US 2222319 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov.l 19, 1940. v s, MILLAR HAL 2,222,319
LUMINAIRE Filed June 2, .1958
ZONE 0F DIFFUSED AND T/N TE D LIGHT ZONE or D/Rscr LIGHT INVENTQRS PRESTO/v S. MILLAR SAB/:IUEL M. GRAY ATTORNEY Patented Nov. 19, 1940 UNITED STATES PATENT oFElcE LUDIINAIRE New York Application June 2, 1938, Serial No. 211,378
The present invention relates to luminaires, and is more particularly directed toward dual purpose luminaires for dining-room lighting.
When in a private home a dining-room is util- 5 ized for dining purposes it may not be generally appreciated, but it is a fact, that the dining table dressed with cutlery, china a'nd silverware, is most attractive and interesting if polished surfaces of such equipment glitter and sparkle.
l This appearance cannot be had if the light is soft and diffused. It is achieved to some 'extent when the principal light is derived from candles on the table. These little points of flickering light of the candle flame are reiiected in the ld polished surfaces as points of brightness lending interest and charm to the table scene. But the eiect is achieved only in a small degree because of the low brilliancy and 10W illuminating power of candles. In order to achieve it in a greater 20 degree, it is necessary to deliver upon the table harsh brilliant light which would be entirely unsuitable for a Work surface or in any place Where the source of light is exposed to the eyes. Such an effect can best be obtained by permitting light from an incandescent lamp filament, Without any softening `or diifusion, to fall upon the table surface.
A second requirement for lighting of a diningroom for dining purposes is that the light upon 30 the faces of the diners should be soft, directed somewhat from above and of a becoming tint. This, to a degree, is accomplished by the use of candles. The light from the candle iiame isof a generally pleasing tint. Unless the Candlesticks or. candles be Avery tall, the light sources are rather too low for best effect and the amount of light available from candles is inadequate. Candlelight, however, is highly appreciated by many becausel in spite of its deficiencies of natural 40 placement and low illuminating value, it is considered to be a becoming light. The desired effect upon the faces of diners partially obtained A4by the use of candles may be attained in full measure by employing light from a luminaire 45 suspended over the table to illuminate a zone around the table in which the diners are seated and by insuring that the light in this peripheral zone shall be soft and pleasingly tinted. It would be marred if the harsh, brilliant light needed foil 50 brilliance in lighting table equipment were to be allowed to fall onthe faces of the diners. It should therefore be of an entirely 'different quality from the raw light falling upon the table and the demarcation between the zone of raw light for table illumination and the zone (Cl. 24U-78) of softly tinted light for face illumination should y be adjustable to conform to different sizes of tables and different heights of mounting of a luminaire. Furthermore, there is always a question as to which is the most satisfactory tint 5 for the light to be employed Ifor illumination of the faces of diners. 'I'his may vary depending upon the decorationsof the room, and the decorations of the table. It may also vary with t special occasions (as Halloween, Christmas, etc.). From this there arises the desirability of easily changing the tint of the light employed -to illuminate faces of diners.
A third requirement for effective lighting of dining-rooms for dining purposes is thatthe principal lighting and therefore the principal point of attention in the room should be the table and the diners. The remainder of the room should be softly but not conspicuously il^ luminated.
When the service of dinner is complete, it often occurs that the room is put to other use, as, for example, for home study of children, for playing of games, etc. For such purposes, lighting of an entirely different character is' re- 25 quired. That provided for dining would be unsuitable. Here general lighting of ample intensity and diffused for the avoidance of glare is the requirement. Hence the desirability of equipping dining rooms with luminaires which can be employed alternately for dining Purposes or for general purposes.
The present invention contemplates a luminaire designed for the above purposes, and in carrying out the design, the luminaire has been. designed to facilitate relamping, change of color value of the diffused peripheral light and of angle subtended bythe central zone of harsh direct light.
The accompanying drawing'shows, for pur- 40 poses of illustrating the present invention, an embodiment in which the invention may take form, it being understood that the drawing is illustrative of the invention rather than limiting the same.
In the drawing: y
Figure 1 is a diagrammaic view illustrating the relations of the luminaire, the table and the zones of light; Y
Figure 2 is a vertical sectional view' through 50 the luminaire;
Figure 3 is an enlarged vertical sectional view showing a detail of construction;
Figure 4 is a view taken on the line 1 4 of Figure 3; and 56 Flgure illustrates a modification. 'Ihe fixture is supported on a stem, indicated 'at lo, through which the wires pass. This stem supports a hickey in which is threaded a nipple I2. A piece of tubing |3 is received in the nipple I2 and is clamped inplace by a screw indicated at |4. The tubing I3 supports a pendent lamp socket I5 which carries a lamp bulb |6 and a reflector I6. This lamp bulb is preferably 4a clear glass bulb with a naked filament indicated at I1. y
The nipple I2 also supports a spider, indicated at I9, which carries a cluster of lamp sockets |9 for lamps I9 and the chains, indicated at Y2li, for supporting a bowl 2|. 'I'his bowl may be made of dense pressed glass or plastic material so that the reected light is greaterv than the transmitted light, and may be of any suitable profile. The'bowl 2| has a central hole 22 somewhat larger in diameter than the lamp bulb I6. Where the bowl-is made of glass or of other easily frangible material the opening 22 is. provided with protective rings 23 and 24 held together by screws 25 which pass through the flattened portions of the rings. These flattened portions have aligned openings, indicated at 26 and 2'I, and a short distance from the aligned opening the upper ring 24 is provided with a notch indicated at 28.
The closure for the opening in the bowl 2| is preferably inthe form of a piece of trans parent material having a profile to continue the profile of the bowl as indicated at 29. It is provided with a peripheral ring 30 and clips 3|. The ring 30 is provided with projecting tongues 32 adapted to pass up through the openings 26 and 21 and be turned slightly so as to enter the recesses or notches 28 after the fashion of a bayonet joint.
'I'he metal ring 30 supports a tubular light transmitting collar 33 which extends up between the bulb I6 and the bulbs I9. This collar may be made either of transparent or of translucent material and is designed to tint the light transmitted through it. A suitable form of collar may be made out of tinted glass with or without an opal ilashing, indicated at 34. If the tubular collar is made slightly diffusing in character by the application of a thin flashing, enameling or frosting, the .outer lamps I9' may thus be prevented from casting sharp shadows on the bowl when the central lamp I6 only is lighted. If such shadows are unobjectionable, as, for example, if they are more or less concealed by decoration on the outer surface of the bowl, then thel tubular collar may be transparent. 'I'he collar 33 is generally cylindrical, but where the area to be lighted is square or rectangular the shape of the clear aperture at the bottom of the collar may be altered by the insertion in the bottomof the collar of a disc-having a transparent central aperture of the desired shape, the outer area of the disc having a diffusing character and being tinted if and as desired.
4 'I'he luminaire is intended for mounting over a dining-room table T, as shown in Figure 1. The harsh undiiused direct light from the filament |1`passes down through the transparent member 29, as indicated by rays 35, providing a zone of direct light which is intended to coincide with the top of the table for the purpose of lighting up the objects on the table. The angle of this lzone of direct light may be controlled by changing the mounting height of the socket I5 when the screw I4 is loosened. The light which is transmitted through the tubular collar 33 falls on various areas of the outer light diifusing bowl 2| for transmission downwardly and forreection upwardly. The downwardly and outwardly transmitted light which passes through the co1- lar 33` andthe bowl 2| gives a zone of di'used and tinted light which falls on the faces of the persons seated at the table and provides a soft pleasing general illumination reinforced by some indirect light coming from the ceiling. Between the zone of harsh direct light and the zone of diffused and tintedv light there is a narrow or transition zone of mixed light as indicated in Figure 1. Theshape of the zone of downwardly directed undiflused light may be altered by inserting in the bottom of thecollar a disk having al transparent central aperture of the desired shape and an outer diiusing portion as indicated in Figre 5.
When the central pendent lamp is extinguished and the upper lamps carried in the sockets I9 are lighted, the fixture becomes a semi-direct lighting fixture providing light for general purposes.
A small three-light switch 31 is incorporated in the luminaire for convenience in lighting the central lamp I6 alone, the outer lamps I9' alone or all lamps at once as desired. 'I'he switch may be made inconspicuous by placing it at the point of attachment of one of the suspension chains to the bowl as shown in the drawing.
It will be noted that the construction shown is one which permits ease of adjustment of the height of the central bulb and also ease of removal of the bottom closure member 29 and ring 33 for cleaning, for relamping or for substitution of variously tinted collars.
In the drawing the covers for the upper lamp sockets and the hickey are omitted for clearness.
It is obvious that the invention may be embodied in other forms andconstructions within the scope of the claims. Various modifications and changes -being possible, we do not otherwise limit ourselves in any way with respect thereto.
What is claimed is:
1. A luminaire for lighting a table or the like, comprising a dish-shaped translucent light reector, disposed over the table and having. at the bottom a centrally disposed, substantially transparent optical window; an axially disposed clear glass lamp, mounted to have its filament disposed a substantial distance above the window so that light issuing from this lamp within a determinable zone from nadir may pass without modification through the window for lighting the table; and a readily replaceable colored collar extending upward from the periphery of the window to be above the light source of the lamp and intercept all light directed toward the walls of the reflector so as to tint the light from the lamp which falls upon the surface of the reflector, such light providing an outer zone of diffused general illumination of any desired hue.
2. A luminaire such as claimed in claim l, wherein the window includes a transparent closure which is Adownwardly removable to afford access to the lamp.
3. A luminaire such as claimed in claim 1, wherein the window includes a transparent clo sure which is downwardly removable to afford acces's to the lamp and the tubular collar is downwardly removable to facilitate substituting one of dierent light transmitting property whereby the character of the-outer zone of light may be altered.- Y v 4. A luminaire such as claimed in claim 1,
having means for mounting the lamp at varying relative heights whereby the angle of the Zone of undiused light may be Varied.
5. A luminaire such as claimed in claim 1, having a reflector inside the tubular collar and above the lamp for intercepting upwardly directed direct light and reflecting lit down through the window. f
6. A luminaire such as claimed in claim 1, wherein the shape of the zone of downwardly directed undiiused light may be altered by the insertion in the bottom of the central collar of a disc having a transparent central aperture of the desired shape, the outer portion of the disc having a diffusing character.
7. A luminaire having a pendent lamp with a clear glass bulb, a colored tubular collar about the lamp and extending a substantial distance below and above the lament of the lamp, a. transparent optical window at the bottom ofthe tubular collar for transmitting a beam oi direct undiused light, and an outwardly '.tlaringlight reflector-diffuser extending upwardly from the bottom of the tubular collar for transmitting downwardly and outwardly a portion of the col- 9. A luminaire such as claimed in claim 7, having supplemental lamp Abulbs disposed between the tubular collar and the arlng reiiectordiffuser for increasing both the diiused direct and the indirect components of light.
10. A luminaire having a support, a pendent lamp socket, a' lamp bulb therein, an upwardly opening light diiusing bowl carried by the support, the bowl having a central opening below the pendent lamp bulb, a transparent lclosure member for ,the opening. means for detachably securing the closure member in place, and a downwardly removable, colored light transmit- .ting collar of smaller diameter than the opening carried by the securing means and extending above the lament of the lamp bulb.
11. A luminaire having a support, a pendent lamp socket, a lamp bulb therein, an upwardly opening light diffusing bowl carried by the support, the bowl having a central opening below the pendent lamp bulb, a transparent closure member forthe opening, means for detachably securing the closure member in place, a translucent ring of smaller diameter than the opening and supported from the securing -means to be about the lamp bulb, and aplurality of lamp bu'lbs carried by the support and extending Vinto the space between the ring and the bowl.
PRESTON S. MILLAR. SAMUEL M. GRAY'.