US 2220628 A
Abstract available in
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
1 8 Emfiner -NOV. 5, 1940. 1' w STEDMAN 2,220,628
ART OF CONSTRUCTING HIGHWAYS OR OTHER MASSIVE STRUCTURES Original Filed July 3. 1935 3 Sheets-Sheet '2 MQQM ATTORNEY Examine Nov. 5, 1940. r. w. STEDMAN ART OF CONSTRUCTING HIGHWAYS OR OTHER MASSIVE STRUCTURES Original Filed July 3, 1935 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR 37 9 M M ATTORNEY Patented Nov. 5, 1940 UNITED STATES Lxammer PATENT OFFICE ART OF CONSTRUCTING HIGHWAYS OR OTHER MASSIVE STRUCTURES Application July 3, 1935, Serial No. 29,580 Renewed June 3, 1939 4 Claims.
My invention has reference to improvements in the art of constructing massive structures such, for example, as highways, concrete or other plastic facings for tunnels or equivalent, tanks formed from concrete or other plastic material, etc., etc.
My invention has further reference to novel inlay arrangements for massive structures of the general character noted above, to novel methods relating to the permanent association of such inlay arrangements with structures, as aforesaid, to novel highways, molds and to various other novel features relating to the construction art.
An important application of my invention relates to the improved production of scaled highway joints of a novel type.
Various other objects, advantages and characteristics of my invention will become apparent from the following detailed description.
My invention resides in the construction art, in the novel highways, inlay structures, features, improvements and methods of the character hereinafter described and claimed.
For an understanding of my invention and for an illustration of some of the many forms thereof, reference is to be had to the accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a plan view of a section of a highway as finished in accordance with my invention;
Fig. 2 is an enlarged vertical sectional View, partly in elevation, and is taken on the line 2--2 of Fig. 1 looking in the direction of the arrows;
Fig, 3 is a fragmentary vertical sectional View corresponding with Fig. 2 but showing the parts in difierent positions;
Fig. 4 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view illustrating a modification of the invention;
Fig. 5 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view illustrating another modification of the invention;
Fig. 6 is a plan view illustrating the formation of a joint between highway sections;
Fig. '7 is an enlarged, vertical sectional view taken on the line 1-1 of Fig. 6 looking in the direction of the arrows;
Fig. 8 is a fragmentary, vertical sectional view of a modified mold arrangement;
Fig. 9 is a vertical sectional view of a marking strip;
Fi 10 is a vertical sectional view of a modification of the marking strip of Fig. 9;
Figs. 11-15 inclusive are vertical sectional views illustrating successive steps in the association of a marking strip or other inlay arrangement in a street, or equivalent; and
Fig. 16 is a perspective view illustrating a novel road track.
Referring to Fig. 1, I have illustrated a multilane concrete highway H which is herein shown as comprising the two lanes a and b, it being understood, however, that said highway may comprise a greater or less number of lanes as desired. In accordance with usual practice, each lane comprises the longitudinally extending end-toend sections 0, c and, as well understood, each pair of adjacent sections 0 are separated by an expansion slot or channel d, Figs. 2 and 3. These slots 11 extend transversely of the highway H, and the line of traflic, therefore, is substantially at right angles with respect to said slots d. In accordance with my invention and as hereinafter described in detail, each expansion slot at is sealed in a highly eflicient manner by an expansion joint arrangement E of novel construction. As shown in Fig. 2, approximately onehalf of such an expansion joint E is seated in one end of a highway section 0 and approximately the other half of said expansion joint is seated in the adjacent end of the adjacent highway section 0. It is necessary, therefore, that the ends of the highway sections 0 be shaped or molded in a predetermined manner for the reception of the expansion joint E. The shaping or molding operation may be effected in any suitable manner, for example, as now-to be described.
Referring to Fig. 6, a single highway lane in course of construction is indicated at a and this lane, when completed, comprises the adjacent end-to-end sections 0, c. Extending longitudinally of and defining the sides of the lane a of Fig. 6 are the parallel form members I, la which, for example, may be such as are commonly used in the art of constructing concrete highways. Extending transversely of the lane a of Fig. 6 is a form arrangement F which is illustrated in enlarged section in Fig. 7. This form F is utilized, in accordance with the invention, so as to obtain or produce the above noted expansion slot d and the adjacent shaped surfaces which are to be engaged by the expansion joint E.
Still referring to Figs. 6 and 7, the aforesaid fonn F is shown as disposed at right angles with respect to the form members I, la and the length thereof is illustrated as corresponding with the width of the lane a, i. e., the transverse distance between said form members I, la. In the form of the invention herein shown, although not necessarily, the form F is constructed from sheet metal and comprises the end walls 2, 2, the inclined side walls 3, 3, and the bottom wall 4, the
latter being the surface of irregular shape shown in Fig. 7 which bridges the space between the side walls 3, 3 and connects them together.
As indicated in Fig. 6, the aforesaid end walls 2-, 2 are disposed in parallel relation. These end walls are snugly received between the form members I, la and each has one or more bracket arms 5 projecting laterally from the top surface thereof. These arms 5 rest upon the upper surfaces of the respective form members I, la and are sufficiently stifi to support the form F in its intended position.
The side walls 3, 3 are inclined to suitable extent as illustrated in Fig, '7. Thus, in a preferred arrangement, each of said side walls may be inclined so as to form an angle of approximately 45 degrees with respect to a horizontal plane. As shown, each inclined side wall 3 may be shaped to form one or more channels 3a which extend longitudinally of the respective side walls 3 or in such other suitable direction as may be desired. These channels 3a are provided for a purpose hereinafter to be described.
The above noted bottom wall 4 is shaped irregularly in a symmetrical manner. As shown, said bottom wall 4 is so shaped as to form a pair of inverted U-sections 4a which are connected together by a third inverted U-section 41) disposed centrally of the form. As indicated in Figs. 6 and 7, the transverse portions of the respective U-sections 4a should be provided with a plurality of spaced apertures 40 which serve as air vents in the manner hereinafter described. Further as indicated in Fig. 6, a plurality of web members 6 should be provided for stiffening purposes, these members being disposed transversely of the form in generally parallel relation with respect to the end walls 2.
The above noted U-section 4b forms a downwardly opening channel-like pocket which, in a lateral sense, is disposed centrally of the form F and which extends longitudinally of said form throughout the length thereof. This pocket receives the upper section of a bulk-head or member 7 which is utilized to separate the concrete material and thereby form the expansion slot d between adjacent highway sections 0, c. From a consideration of the drawings, it will be understood that the bulk-head 1 is a rectangular structure extending throughout the full length of the form F and, as shown in Fig. 7, said bulk-head should be tapered in such manner that the thickness thereof gradually decreases toward the bottom thereof. The bulk-head I may be formed of wood, metal, rubber or other suitable material. As shown, the construction and arrangement is such that the bulk-head is formed principally from wood, the latter being encased in sheet metal.
As illustrated in Fig. 7, the upper section of the aforesaid bulk-head is tapered so as to be received readily within the pocket defined by the U-section 4b of the form F. Preferably, the arrangement is such that the form F is readily detachable from the bulk-head I in any suitable manner and, in accordancewith this phase of the invention, the bulk-head may be provided with a number of spaced metallic inserts 8 each of which is provided with a circular threaded passage 8a, these passages being alined, respectively, with apertures 9 formed in the horizontal portion of the U-section 4b. With an arrangement of this character, it will be understood that headed bolts 10, or equivalent, may be passed through the respective apertures 9 and threaded, respectively,
into the adjacent inserts 8 to thereby positively secure the form F to the bulkhead 1.
As clearly appears from the foregoing description, the form F and bulk-head I are positioned laterally of and between the form members I, la, said bulk-head being disposed vertically in the predetermined transverse zone of the expansion slot which is to be formed thereby. As illustrated in Fig. 7, the combined perpendicular dimension of the bulk-head 1 and the form F corresponds substantially with the thickness of a highway section 0. That is, the lower surface of the bulkhead 1 terminates approximately at the surface of the earth upon which the concrete material of the highway sections is disposed.
The assembled form F and bulk-head I should be securely fastened in the position shown in Figs. 6 and 7 prior to the time that the concrete material is brought into contact therewith. To this end, wooden stakes or the like, not shown, may be driven into the earth on opposite sides of the bulk-head 1 so as to contact therewith and securely hold the same in position. Or, in lieu of the foregoing, it will be understood that I may employ any of the arrangements heretofore utilized for holding the prior art bulk-head in position between sections of a concrete highway.
Assuming, then, that the associated form F and bulkhead l are suitably anchored in the position shown in Figs. 6 and 7, pouring of the concrete material which is to form the section 0 at the left may be completed by depositing such material against the vertical bulk-head surface shown at the left of Fig. 7, beneath the section of the bottom wall 4 shown at the left of said Fig. 7, and against the outer surface of the inclined side wall 3 at the left, Fig. 7, the deposition of such con crete material being continued until the upper surface thereof is flush with the upper surface of the form F.
As will readily be understood, continued pouring of the concrete material beneath the section of the form F at the left, Fig. 7, progressively increases the depth of such material until, eventually, the rib-like pocket formed by the U-section 4a shown at the left of Fig. 7 is filled by the concrete material, the entrapped air escaping to the atmosphere by way of the apertures 40. If necessary, this pocket-filling operation may be facilitated by a tamping operation by which the concrete material is positively forced into said pocket. In those cases where the concrete material contains relatively large stones or gravel, large parts of the U-sections 4a may be cut away to form apertures through which concrete material may be admitted for the purpose of more efficiently forming the underlying ribs. These may be readily shaped with a trowel which is applied to the upper surfaces thereof at the aforesaid apertures.
After completion of the foregoing, it will readily be understood that the concrete material which is to form the adjacent highway section c may be poured in generally the same manner as described above. As indicated in Fig. 7, the highway section last named is incomplete but it shall be understood that the pouring operation proceeds until the concrete material has been filled in beneath and around the section of the form F at the right, Fig. 7, the same as hereinbefore described in connection with the form section shown at the left of Fig. 7.
Upon completion of the above described operations, hardening or setting of the concrete material ensues. After the passage of such time as is sufficient to permit the concrete material to become relatively hard, non-flowable, or non-viscous, the form F and bulk-head I may be removed from the position shown in Fig. 7 while maintained as a unitary structure. Or, if desirable and necessary, the bolts I0 may be removed from the inserts 8 whereupon the form F may separately be removed from the highway. Thereupon, said bulk-head I may be detached from the highway.
The shape imposed upon the adjacent ends of the highway sections 0, c by the form F is shown in Fig. 2. Thus, each form side wall 3 causes the formation of a sloping surface s. Each form U- section 4a effects the formation of a rib sI and each base portion of the form U-section 4b produces a substantially horizontal surface $2.
In accordance with the invention, the adjacent ends of the highway sections 0, c are shaped as described above in connection with Fig. 2 for the reception of the expansion joint E. As illustrated herein and in accordance with a preferred form of the invention, the expansion joint E is molded from suitable rubber material or equivalent. From a consideration of Fig. 1, it is apparent that the expansion joint E extends transversely of the highway H and has a length corresponding with the highway width. As shown in Fig. 2, said expansion joint E comprises the similar wing sections I2, I2 each of which terminates in an inner depending section I3, the sections I3 being joined together by a lower transverse section II. The free end of each wing section I2 terminates in a depending bead section I5 extending preferably throughout the full length of the expansion joint. Each bead section I5 has a major transverse dimension t of substantially greater length than the transverse dimension tI of the neck between said bead section and the adjacent wing section proper. Preferably, as shown, each bead section I5 presents an exterior curved surface which merges into a preferably vertical surface I2a forming the outer extremity of each wing section I2.
The wing sections I2, I2 normally present a flat upper surface although, if desired, such upper surfaces may be of slight convex configuration. In accordance with an important phase of the invention, the expansion joint sections I3, I3 and I4 have a notch I6 depending thereinto, this notch being coextensive in length with that of said expansion joint E. Preferably, although not necessarily, the notch I6 is of V-shaped configuration as shown and it should have a depth somewhat greater than the thickness of either wing section I2.
For purposes of explanation of the invention, it
may be assumed that the concrete material forming the highway sections 0, c of Fig. 2 has only recently hardened after having been poured in the manner hereinbefore described. When the concrete material is of the character just stated, i. e., green, the expansion slot d of Fig. 2 is at its maximum width or substantially so. Preferably, although not necessarily, the expansion joint E is associated with the highway sections 0, c at this time, i. e., when they are separated to substantially their maximum extent and in accordance with a preferred phase of the invention, said expansion joint E is molded in such manner that some surfaces thereof come into flush engagement with adjacent surfaces of the highway sections 0, 0 while other surfaces thereof are separated from the adjacent surfaces of said highway section. That is, the expansion joint E, free from both compression and tension, may be positioned in engagement with the highway sections 0, c as shown in Fig. 2 and, when thus positioned, the lower surfaces only of the respective bead sections I5 come into engagement with the channel-like surfaces formed by adjacent ends of the respective sloping surfaces s and the outer surfaces of the respective ribs sI. Furthermore, as shown, the lower surface of each wing section I2 comes flushly in engagement with a substantial part of the outer surface of the adjacent rib sI. However, as shown in Fig. 2, the exterior surface of each depending section I3 is spaced from the outer surface of the adjacent rib sI to thereby form a space t2. The lower surface of the transverse section I4 engages and rests upon a part of each of the respective surfaces s2.
As clearly indicated in Fig. 2, each sloping surface s, the upper outer surface of each adjacent bead section I5 and the vertical surface I2a of the adjacent wing section I2 form a channel t3, these channels t3 being disposed at opposite sides, respectively, of the expansion joint E and extending throughout the entire length thereof.
In accordance with the invention, the expansion joint E is permanently secured to the adjacent ends of the highway sections 0, c after it has been positioned thereon in the manner described above by filling the channels 153 with suitable binding material. To this end, in accordance with a preferred phase of the invention, there may be utilized a cement gun as manufactured by the Cement Gun Company of Allentown, Pennsylvania and as described in Bulletin 200 of that company.
By reference to the right of Fig. 2, the nozzle n of the cement gun is illustrated as discharging the sand-cement mixture into the adjacent channel t3. As shown at the left of Fig. 2, the channel t3 has been entirely filled with the sand-cement mixture and the upper surface thereof has been levelled flush with the upper highway surface. When these sand-cement inlays harden and set, they form solid inlays or masses C of durable cement which, largely or to great extent, are amalgamated with the adjacent concrete material of the highway sections proper. As will readily be understood, the cement inlays C extend throughout the length of the expansion joint E and are disposed on opposite respective sides thereof. These inlays overlie the outer portions of the respective bead sections I5. Therefore, particularly due to the fact that the dimension t of each bead section I5 is substantially longer than the adjacent neck dimension tl, it results that the expansion joint E is securely locked or bound to the highway sections 0, c as shown in Fig. 2.
It is to be understood that the invention is not to be limited to the use of a sand-cement mixture which is placed in position by a cement gun in the manner described above. Thus, in lieu of such material, ordinary cement or concrete may be packed or tamped into the aforesaid channels, this material hardening in the usual manner to positively retain the expansion joint E in the desired position. In lieu of cement or concrete, any other suitable cementitious material may be utilized. Or, if desired, tar or bituminous material may be used for the purpose stated.
As stated above, the highway sections 0, c are shown in Fig. 2 as in substantially their position of maximum separation and, during continuance of the winter season or cool weather, there is little variation in the degree of separation thus illustrated. However, with the advent of the summer season or warm weather, the material forming the highway sections expands and, accordingly, to greater or less extent, for example, as illustrated in Fig. 3, the sections 0, 0 move toward each other and thereby decrease the width of the expansion slot d. Inasmuch as the respective wing sections l2, l2 of the expansion joint E are securely fastened to the respective highway sections 0, c, by the cement inlays C, it results that said wing sections are moved toward each other during the above noted expanding action of the concrete material. When the wing sections I2, I 2 are thus moved toward each other, the expansion joint sections l3, l3 and 14 function somewhat as a hinge in that the V-notch i6 close to some extent while the up'rmsT idwjng sections l2, ar m intaine su s antially flat and in alinement with th r ad surface By reason 0 1S inge action and further by reason of the compressibility of the rubber material forming the expansion joint E, it results that the highway sections 0, 0 move freely toward each other, for example, from the position shown in Fig. 2 to that shown in Fig. 3, such movement occurring without material change in configuration of the upper horizontal surface of said expansion joint E.
It will readily be understood that the expansion joint sections l3, l4, l3 do not impede or prevent movement, to any substantial extent, of
the highway sections 0, 0 toward each other during the above described expansive movement of said highway sections. This result follows by reason of the provision of the spaces t2 into which the outer portions of the above described expansion joint sections are adapted to move to greater or less extent depending on the degree of highway expansion, and further by reason of the above described hinge arrangement.
In view of the foregoing, it will be understood that, during contraction of the highway sections, the described hinge action and the inherent characteristics of the molded material permits natural movement of the expansion joint wing sections away from each other to thereby compensate for the increased expansion slot width.
As illustrated in Fig. '7, each of the mold side walls 3 is provided with a plurality of the above noted outwardly extending ribs 3a, or equivalent, which function to form the narrow channels $3, or equivalent, in the aforesaid sloping side walls s, Fig. 2. Preferably, the ribs 3a are coextensive in length with the form F and, therefore, it follows that the channels s3 have a length corresponding with the width of the highway sections 0. As will readily be understood, the channels s3 are provided so as to facilitate the formation of an efficient bond between the cement inlay sections C and the adjacent highway sections 0.
It is for the purpose of improving the efliciency of this bond that the side walls 3 are so shaped that they extend in an inclined direction rather 1 than vertically. Due to the inclination of said surfaces, it results that the sand-cement mixture from the nozzle n may be impinged directly thereon as shown in Fig. 2 and, as a result, the inlay sections 0 are amalgamated in a desirable manner with the adjacent portions of the respective highway sections 0. Further, this amalgamating or bonding effect is more satisfactorily and emciently obtained if the sand-cement mixture from the cement gun is disposed in the channels t3 soon after the concrete of the highway sections 0 has seti. e., while said concrete is "green because still containing much of the water utilized in forming the same.
As indicated in Fig. 2, suitable reinforcing material I! may be associated with the expansion joint E during the molding operation. This reinforcing material may be of any suitable type, such as cord or fabric and it may be positioned as desired in said expansion joint E. As clearly appears, this reinforcing material I! is spirally wound in the bead sections so as to stiffen them. Under some circumstances, a steel rod or the like, not shown, may be inserted longitudinally in and through each bead section so as to reinforce the same and increase its resistance .to compression.
When the expansion joint E is formed from rubber, as it usually is, the composition thereof may be of suitable character so as to be properly resistant to the wear and tear or traific, the weather, etc. As illustrative of some of the many formulas which are suitable for the purpose stated, I have indicated below two formulas which may be used, if desired, the proportions of the ingredients being by weight.
Example 1 As hereinbefore stated, the expansion joint E is formed preferably from rubber with which reinforcing material may be associated if desired. Tt shaIlTbe understood that, in lieu of rubber, any other suitable resilient material may be utilized as desired. Furthermore, the material forming the expansion joint E need not be of resilient character. Under some circumstances. metal or the like may be used in lieu of rubber, a suitable mechanical hinge arrangement being provided so that the wing sections may move toward or from each other during expansion or contraction of .the highway sections. Or, if desired, the sections [3, I4, I3 may be formed from rubber material as illustrated, the wing sections and their extremities being formed from metal, composition material or the like and being suitably secured to the respective rubber sections l3, l3. Or, under some circumstances, if desired, the expansion joint E may be constructed and arranged with the wing portions of rubber and the central portions of metal or the like.
As clearly appears from a consideration of Fig. 2, the expansion joint E, when sealed in position, forms an inlay arrangement or structure across which highway traffic moves without the jolt or jar such as is often occasioned by the tar-filled expansion joints of the prior art. With an arrangement of the character described and illustrated, the extremities of the expansion joint E seat in the respective channels t3 at the bottom thereof, the wing sections l2 rest upon the respective ribs sl, and the transverse mid-section l4 seats upon the surfaces s2. It follows, therefore, that the expansion joint E is provided with ample seating surface throughout the lower area thereof so as to properly support the vehicles which move thereacross.
Referring to Fig. 4, I have illustrated a form of my invention which is directed particularly to a modified hinge arrangement for permitting free movement of the wing sections of the expansion joint El toward or from each other. As shown, each of the wing sections l2 illustrated in Fig. 4 terminates in a depending section l3 and each depending section te minatesin,a,latg fa ofific tm Jig, these lateral sections Ma being separate from each other and hence different from the arrangement of Fig. 2. As illustrated, each depending section l3 and its associated lateral section l4a .arel u ved o fqrma .nacxettmzrt e recept o of a suitable yieldable member such as the open end tubular member l8 which may be coextensive in length with that of the expansion joint El and which is maintained under more or less compression whereby, to some extent, it is of elliptical configuration as shown.
It will be understood that the member l8 may be secured to the adjacent expansion joint surfaces in any suitable manner so as to form waterproof seams which prevent entrance of moisture into the expansion slot d. Preferably, the member l8 and the other expansion joint members are formed from rubber and, if so, all of these members may be molded to form a onepiece structure. It shall be understood that the expansion joint of Fig. 4 may be secured to the highway sections in the same manner heretofore described or, alternatively, said expansion joint of Fig. 4 may be secured to the highway sections in any other suitable manner, for example, as hereinafter described.
In the form of the invention shown in Fig. 5, there is provided an expansion joint E2 of the same general character illustrated in Fig. 2. The expansion joint E2 of Fig. 5, however, is secured to the highway otherwise than by the use of cement inlays C such as shown in Fig. 2. Thus, as appears from a consideration of Fig. 5, the concrete material forming each highway section is shaped by a suitable form, not shown, so as to form a surface s2 and a rib sl corresponding generally with the respective surface and rib hereinbefore described. Furthermore, this form is adapted to produce a substantially vertical surface s4 which merges into an angular surface forming a pocket s5.
As will readily be understood, the aforesaid form may be formed of collapsible sections so that it may be removed from the highway sections after the concrete material has hardened. Thus, for example, the form may be formed of two outer sections and an inner central section, the latter being removable so as to permit movement of the outer sections toward each other so that they clear the pockets s5.
After formation of the shaped surfaces as in dicated in Fig. 5, the expansion joint E2 may have a suitable compression force applied thereto to move the wing sections l2 toward each other. Then while thus held, the terminal section I 5a of one wing section may be inserted into a pocket s5 and the adjacent wing section positioned as shown in Fig. 5 whereupon the other Examiner terminal and wing section may be similarly positioned in and on the shaped surface of the adjacent highway section 0. The compressing force may now be released to permit the expansion joint E to take its intended position as shown in Fig. 5. Preferably, said expansion joint E2 is so molded that, when positioned as shown in Fig. 5, it tends to expand further whereby the vertical surfaces of the wing sections are maintained in snug engagement with the respective vertical surfaces s4.
Alternatively to the foregoing, the expansion joint E2 may be positioned at one side of the highway sections 0 at right angles thereto and alined, while held horizontally, with the shaped surfaces to be engaged thereby, the upper expansion joint surface being at the same level as the upper surface of the highway. Thereupon, said expansion joint E may be moved laterally with respect to the highway so that it is positively seated thereon as shown in Fig. 5. When the expansion joint is to be associated with the highway as last described, it shall be understood that a true dove-tail arrangement may be provided in lieu of the pocket s5 which is only partially of dove-tail configuration.
In view of the description thus included with respect to Fig. 5, it is to be distinctly understood that the invention is not to be limited to the preferred arrangement shown in Fig. 2. As stated, Fig. 5 relates to two alternative ways of securing the expansion joint to the highway. Moreover, Fig. 5 is distinctive in that all concrete surfaces are formed from the concrete material which constitute the highway sections. That is, in Fig. 5, an inlay C or equivalent, is not required in order to secure the expansion joint in position.
As illustrated in Fig. 1 and as hereinbefore described, the expansion joints E are disposed laterally of the highway so as to seal those channels between adjacent highway sections which extend cross-wise of the path of traflic. In accordance with the invention, the expansion slots dl which extend longitudinally of the highway, i. e., those between adjacent highway lanes, may be sealed with expansion joints E of the general character hereinbefore described. Furthermore, the seats for such longitudinal expansion joints may be shaped by employing forms F of the general character shown in Figs. 6 and 7, these forms being of such suitable length as may be desirable.
Alternatively, as shown in Fig. 8, there may be employed a modified form Fl by which is produced the expansion joint seat extending longitudinally of the highway at the expansion slots dl. In accordance with the invention, the form Fl is a duplicate of the form F with the exception that said form Fl is so constructed as to provide an upper extension 40 of the central U-section 4b, said extension 4c extending above the upper surface of the form and being suitably reinforced or constructed so as to be suitably resistant to compression whereby it may form one of the tracks upon which travels the conveyance which distributes the concrete material forming the highway sections 0. Accordingly, by. using a form Fl and an associated bulk-head 1, there may be produced an expansion slot dl together with shaped upper edge surfaces of adjacent sides of the side-by-side highway lanes, these shaped surfaces being adapted to receive and retain an expansion joint in the same general manner as hereinbefore described in connection with Figs. 2 and 3.
As is well understood in the art, expansion and contraction laterally of a concrete highway is substantially less than longitudinally thereof. Accordingly, the longitudinal expansion joints may be formed with a narrow slot in lieu of a U-shaped slot I6 such as shown in Fig. 2. That is, the expansion joint may be narrow and the surfaces thereof may be more or less parallel with respect to each other. Or, if desired and as hereinafter described, the longitudinal expansion joints may be so constructed that they do not embody or include any expansion slot such as the slot l6 shown in Fig. 2.
In view of all the foregoing, it will be obvious to those skilled in the art that the expansion joint arrangements of my invention are associated with the highway in such manner as to become permanent parts thereof capable of outlasting the highway itself. Further, the described sealing arrangements are of such character as to prevent the entrance of water or moisture into the expansion slots from the surface of the highway.
The use of the described expansion joint arrangements results in the elmination of the tar or other material customarily utilized for filling the expansion slots of concrete highways. Accordingly, it is no longer necessary to shave the protruding tar surfaces after the highway sections expand, or to fill the slots with additional tar when the highway sections contract. By my invention, the ridges which so often exist at the expansion slots are eliminated with resultant reduction in the wear and tear of the vehicles using the highway and great increase in the comfort of the passengers of such vehicles.
Further, as will readily be understood, my novel expansion joints protect the edges of the concrete section to thereby eliminate crumbling and fracture. In addition, the installation of longer individual highway sections may be practiced in accordance with my invention. This for the reason that the expansion slots, when my novel expansion joints are utilized, may be substantially wider than could be the case with the tarfilled expansion slots of the prior art.
The foregoing and various other advantages, characteristics and features of my invention will be apparent to those skilled in the art after consideration of the disclosure as herein set forth in detail.
Referring to Fig. 9, I have shown a transverse, sectional view of a marking strip M which may be of any suitable length and which, furthermore, may be formed of any suitable material such, for example, as rubber, or equivalent. As illustrated, the marking strip M comprises a main section 20 which, to some extent, corresponds with the wing sections l2, l2 of the expansion joint E of Fig. 2. Depending from each side of the section 20 is a bead section 2|, these bead sections 2|, preferably, being of substantially the same configuration as the bead sec ions l5 of Fig. 2. If desired, the upper surface of the marking strip M may be convex to a desired extent and this convex surface may project above the normal highway surface. Further, if desired, the upper or convex surface of the marking strip may be provided with an expansion slot and this slot may be open at the bottom surface of said marking strip rather than the top surface thereof.
As will be understood, the channel in which the marking strip M is to be seated may be shaped by utilizing a form of suitable shape and such form may correspond generally with the form F of Fig. '7 if it is assumed that the U-section 4b thereof is omitted.
After the marking strip M has been seated in its channel, it may be sealed in position in any suitable manner such, for example, as by the utilization of cement inlay sections C as heretofore described in connection with Fig. 2. Or, said marking strip M may be sealed in position by the use of tamped cement or in any other suitable manner.
Marking strips M may be seated in highways, roadways, walks for pedestrians, etc., etc. In general, such strips may be utilized in lieu of and in the locations heretofore occupied by white or colored lines as the same are customarily used for controlling traffic and for marking the walks for pedestrians. Thus, for example, such marking strips may be disposed longitudinally of the highway so as to overlie the above described slots (ii, the rubber material forming such marking strips being sufficiently compressible to permit the necessary slight expansion which occurs laterally of the highway. It shall be understood that these 2 marking strips need not extend throughout the length of the highway. They may be placed only at curves, areas of great trafiic density, etc. Or, they may be of suitable short length, as from one foot ranging upwardly to several feet and these may be spotted longitudinally of the highway.
In accordance with a feature of the invention,
when the marking strips M are utilized for lanedefining purposes, for example, such marking strips may be of such character that they reflect light from the automobile head lamps so as to more definitely define the lanes at night, for example. To this end, if desired, suitable reflecting members may be embedded in the strips M in such manner that they reflect light for lanedefining purposes as described above.
Further in accordance with the invention, it is to be understood that blocks of suitable dimensions, as two feet square, more or less, may be formed in the same general manner as has been illustrated in connection with the marking strip M. These blocks, if desired, may have a bead section 2| along each of the four sides and they may be sealed in position by using cement inlay sections 0 or by using tamped cement the same as described above. In any suitable manner, as by the utilization of rubber of a contrasting color, signs, signals or the like such, for example, as School, Danger, etc., etc., may be formed on the upper surface of the aforesaid blocks so as to be clearly visible to operators of vehicles, these blocks, then, being properly designatable as a sign-bearing inlay arrangement or structure.
The aforesaid marking strips M should be of any suitable noticeable or strikingcolor such, for example, as canary yellow, white, etc. If desired, as shown in Fig. 10, a veneer or layer 22 of suitablymqlored rubber material may 53 golded at e top 0 he marlgmgit iw 20 which, with an arrangement of this character, may be ordinary, non-colored carbon black rubber. An arrangement of the character shown in Fig. 10 is less expensive and more durable than the structure of Fig. 9 assuming that the latter is formed throughout from rubber of a striking color.
Marking strips M may advantageously be utilized in pairs at street intersections to define spective lateral expansion joints. In such a case,-
transverse lanes for the passage of pedestrians, or a single strip may be disposed transversely of the street to form a stop line for vehicles when the traflic signals are against such vehicles. When these strips are installed at the time that the street is constructed, the seats therefor may be molded in any suitable manner such, for example. as heretofore described. However, when such marking strips are to be installed in existing constructions, the mode of procedure is necessarily different. V
Thus, referring to Fig. 11, 8 represents a sectional view of a street, highway, pavement or other structure, hereinaftergenerically termed a. street or "highway which is to have associated therewith either an expansion joint of the general character hereinbefore described, a sign-bearing inlay, or equivalent structure, or a marking strip such as described above. For purposes of explanation of this phase of the invention, it will be assumed that the pavement is to have a marking strip M associated therewith.
As a first step in accordance with this form of my invention, a channel 23 preferably rectangular and of suitable length is formed in the upper surface of the street S by using a suitable drill, or the like. This channel 23, preferably, has substantially vertical side walls 24 and a substantially horizontal bottom wall 25.
When a marking strip of the general character hereinbefore described is to be secured in the channel 23, a form F2, corresponding generally with the form F without the U-section 4b, is mounted in fixed position in said channel 23 as shown in Fig. 13. Thereupon, suitable cementitious material, such as a concrete mixture 26 is disposed in the channel 23 so as to be packed beneath and around the form F2, this operation being performed in the general way hereinbefore described in connection with Fig. 7.
After the concrete material has hardened or set, the form F2 is removed with the result that the channel 23 now contains the concrete material 26 shaped on its upper surface to form a seat for a marking strip M of the general character illustrated in Fig. 14. Thereafter, as indicated in Fig. 15, the marking strip M is disposed in the aforesaid shaped seat and sealed therein by deposition, in any of the ways hereinbefore described, of the cement inlay sections 21.
When the street S is one which is top-dressed with asphalt, the aforesaid concrete mixture 26 and the inlay sections 21 may be extendedupwardly only to some horizontal level l6, Fig. 15, below the top surface of the street. 'With such an arrangement, a layer of asphalt material may be disposed upon the concrete mixture 26 and inlay sections 21 to thereby form a surface which matches the surrounding street surface. Obviously, this phase of the invention is not to be limited to use in. connection with asphalt streets because the same type of construction may be employed in connection with macadam streets, or the like.
It shall be understood that the invention as illustrated in Figs. 11-15 inclusive is not to be limited to the association of a marking strip M with a street. As well, the same general procedure may be followed when-a sign-bearing .inlay structure such, for example, as hereinbefore described is to be associated with a street, or equivalent. Further, it shall be understood that the general procedure of Figs. 11-15 may be followed when expansion joints E are to be associated with existing concrete highways at the rethe form F2 of Fig. 13 is replaced by a form F of the general character shown'in Fig. 7, such last named form embodying a bulk-head such, for example, as shown in said Fig. '7.
Referring to Fig. 16, I have illustrated a track member adapted to be disposed longitudinallyof a hig'hwayas described in my pending application Serial No. 716,010,'flled March 17, 1934, As herein-shown, this track'member comprises a section M of rubber or equivalent resilient material, and a grid-like. section N of steel, or equivalent. In order to clarify the description, the arrows a4 indicate the lateral dimension or width of the track member while the arrows 05 represent the longitudinal dimension or length of said track member.
As clearly appears from a consideration of Fig. 16, the rubber track section M may be said to comprise a base 30 and an upper section 3| provided withspaced longitudinal slots or channels 32 and also provided with spaced lateral slots or channels 33, said track section M furtherpreferably comprising a raised bead section 34 extending longitudinally along each side thereof, all of these parts or sections, preferably,
being molded to form a unitary rubber structure, and thebead sections 34, preferably, being of some distinctive color, as canary yellow, white or the like.
The upper track section 3| terminates short of each side. edge of the base so as to provide a ledge 35. It will be understood that these ledges extend longitudinally along each side of the track section M and that-they support the respective side members 36 of the grid section N, these side members being connected by the spaced transverse bars 31 and the latter, in turn, being suitably connected to the longitudinal bars 38.
As clearly appears from a consideration of Fig. 16, the spacing arrangement is such that the lateral bars 31 are freely receivable in the respective channels 33 while the longitudinal bars 38 are freely receivable in the respective channels 32. Further, as clearly appears, when respective ledges 35, the upper surfaces of the bars 31 and 38 terminate well below the upp r surface of the upper track section 3|.
The illustrated sections M and N, when associated as described, form a track member which may be secured in any suitable manner to the base structure of any suitable highway. Thus, for example, the associated rubber and metal sections may be provided with alined openings 39 through which extend screw spikes when the track member is to be secured to a concrete substructure, or through which bolts extend if the foundation is of wood.
As will be understood, the grid structure N forms a supportor harness for the rubber section M and particularly the upper part thereof whereby it is rendered properly resistant to the strains and stress of tramc. That is, the transverse and longitudinal members 31 and 3B reinforce and resistspreading of the rubber sections which they encompass. If desired, the upper surface of the rubber section M-may be suitably channeled or corrugated to improve the antiskid characteristics thereof.
The composition of rubber material from which are to be formed the marking strips M, the sign inlay structures, and the rubber track sections M may be such as is-suitable or desirable. If
desired, such compositions may .be of the character set forth in .a detailed manner in connectibn with the description of the expansion Joint E. a While the invention has been described with respect to certain particular preferred examplesis intended therefore in the appended claims to cover all such changes and modifications.
What is claimed as new and desired to be secured by Letters Patent is: 4 v
l. A highway having sections separated by an expansion slot, each section having an inlayreceiving depression extending longitudinally of said slot and communicating therewith, an inlay structure in said slot and depressions, the upper surface of said inlay structure in the slot and also in said depressions being substantially flush with the upper surface of said highway, an open v-shaped expansion channel extending longitudinally of said inlay structure, and means. for
securing the edges of said inlay structure to said sections, respectively, said means comprising deposits of cementitious materialseated, respectively, upon oppositerespective extremities of said inlay structure.
2. An expansion joint comprising wing sections, means at the ends of each wing section adapted to be locked to material forming a highway, and hinge means connecting said wing sections for movement toward or from each other, said hinge means comprising an open expansion channel extending longitudinally of said expansion joint,
said expansion channel extending downwardly into said expansion joint from the top trafficengaging surface thereof, said expansion Joint being formed from a mass 'of rubber-like material.
3. An expansion joint comprising a body portion and laterally extending wing sections connected thereto for movement toward and from each other, the upper surface of said body portion and the upper surfaces of said wing sections being disposed substantially in the same plane, said body portion being formed with an open 'expansion channel extending longitudinally of said expansion joint, said expansion channel extending downwardly into said expansion joint from the toptraflic-engaging surface thereof, said expansion Joint being formed from a mass of rubber-like material.
4:. An expansion joint comprising a body portion and laterally extending wing sections connected thereto for movement toward and from each other, the upper surface of said body portionand the upper surfaces of said wing sections being disposed substantially in the same plane, each wing section comprising an' intermediate section having substantially less vertical thickness than the end section thereof, means on the end section of each wing section adapted to in- 'terlock with material forming a highway, said body portion being formed with an open expansion channel extending longitudinally of said expansion ,Joint, said expansion channel extending ,downwardly into said expansion joint from the top trafllc-engaging surface thereof, said expan-' sion Joint being formed from a mass of rubberlike material. g
THEODORE W. STEDMAN.