathroom fashioned from a relatively few units made of sheet material to provide an integral structure light in weight but having the requisite strength and rigidity when assembled.
A further object of my invention is to provide prefabricated bathroom sections of sheet metal having bathroom fixtures formed integrally therewith.
Another object of this invention is to provide a two chamber prefabricated bathroom, one
chamber being suitable for use as a lavatory and water closet, and the other chamber being useful as a combined tub and shower, and either of these chambers being useful alone.
Further objects and advantages of my invention will be apparent from the following detailed description of the embodiments thereof illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which Figure l is a. front elevation of my preferred bathroom as assembled with the lower portions of the outer front decorative panel and the doors broken away;
Figure 2 is a horizontal cross section of my completed bathroom in installed position, taken about on the offset line 22 of Figure 1;
Figure 3 is a vertical cross section through approximately the center of the lavatory and water closet, or outer chamber of the bathroom, taken about on the line 3-3 of Figure 2;
Figure 4 is a vertical cross section of my bath- 5 room, taken approximately on the line dividing thev two chambers thereof, such as the line 4-4 of Figure 2;
Figure 5 is a vertical cross section through approximately the center of my bathroom and at 10 right angle to the section line 3-3 and, 44, taken approximately on the line of 55 of Figure 2;
Figure 6 is an end elevation of the two chambers of my bathroom at it appears from the left- 15 hand side of Figure 1;
Figure 7 is a detail view of a ventilating grill in the doorway of the bathroom connecting the two chambers thereof and taken on the line 1-] Of Figure 3; 20
Figure 8 is a vertical section of a detail of the bathroom constructed on an enlarged scale, and taken through the junction of the upper andv lower sections of the bathroom, showing the manner of clamping the-upper and lower sec- 5 tions of each chamber together;
Figure 9 is a perspective view partly broken away illustrating a, modification of my bathroom with the upper portion thereof comprising the walls of the room in which the unit is installed; 30 and Figure 10 is a vertical sectional view of a detail on an enlarged scale showing the way the upper edge of the bathroom in Figure 9 is joined to the. walls of the room and taken about on the 35 lines |0--l0 of Figure 9.
With reference, more particularly, to Figures 1 to 8, inclusive, of the drawings, my bathroom is preferably constructed with two chambers of similar shape in horizontal cross section. These two chambers are indicated generally by the numerals it and I2. The outer chamber 42 is designed as a lavatory and water closet, and is provided with a doorway i3 permitting entrance into the chamber from an adjoining room of the 5 dwelling. The side of the chamber I2 containing doorway i3 may be concealed from the adjoining room by the fixed vertical panel i4 provided with an opening l5, which may be constructed of metal, wood, b-akelite, or other plas- 50 tic or composition material. The panel It may be rigidly attached to the chamber 12 of the bathroom, although it is preferably provided as a separate unit which may be aflixed to and supported by the adjacent portions of the dwelling. 55
Between the panel I4 and the doorway l3 of chamber l2, sliding doors l8 and 11 have been illustrated, it being understood that other forms of doors could be employed if desired. Sliding doors have the advantage, however, of space economy that is not obtained with a hinged door, and they may be used where a hinged door would not be practical. The sliding doors II and I1 are designed so that they may be moved outwardly away from each other, sliding into the space between the outer wall of chamber 12 and the panel 14 to leave an opening registering with doorway l3 and the panel opening II. The sliding doors I6 and 11 may be hung by means of suitable straps l3 fixed to them and carrying the rollers 19 which rest on the track 20 and support the weight of the sliding doors. Track 20 may be formed with the shape of a block C in cross section and the rollers 2| carried on straps 22 intermediate the straps l8 on the doors bear against the upper inside portion of the track 23 to prevent dislodgment of the doors from the track by accident. The track 20 may be conveniently suspended from a framework for the chamber 12 described below and rigidly supp rted by the diagonal braces 23.
The bathroom chambers II and 12 may be conveniently constructed with their lower portions or sections made of sheet material such as sheet metal or thin-walled plastic material and with their upper portions formed from a lightweight metal sheet or from suitable plastic or composition material to provide as light a weight as possible. In order to provide as much strength as possible both the upper and lower sections of the chambers may be conveniently made of sheet metal such as copper, aluminum, or steel or a combination of two of them. These upper and lower portions of chambers H and 12 are illus- 40 trated as joined along the horizontal line 24 and held in assembled position by a suitable clamping arrangement 25 to be described in detail hereinafter.
The floor of the bathing chamber ll may be formed from a single sheet 26 of thin metal such as copper, stamped or drawn into the shape illustrated in Figures 2 and 5, with its edges curving upwardly to form the lowest portions of the 50 chamber walls. The remainder of the lower section of this chamber ll may be formed from a single sheet 21 of the same metal bent or stamped to expand from below the center of the doorway 28 entirely around the chamber II and back to 55 the center of the doorway 28 where the ends of the sheet are joined in the vertical seam 29a.
This sheet 21 is preferably shaped to provide all four walls of the chamber ll curved outwardly about relatively long radii, these walls being 60 joined at the corners by coved portions curved about comparatively short radii.
Intermediate the top and bottom of the metal sheet 21 forming the side walls, at a suitable height above the floor, four openings 23 of rectangular shape are formed in the sheet 21. These openings 29 are covered by pocket members 30 stamped out of sheet metal and secured to the outer surface of sheet 21 by riveting, welding or 70 the like. The pocket members 33 are preferably formed with relatively flat lower surfaces 3| and relatively straight side and end walls 32 and 33. When these pockets are sufficiently shallow, they may be stamped or otherwise formed integrally 75 with sheet 21. However, these outwardly extending pockets are preferably formed of separate sheets of metal attached to the outside of the main sheet 21 by the rivets 34, with suitable provision being made at the juncture of the layers of metal to form a water-tight Joint having a flush surface inside the chamber ll. Similarly, the bottom metal sheet 26 of chamber ll may be provided with an offset upper edge 35 so that the lower edge of sheet 21 will be flush therewith on the inside of the chamber, and these two sheets may be secured together in a similar manner by the rivets 36 or by welding or the like. The pockets 30 are constructed to provide the lower wall portions of the chamber II with increased rigidity and strength, even though very lightgauge metal may be used in making the walls and floor. In addition, these pockets serve as convenient supports for soap and other bathing accessories, and also as arm rests or supports to assist one in sitting down or rising in the chamber Ii when using it as a tub.
The floor of the bathing chamber II, that is the lower portion of sheet 26, is preferably supported on a suitable wooden platform 31 raised on legs 33 made of angle iron or other material, so that the floor of this chamber is about nine inches above the level of the floor of the chamber I2. The metal sheet 26 may be separated from the wooden platform 31 by a layer of insulation 39, if desired. This arrangement provides adequate room for plumbing and also enables the bottom of the bathing chamber ii to be cleaned more easily by a person standing in chamber 12.
The upper portion of the chamber ll comprising the walls 43 and the ceiling 4|, may be constructed of the same or diflerent material. This upper portion of the bathroom unit is preferably made of a material as light in weight as possible, while still providing the desired strength, rigidity, and pleasing appearance to the entire structure. Various substances may be suitable for this purpose, although I have found that alloys of aluminum or thin sheet steel are particularly satisfactory when the lower portion of the bathroom unit is constructed of sheet copper. The upper portion of chamber ll may be formed, for example, from asheet 43 of light-gauge steel or a strong aluminum alloy providing curved end and side walls which are extensions of the lower walls formed from sheet 21. Sheet 40 may extend from the horizontal juncture line 24 to the juncture of this sheet with the ceiling 4| at 42. The celling member 4| may similarly be constructed from a single stamped sheet of metal or other material and attached to the side wall 40 by the riveted joint 43 in the same manner that the base sheet 28 is attached to the lower side wall 21.
To lend the structure increased rigidity, I prefer to attach firmly inside the sheet 40 at a suitable height above the fioor, the rods 44 and 45 extending across the ends of this section. The ends of these rods may be welded or otherwise rigidly secured to the sheet 40 and serve to brace it inside, as well as to provide towel racks and hand grips.
The upper portion of chamber ll comprising the wall sheet 40 and the ceiling member 4| form one prefabricated unit section which is fitted to the lower section as a unit when the chamber H is assembled. For this purpose, an outwardly opening channel member 41 may be shaped and riveted to the outer surface of 40 spaced a small distance from its lower edge. A similar rigid channel member 49 may be riveted to the outer surface of sheet 21 adjacent its upper edge. The joining of these walls in assembled position of the units forming chamber II is best illustrated in Fig. 8, from which it will be seen that the upper edge of the metal sheet 21 is provided with anoffset portion 46 so that the lower edge of sheet below the channel member 41 overlaps therewith to provide a-substantially flush interior surface for the chamber II.
I: this manner, the sections of the chambers II and I2 above the line 24 may be prefabricated as integral units and the sections below the line 24 may likewise be prefabricated as integral units. These unit sections may then be readily transported and assembled in the desired location by clamping the two channel members 41 and 48 together. This might be accomplished by simply bolting the adjacent flanges of the channel members together, although I prefer to employ a clamp consisting of the upper and lower plates 49 and 58 held together by a suitable bolt or bolts 5|. These clamping plates 49 and 58 are simply applied to the uppermost and lowermost surfaces of the channel members 41 and 48, respectively, and held in position by tightening the bolts 5|. To deaden reverberations within the chambers II and I2 and to avoid any hollow metallic sounds, a dope material such as a mixture of asphaltum and asbestos 52 may be applied to the exterior surfaces of the various units either prior to assembly or after assembly. Other materials could be employed for this purpose.
Along the solid or innermost wall of the chamber II, a further bracing rod 53, which may be used to provide additional rigidity to the side wall structure, is preferably attached inside the lower edge of metal sheet 48. The rod 53.may be secured in place by bolts extending through the channel members 49 and 48 and held in place by suitable nuts 54 outside of the channel members. This rod 53 may also be used as a towel rack or as a support to assist one in sitting down or getting up when using the chamber .II as a tub. When the rod 53 is held in place as illustrated, it
is secured to the chamber wall after the upper and lower units have been assembled.
The outer chamber I2 serves as a lavatory and water closet, and communicates with the inner chamber II by means of the door 28. The lower portion of this chamber I2 may be constructed 55 with a metal sheet 55 of copper or the like forming a floor, stamped with upwardly curving edges and having a shape corresponding to the central portion of sheet 28 in chamber H. In one end of 5 from the floor sheet 55 and suitably curved to provide the wash basin with an upstanding forward portion 68 and a vertical curved back wall 6| together with suitably curved side walls 62 and 83. The inclined portion 59 provides adequate 70 foot space for one using the wash basin 56. An
opening may be provided in the side wall 83 well above the bottom of the wash basin 58 which is closed by a cup-shaped metal member 84 providing a soap receptacle and affixed to the outer surface of wall 62 by rivets 65, welding or the like. Sheet 58 is also provided with a suitable opening located centrally of the inclined wall portion 59 and adapted to be closed by the fiat -.plate 66, having suitable perforations 51 therein for a purpose to be described. This plate may be removably attached to the wall portion 59 by the bolts 88.
At the other'end of chamber I2, a suitably curved sheet of metal 69 may be attached to the edges of the floor sheet 55 by rivets I8 or the like, and provided with upwardly extendingcurved edges II and shaped to provide a horizontal surface having an oval-shaped opening I2. The metal around this opening I2 is preferably bent downwardly as indicated at I3. A porcelain or other suitable water closet bowl I4 may thus be supported immediately below the oval opening I2. I prefer to provide a separate removable sheet of metal 14a which may be coated with porcelain or other suitable metal and which is provided with an oval opening conforming to the opening I2 and fitting thereover. This cover member may be then easily removed for cleaning the water closet bowl or other purposes. The extension of the side walls above the upwardly curved edges II of sheet 69 may be formed from a single sheet of metal I5, suitably curved and plastics or other material, in a similar manner to the upper portion of chamber II. The sheet I6 may be curved to provide suitable side walls extending above the line 24 as extensions of the walls 8|, 82, 63. Another sheet 11 maybe suitably curved to provide upward wall extensions from the sheet I5. Openings would thus be left on each side of chamber I2 between the sheets I5 and I1 and the sheets 58 and I5 above panel 84a in the shape of the doorways I3 and 28. The ceiling of chamber I2 may be formed from a single sheet I8 of stamped metal or molded plastics and permanently secured to the upper edges of sheets I5 and II as by rivets 18a.
When the two chambers II and I2 of the bathroom are assembled, the upper and lower sections of each of these chambers may be held together by an upper U-shaped member I9, side wall plates and BI, and the lower U-shaped member 82 forming a frame for doorway 28.
These members and plates may be provided with suitable flanges which may be removably attached to the edges of the various sheets defining doorway 28 by the bolts 82a. The lower member 82 thus provides a flat horizontal surface 83 which can be used as a step for stepping from the lavatory and water closet chamber I2 into the bathing chamber II, or-for a seat when bathing.
Inside chamber l2 and immediately below the horizontal surface 83, a panel 84 is removably attached to the side wall of chamber 1 2. This portion of the chamber side wall may be a'single sheet 84a having a suitable opening normally covered by panel 84. Sheet 84a may be joined to sheet 58 along the seam 84b, and to sheet I5 along the seam 84c; Panel 84 is preferably stamped or drawn to provi a depression 85 on the inside of the panel, a flat horizontal surface 86 of substantial width extending into the chamber below depression 85, and a curvedinclined supporting surface 81 immediately below the horizontal surface 88. A mat 88 of pressed cork or the like may be employed on the surface 88, thereby providing a step to facilitate stepping from chamber I2 through the doorway 28 into the bathing chamber II. Panel 84 may be removably attached to the structure by the bolts 89. The upper side wall and ceiling sheets I6, I1 and I8 of chamber I2 are preferably constructed as a single unit section which may be attached to the lower section of chamber I2 also constructed as a single unit in the same manner as described above in connection with the upper and lower sections of chamber II. Thus, an outwardly opening channel-shaped member 90 may be affixed to the upper edges of sheets 59 and and the channel member 9| may beafilxed near the lower edges of sheets I8 and I1 as by the rivets 90a and 9Ia respectively, or by welding or the like. These channel members 90 and 9| may be clamped together in any suitable manner when the two sections are assembled, as by the use of the same clamping plates 49 and 50 and bolts 5| as heretofore described for the unit sections of chamber II.
A framework is preferably constructed around the center of chamber I2 and around doorway 28 to provide additional strength. This framework may conveniently be made of lengths of angle iron bolted, riveted, welded or otherwise secured together. For example, the vertical angle irons 93 and 94 joined together at the bottom by a suitable horizontal member 95 provide in effect a. frame for the main door "to the bathroom. The upper ends of these frame members 93 and 94 may be connected together by a suitable cross member 96. The track for the sliding doors I5 40 and I I is preferably separate from this frame work but suspended from the top of members 93 and 94 by the diagonal straps 23.
Disposed between the two chambers II and I2 is a box-shaped frame constructed around the v 45 doorway 28 and made -up of the four-upright frame members 91, 98, 99 and I00. The frame members 91 and 98 are Joined together at their foot by a short cross member IOI, and the frame members 99 and I00 are similarly joined together 0 at their foot by a cross member I02, At their top these upright members are connected together by corresponding short angle iron pieces I03, I04 and by the longer angle iron pieces I05, I06. The upper portionof this box frame is pref- 55 erably connected to the front frame members 93,
94 by the angle iron pieces I01 and I08, The portions of the box frame adjacent the upper and lower ends of doorway 28 may be provided with four horizontal members I08a connecting the up- 60 right members 91, 98, 99 and I00 to reinforce the doorway. In the lower portion of this b0) tame, the horizontal angled pieces I09 braced by the inclined angle pieces I I0 and connected by the cross member III serve to reinforce the step 85 in the 65 panel 84. This box frame may also advantageously be connected to and form some of the legs for the platform 31 which supports the floor of bathing chamber I I.
The front frame made up of vertical members 7 93 and 94 may'also be braced by the inclined members H2 and H3 connected to the ends of cross member 95 and to intermediate portions of members 93 and 94. The inclined braces H4 and II4a may also advantageously be arranged 75 to brace the sheet metal forming the water closet seat. Brace II 4 extends from the end of member 95 to the nearest upper corner of sheet 51 while brace II4a extends from the inside corner of the floor sheet 55 to the other upper corner of sheet 51. At the other end of the chamber I2, the braces H5 and II5a are preferably employed to support the wash basin. Brace I I5 may extend from the end of cross member 95 to one upper corner of the wash basin 58 while the other brace II5a extends from the other lower inside corner of sheet 55 to the other comer of wash basin 56.
Braces H4 and H5 are preferably pivotally connected at their upper ends so that during transportation of the lower section of chamber I2, the lower ends of these braces may be detached and swung inwardly. These braces are constructed of such a length that their lower ends in this latter position will bear against the lower outside corners of sheet 55 to which they may be attached during transportation, if desired, When the chamber I2 is assembled, the
lower ends of braces H4 and 5 may then be swung outwardly and bolted or otherwise attached to the ends of frame member 95.
Inside chamber I2, a suitable door II8, provided inside with a handle III, may be vertically hinged at la in an opening in sheet I5. By opening this door H6 inward into the chamber I2, access to a cabinet I I8 having suitable shelves I I9 is provided. The cabinet I I8 is secured to the outside of the sheet I8 between the two chambers II and I2. Where the two chambers are to be employed together, this cabinet IIB may advantageously be attached also to the exterior of sheet 40 of chamber II as illustrated, thereby serving to hold the two chambers together more rigidly. A mirror may be amxed to the inner surface of door H8 and a light suitably connected to the inner surface of the door above the mirror may be used. Thus the lighted mirror is in the best position for use when the cabinet door H8 is open, and is concealed when this door is closed.
At the other end of chamber I2, a similar door I20, suitably hinged to sheet 'I'I, may be provided. Parallel tracks I2I may be secured to the exterior surface of sheet I1 and another pair of tracks I22 may be attached to the outside of sheet 40 of chamber II to provide a vertical runway for the cabinet I28 having suitable shelves I24 therein. The advantage of this vertically movable cabinet I28, exposed by opening the door I20, is to provide access to the water tank I25 located immediately below it in case repairs should be necessary. This water tank I25 may be of a suitable shape to fit between the two chambers I I and I2 and may be supported by the cross members I28a. A rod I2'Ia extending into tank I25 and through sheet 15 and provided inside chamber I2 with a handle I2Ib may be used for controlling the water in tank I25 to flush the water closet. At one side of this water tank I25, 9. panel I28 may be provided hinged to sheet I5 at its lower edge I21 and leaving a narrow horizontal opening I28. On the exterior surface of this panel I28, a suitable bracket I29 may be provided for supporting a roll of paper I30. The paper is thus adapted to be threaded through the opening I28 into chamber I2 and roll I30 may be replaced when needed by opening the panel I26.
Light for both chambers I I and I2 may be provided from a bulb I8I. A suitable fixture I32 supported in the frame I88 is suspended between the upper portions of chambers I I and I2 by suitable strap members I84 from the cross bar I05 of the external angle iron framework. Transparent or translucent panels I35, I36 and I31 may be provided surrounding this bulb so that indirect lighting is supplied from a single'bulb to both chambers II and I2. Towel racks I38 may be provided in chamber I2 above the wash basin 56, if desired.
Ventilation is obtained by drawing air in through the grill I39 removably set into the upper end of frame member 8| of doorway 28, Air and steam may be forcibly drawn downwards and exhausted from the chambers through the perforations 61 in panel 66 by means of a suction fan associated with the hood I40, This suction fan and hood may be supported by suitable straps I 4| and braces I42 from the frame members H5 and 5:1. The air withdrawn from the chamber I2 may be carried away through conduit I43 and discharged to the outer atmosphere in any suitable way. By this provision for lighting and ventilation, the necessity of using a special ventilator shaft or window for the bathroom is avoided. This is particularly advantageous for large buildings such as apartment houses where a bathroom may be near an air shaft, or when a bathroom is needed in a location of the building where a window would not be practical. Cutting new windows is also obviated with my bathroom when it is used for remodeling a dwelling.
Heating of the chambers II and I2 may be taken care of by drawing in warm air through the grill I39 from a room in which the bathroom may be installed. I prefer, however, to provide a heating unit under the step such, for example, as the simple resistance heater I44 mounted on the diagonal brace IIO. This resistance unit I44 heats the space below the step 86 and the step 83, and when a heat conductive metal, such as copper, is employed for the lower portions of the chambers, heat is readily and rapidly con- =10 ducted throughout the entire lower section of chambers II and I2, thereby providing surfaces lukewarm and pleasant to the touch, as well as serving to heat the entire chambers.
The lighting, ventilation and heating may be 45 controlled from inside or outside the bathroom as desired. For example, a switch I45 may be provided on the exterior of the panel I4 outside of the bathroom, together with a signal light I46, to operate simultaneously the heating unit I44 and the light bulb I3I. The ventilation fan in hood I40 may be controlled by a three speed switch I41 adjacent the switch I45. Alternatively, the heating unit I48 and/or the ventilating fan may be independently operated by a switch .35 I48, or switches, mounted on an inner wall or chamber I2 of the bathroom. As will be readily understood, the electrical connections for the ventilating fan, the light, and the heating unit may be taken from a single cable, which cable is provided for connection to the house lighting system in any suitable manner when the bathroom is assembled and installed.
The plumbing connections are preferably arranged in conjunction with a manifold to facilitate connection to the main supply and waste 75 which also serves to withdraw waste water from the bottom of the bathing chamber through out-' let I55 and pipe I58. The bathing chamber II may also be provided with an overflow outlet connected to pipe I51 which joins pipe I54 near the trap I 58 connected to trap I50. Another ventilation pipe I59 may be provided for this portion of the waste manifold, if necessary.
The handle I54a extending into'chamber I2 through the slot I55a may operate a suitable closure I60 in the wash basin 66, which allows water to flow into the auxiliary chamber I6I arranged below the wash basin outlet and connected to pipe I53 to carry away waste water from the wash basin outlet proper and from the overflow outlet for the waste basin. The overflow outlet for the bathing chamber II may comprise a series of diagonal openings I62 in the chamber wall immediately below the threshold 83 of the doorway 28. Covering these openings I62 is a stamped metal fitting I63 riveted or otherwise secured in watertight fashion to the pipe I51 and to the outer surface of the wall of chamber II between chamber II and the chamber I2.
Hot and cold water may be supplied for the entire unit through the main supply pipes I64 and I65 suitably bracketed together and supported by the angle iron framework between the two chambers II and I2. These pipes I64 and I65 are connected to the valves I66 and I61, operated by the handles I68 and I69, respectively, inside the bathing chamber I I. Immediately below and disposed between these handles I68 and I69 is a third handle I which may be in the form of an indicator, and which operates a threeway valve I1I. Pipe connections I66a, I61a, and I1Ia are provided between these three valves. Valve I1I determines whether the hot and/or 'cold water from valves I66 and I61 flow through pipe I12 to the shower spray I13 in chamber II, or through the pipe I14 to the opening I near the floor of the bathing chamber II. and cold water inlet pipes I64 and I65 are also connected by branch lines I16 and I11, respectively, to the valves I18 and I19. These valves are controlled by handles I80 and I8I inside the chamber section I2 immediately above the wash basin 56. Hot or cold water or a mixture thereof from valves I18 and I19 flows through pipe I82 to the inlet opening I83 in the side of the wash basin 56 nearest the user. In filling the basin,- therefore, the water spurts away from the user, avoiding splashing.
It will thus be seen that the prefabricated bathroom of my invention is constructed with the three primary bathroom fixtures, tub, wash basin and water closet seat as integral parts of the floor and walls of the lower one-third of the bathroom. This lower one-third of the bathroom is divided into two sections, one for each of the chambers II and I2 of the bathroom and each of these chambers II and I2 may be constructed as two separate prefabricated units including the necessary fixtures. The wall extension and celling units, or the upper portions of the two chambers I I and I2 of the bathroom may similarly be constructed as two separate prefabricated units. The frame members 19, 80, BI and 82 for doorway 28, the angle iron framework, and the plumbing manifoldv constitute separate units, together with any accessories of an optional nature, 'such as cabinets and the other relatively few pieces that require attachment to the various units when the bathroom is assembled.
In assembling and installing my new bathroom,
the l wer unit sections of chambers II and I2 75 The hot are disposed side by side with the lower section of chamber II supported on the platform 31. the water closet bowl 14 having been previously bolted or otherwise secured in the proper'positlon. The
box frame of angle iron members is placed in" correct position between chambers II and I2 and the flanged U-shaped doorway frame member 82 is then bolted to the two lower sections of chambers II and I2 to hold them in place. The upper unit section of chamber II may now be fitted in place on the lower section and the clamps 89 and 88 applied and secured by bolts 5|. The plumbing manifold may now be connected in'place to chamber I I and the main supply and waste lines of the dwelling.
The accessories, such as the water tank I25, light bracket I82, cabinets, heating unit, rod 83 and ventilating unit I48may conveniently be secured in the proper position at this time and connected by any piping or wiring necessary. Finally. the upper section of chamber I2 may be fitted and clamped in place, and the remainder of the angle iron framework may be adjusted. Before securing the doorway frame members I9, 88 and 8i in place, the plumbing connections should be completed-and the cabinets and other accessories suitably attached to the walls of chamber I2 as may be necessary.
As soon as the doors I8 and II are hung, the panel I4 secured in place and the switches carried by it connected, the bathroom is ready for immediate use.
I have found that this bathroom can be readily made from integral metal stampings. When the units are constructed with the curved side walls as illustrated in Fig. 2, the various units may be made from stampings of a very light gauge sheet metal, such as copper, while still providing adequate strength. By the curved wall and integral metal stamping construction illustrated, no corners are left which are dimcult to clean.
Accessibility to the plumbing and other appliances of the bathroom after assembly is provided through the panels 88, the U-shaped door frame member 82, the panel 84, grill I89 and the vertically movable cabinet I28. Other removable panels may be provided at any points desired.
After assembly, or before assembly, the copper sheets of the lower portion of the bathroom unit may be finished as by spraying a metal coating of a corrosion resistant alloy on the surfaces inside the chambers II and I2, followed by buffing or polishing the surface to give it a slightly hammered texture which will prevent slipping and provide a surface with a minimum of dirt adherence. An alloy of about 98% tin and 2% silver is suitable for this coating, although other alloys could, of course, be used. If the upper portions of the chambers II and I2 are made of some sheet metal such as steel, it may be desirable to employ an insulating material such as a lacquered masking tape at all joints between the steel and copper to avoid the formation of galvanic couples which might promote corrosion. The electrical connections are also preferably grounded to the lower portions of the chambers.
The outer chamber I2 of the bathroom may be used alone without the bathing chamber II by simply providing a panel for closing of! the doorway 21. This chamber I2 may be very suitable for use alone where a powder room is desired, or with the bathing chamber II in places where space is at a premium, such as in boats, trains and the like. A curtain may be provided for the doorway 28 such as a metal Venetian blind to separate the two chambers when they are used together. Such a curtain as a Venetian blind is particularly suitable because it allows the ventilating system to exhaust steam from the bathing chamber II, thereby ventilating both chambers at the same time even though both are being used simultaneously. Chamber II may also be used alone when the facilities of chamber I2 are not required.
The complete prefabricated bathroom with both chambers I I and I2 is so devised that it may be installed in a room of a completed house as a unit cabinet with or without partitioning ofl, and without the necessity of providing a window. The whole assembly may be constructed of sheet metal such as aluminum with a total weight of approximately 250 lbs., and made up of separate integrated sections, each of which can be readily carried by two men through the doorway of the ordinary house and assembled ready for use in a few hours. The bathroom may also be installed as easily during the erection of a dwelling.
A modification of my bathroom is illustrated in Figs. 9 and 10 and comprises substantially the same construction as described above, with the exception that the portions of the chambers II and I2 above the line 24 in Figs. 1-8 are left off and the lower portions of the chambers are capped to conceal the plumbing. The walls of plaster, wood, tile or the like of the house in which the lower portions are installed provide the upward extensions for the walls of the chambers. Similar reference numerals indicate similar parts in Fig. 9 to those described in connection with Figs. 14!. In this modification, suitable metal capping plates I84, I88 and I88 may be provided to cover the openings between the chamber walls and are preferably removable to get at the plumbing.
The shower spray I13 may be attached to the pipe I12 which extends up through the cover plate I88 instead of being between the walls of the chambers and I2 as in Figs. 1-8. The control handles for the shower I88, I89 may also be disposed in the cover plate I88 instead of on the sidewall. For this modification, some form of window or ventilator is necessary. The cabinets and other accessories for the room above the line 24 in Figs. l-8' must also be supplied separate from the prefabricated metal units of the bathroom.
For joining the metal of the lower portion of this bathroom unit to a plaster wall I81, such as illustrated in Figs. 9 and 10, the wall I88 of the bathroom unit may have suitable channel members I89 attached to the outer surface adjacent itsupper edge. The cover members I98 have flanges I9I depending inside the chambers and lying against the offset upper edge I88 of the chambers to provide a flush interior surface. Horizontal portions I92 of the cover members I98 overlie the channel members I89 extending to the vertical portions I98 in the plane of the plaster wall I81. Wooden members I 94 support the lower edge of the plaster and lie flush with it. A further flange I98 of the cover members I98 extends underneath and up along the back of these wooden members I98. These Joints and the wooden members I94 are concealed by the strip of beveled metal plate I 98 held in place by the wood screws I91. A relatively smooth exterior is thus presented to the room containing the bathroom chamber units. The prefabricated portions of this modification of my invention may, of course,
be constructed at less cost and of less weight than the preferred modification although more time may be required under certain conditions for installation.
The terms and expressions which I have employed are used as terms of description and not of limitation, and I have no intention, in the use of such terms and expressions, of excluding any equivalents of the features shown and described or portions thereof, but recognize that various modifications are possible within the scope of the invention claimed.
1. A prefabricated bathroom comprising a bathing chamber and a lavatory and water closet chamber, a doorway connecting said chambers, the walls of said chambers adjacent said doorway being formed of sheet material and spaced from each other, and a plumbing manifold for said bathroom disposed between said walls.
2. A prefabricated bathroom comprising a bathing chamber and a lavatory and water closet chamber, a doorway connecting said chambers, the walls of said chambers adjacent said doorway being formed of sheet material and spaced from each other, and means for lighting both of said chambers disposed between said walls.
3. A prefabricated bathroom comprising a bathing chamber and a lavatory and water closet chamber, a doorway connecting said chambers, the walls of said chambers adjacent said doorway being formed of sheet material and spaced from each other, means between said walls for admitting air into said chambers, and means in a remote portion of one of said chambers for withdrawing air therefrom.
4. A prefabricated bathroom comprising a bathing chamber and a lavatory and water closet chamber, a doorway connecting said chambers, the walls of said chambers adjacent said doorway being. formed of sheet material and spaced from each other, and a cabinet for one of said chambers disposed between and connecting the walls thereof.
5. A prefabricated bathroom comprising a bathing chamber and a lavatory and water closet chamber, at least the lower portions of said chambers being formed of sheet metal to provide floors and walls, the floor of said bathing chamber being raised a substantial distance above the floor of said lavatory and water closet chamchamber, the walls of said chambers being formed of sheet metal curved outwardly of said chambers about substantially vertical axes, a doorway connecting said chambers, a frame for said doorway reinforcing and connecting the walls of said chambers, fixtures in said chambers structurally integral with the wallsthereof, and a plumbing manifold for said fixtures disposed between the curved walls of said chambers.
8. A prefabricated bathroom assembly comprising a lavatory and water closet chamber section, a bathing chamber section, the walls of said sections being spaced from each other and curved outwardly of said chamber about substantially vertical axes, a doorway connecting said chambers and having a threshold raised above the floors of both of said chambers, bathroom fixtures integral with the walls of at least one of said chambers, a plumbing manifold between the walls of said chambers, and a torque resisting frame member for said doorway removably connecting said chamber sections and serving to prevent twisting thereof.
9. A prefabricated elongated bathroom chamber comprising a floor and side walls constructed of sheet metal, said side walls being curved outwardly of the chamber about substantially vertical axes, and pocket members attached to the outer surface of the walls of said chamber near the comers thereof providing horizontal ledges a short distance above said floor.
. 10. A prefabricated bathroom chamber constructed of sheet material, the walls of said chamber being curved outwardly about substantially vertical axes and arranged to provide an elon-' gated room, and a wash basin at one end of the chamber formed integral with the adjacent side and end walls, said basin extending across the end of said chamber.
11. A prefabricated bathroom chamber constructed of sheet material, the walls of said chamber being curved outwardly about substantially vertical axes and arranged to provide an elongated room, and a water closet seat at one end of the chamber formed integral with the adjacent side and end walls thereof, said seat extending across the end of the chamber.
12. A prefabricated bathroom comprising a bathing chamber and a lavatory and water closet chamber, the walls of said chambers being formed of sheet material curved outwardly of the chambers about substantially vertical axes, a doorway connecting said chambers, and a frame for said doorway reinforcing and connecting the walls of said chambers.
RICHARD BUCKMINB'I'ER. FUILER.
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|U.S. Classification||52/34, 4/213, D23/273, 4/663|