US 2223016 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Nov. 26, 1940.
L. M. PARKHURST BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed March 24, @938 8 Sheets-Sheet} Nov. 26,; 1940.
' L. M. PARKHURST 2,223,016
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BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Filed March 24, 1938 8 Sheet: sSheet 8 Nov. 26, 1940.
Ifif/f/M I: INVENTQL W W Patented Nov. 26, 1940 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 11 Claims.
This invention relates to a building construction, and more particularly to a building which is composed mainly of slabs having concrete bodies containing reenforcements for strengthening the' same, and metal locking or coupling means whereby adjacent slabs of the building are connected with each other.
The objects of this invention are to provide for a building of this character an improved form of the slabs and the reenforcements therein, im-
proved means for connecting adjacent slabs with each other so as to form walls having either a single shell or plane or two shells or planes to provide superior means for bracing the several coupling members of the building relatively to each other so as to produce a firm and solid construction in which all of the metallic parts are interconnected and practically embedded in concrete, and to improve the building structure in various details.
In the accompanying drawings:
Fig. 1 is a fragmentary side elevation, partly in section, of a building structure embodying my improvements. Fig. 2 is a horizontal section taken on line 2-2 Fig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a fragmentary vertical longitudinal section showing generally an upright wall, a basement, a floor and the roof of a building constructed in accordance with this invention.
Fig. 4 is a fragmentaryvertical cross section, of the lower part of Fig. 3, but on an enlarged scale, showing the manner of connecting the inner and outer shells panels or planes of an upright wall with each other and mounting the same upon the foundation of the building.
Fig. 5 is a side elevation, partly in section, of the structure shown in Fig. 4 and taken on line 4-4 in said figure.
Fig. 6 is a fragmentary vertical section, on an enlarged scale, of the central part of Fig. 3 showing more particularly the means for connecting a horizontal wall or partition of a building with an upright wall of the same.
Fig. 7-is a fragmentary side elevation of the last mentioned structure taken on line 1-1, Fig. 6.
Fig. 8 is a fragmentary vertical section taken on line 8-8, Fig. 6.
Fig. 9 is a fragmentary horizontal section, on
an enlarged scale, taken on line 8-9, Fig. 1.
Fig. 10 is a perspective view of one of the locking bars forming part of a means for connecting adjacent slabs of a building.
Fig. '11 is a fragmentary perspective view showing one of the girder bars or coupling members for connecting adjacent locking bars'of a building.
Fig. 12 is a fragmentary perspective view partly in section, showing the manner of constructing a locking bar which is used at the corner of a building and also the manner of embedding the same in a concrete body.
Fig. '13 is a perspective view of one of the coupling pins employed for connecting part of a girder bar with an adjacent plate bar of a 10 building.
Fig. 14 is a similar view showing the manner of constructing a plate bar for use at the comer of a building.
Fig. 15 is a similar view showing the manner of 15 V embedding a spacing sleeve in a body of concrete for use between two plate bars and two locking bars forming parts of two shells or planes of a wall.
Fig.. 16 isa fragmentary vertical longitudinal section of one of the upright shells or planes of a building wall similar to the construction shown in the central part of Fig. 1, but on an enlarged scale.
Fig. 17 is an end elevation of the structure shown in Fig. 16 with some of the parts omitted for the purpose of more clearly illustrating certain features of construction.
Fig. 16' is a top plan view of the construction shown in Fig. 16, but omitting certain structural features for the purpose of greater clarity.
Fig. 19 is a fragmentary horizontal section taken on line l9'l9 Fig. 3.
Fig. 20 is a vertical cross section of a building embodying my improvements and showing more particularly the manner of constructing a gable roof for the building in accordance with my invention.
Fig. 21 is a perspective view showing the manner of constructing the spacing means whereby the. two planes, panels, or sections of a partition are held apart.
Fig. 22 is a fragmentary vertical section, on an enlarged scale, taken on line 22-22 Fig. 20 and 5 showing more particularly the preferred means for connecting the upper end of one of the partition sections or panels with an overhead wall slab section.
Fig. 23 is a fragmentary horizontal section of 54) a corner of a building embodying my improvements and showing more particularly the means for tying together two outer shells or panels of the upright wall which are arranged at right angles to each other and connecting the same 55 with the corresponding inner shells or panels of said wall.
Fig. 24 is a vertical section, 'on an enlarged scale taken on line 24-24 Fig. 23.
Fig. 25 is a vertical section taken on line 25-25 Fig. 23 but extending the full length of the building.
Fig. 26 is a vertical section, on an enlarged scale, taken on line 26-26 Fig. 3.
Fig. 27 is a; horizontal section taken on line 2|2'| Fig. 26.
Fig. 28 is a fragmentary vertical section taken on line 28-28 Fig. 1.
Fig. 29 isa perspective view of the preferred form of reenforcement which is embedded in the concrete slabs of the building wall for strengthening the same and also providing part of the means for connecting the same with adjacent slabs of a building.
In the following description similar characters of reference indicate like parts in the several views of the drawings.
Although the present improvements may be variously organized for constructing buildings of various forms and arrangements, that shown in Figs. 1 and 3 consist -essentially of a building having an underground or basement story A and one story B above ground, In general these stories of this building comprise a cellar or basement floor C, a lower horizontal wall D which forms the ceiling I00 of the basement and a floor |0l of the first story, an upper horizontal wall E forming the ceiling l3! of the first floor and the roof I32 of the building, a footing, base, or foundation F arranged at the edge of-the cellar floor and an uprightor vertical wall G which rests at its lower end on the foundation F and terminates at its upper end in a parapet H extending above the roof and having its intermediate part connected with the adjacent ends of the first and second horizontal walls D, E so as "to support the same.
-'I'he floor C may be of any suitable construction, but as shown in Fig. 3, the same prefer ably comprises a ground course or layer of concrete 50,.a plurality of sleepers 5| consisting of bricks or pieces of concrete resting upon the ground course, and a floor 52 consisting of reenforced slabs of concrete or similar material and resting upon said sleepers so as to form air spaces 53 between said ground course, sleepers and basement floor slabs.
The footing, base or foundation of the building preferably consists of a mass of concrete 54 arranged in the ground at the edge of the' ground course 50 and practically forming a continuation thereof and having its upper side flush-with the basement. floor slabs 52, and a plurality of sleepers 55 embedded in the upper part of the concrete body 54 throughout the length thereof, as shown in Figs. 1, 4 and 5 the upper sides of these sleepers being flush, or substantially so, with the upper side of dation 54.
In the construction of the horizontal walls, the vertical walls and other parts of the building construction a plurality of slabs are employed which are arranged end to end'and connectedwith each other so as to form panels, planes, sections or shells of these walls. In their general construction these slabs are substantially uniform so that'the same can be used in the walls of the various parts of .the build-'- the foun- T-shaped grooves 51, 58 and in its opposite vertical edges with upright longitudinal T-shaped grooves 59 and in each of its corners this concrete body is provided with acutout or notch 60, as best shown in Figs.- 16, 17 and 18. Each of these slabs is also provided at the inner upright corners of its concrete bar, for use in certain parts of the building with rabbets or recesses 48 for a purpose which will be hereinafter described. Within each of the vertical edge portions of the concrete body of each slab body 56, is embedded an upright anchoring bar or plate 6! which is arranged transversely of the slab and extends across the adiacent vertical groove 59 in the respective slab. This anchoring bar or plate, as best shown in Figs. 16 and 29 is provided with a longitudinal row of locking openings 52 which are arranged beone slab with the corresponding vertical edgeof an adjacent slab. The mass of concrete in each slab between the two upright anchoringbars or platm 5| is reenforced and strengthened by means of a woven wire fabric whichis arranged in the concrete body of the slab in line with two corresponding longitudinal. edges of the anchoring bars and preferably composed of a plurality of upright wires 63 arranged at intervals in the concrete body throughout the 4 width thereof and a plurality of horizontal wires 54 which are interwoven with the upright wire 63 so as to practically form a sheet and connected at theopposite ends with the anchoring bars so that the latter and the woven fabric together form a reenforcement for the concrete body of the respective slab. Various means may be employed for connecting this woven wire'fabric with these anchoring bars but this is preferably accomplished by arranging; the horizontal wires in pairs and providing the opposite ends of each pair of these wires with two end pieces or strands 65 which project at right angles to the body of these horizontal wires and' along opposite sides of, the respective anchoring bars GI and are tied together so as to form loops around the latter which serve to connect this reenforcing fabric with the reenforcing anchoring bars, as best shown in 'Figs. 9 and 29. In order to definitely locate he woven fabric and the anchoring bars is capable of being woven continuously in the form of an endless web in the manner now commonly practiced in the manufacture of fencing composed of longitudinal strands of wire and transverse'strips of wood and therefore enables this reenforcing fabric to be produced at comparatively low cost and cut up in short'sections as required and then bent into the form shown in Figs. 9 and 29 preparatory to being placed in an appropriate mold in which the concrete body is cast around the same for completing the slab suitable for use in the building.
A plurality of slabs of the character above described are employed in forming the upright walls of the building so as to produce walls having an inner panel, plane or shell and an outer panel, plane or shell which are separated by an intervening air space between them, or such walls maybe constructed by employing only one panel, shell or section for this purpose; In the construction shown in Figs. 1 to 9 an upright building wall is shown which has inner and outer panels or shells and in this case the slabs forming the same are mounted as follows:
The inner and outer panels or shells forming theupright wall of the lowermost or underground storyof the building are preferably made up of slabs which extend the full height of this story, and each of these panels or shells comprises a plurality of slabs which are arranged in a horizontal row with their vertical edges in engagement with one another so as to produce an unbroken continuity of these slabs. At their lower ends these slabs rest upon the inner and outer parts of the concrete body 54 and the sleepers 55 of the base, footing or foundation, as shown in Fig. 3. The If-shaped lower grooves 51 in the lower horizontal edges of the concrete slabs of these panels or shells, are engaged respectively by metal lower plate bars 61- each of which is of corresponding T-shape in cross section and has its.stem arranged vertically and its head arranged horizontally and resting upon the upper side of the aforesaid base or foundation. The lower plate bars 61 of both inner and outer panels or shells are connected with each other so as to hold the same in the desired spaced relation by means of horizontal .transverse -metal spacing straps 68 which rest upon the foundation of the building and are-connected with the underside of the heads of the lower plate bars 61 by means of electric welding orin any other practical manner.
respectively with the upper horizontal T-shaped grooves 58 of the slabs of the inner and outer panels or shells which are of corresponding form in cross section so that the heads of these upper plate bars are arranged horizontally and flush with the upper edges of these slabsand their stems project vertically downward, as best shown'in Fig. 6. The upper ends of the slabs of the inner. and outer shells are connected with each other so that they are held in the roper spaced relation and in parallelism The number of such spacing straps '68 may vary but "it is preferable to connect the lower platebars by such straps only at in- I throughout their height by means which may be variously constructed but one of the means for accomplishing'this purpose, best shown in Figs. 6 and 8, comprises a horizontal spaclnfl or tie bolt 10 arranged at its opposite ends in the notches 60 in the corresponding upper corners of the inner andouter panel'slabs and projecting through the depending stems-oi the upper plate bars 69 so that the head and nut 01 this bolt engages with the exterior oi these bars, a. spacing sleeve 1| surrounding the shank of this bolt and bearing at its opposite ends against the opposing inner'sides of these upper plate bars, and a protecting covering or jacket 12 01' concrete surrounding the spacing sleeve 1|.
A connection is eflected between the opposing edges of two adjacent slabs so that they are rigidly held against displacement relatively to each other in a horizontal direction both lengthwise and crosswise of the slabs in each of the panels or shells.- This connection is produced by an upright metal slab locking bar 13 which has its opposite vertical edges arranged in the grooves 59 formed in the opposing vertical ends of the respective' pair of adjacent slabs and is provided on each of its vertical edgeswith a plurality of looking hooks 14 which project inwardly through the respective locking openings 62 of the locking bars 81 embedded in the adjacent vertical edge portion of the concrete slab bodies 68 and into inclined recesses 15 formed in these bodies on the inner sides of the respective locking bars, as best shown in Fig. 16. In connecting two adjacent slabs by a locking bar ofthis character, the'latter is placed between the opposing vertical edges of these slabs while the same are spaced apart a suflicient"distance to permit of engaging the free ends of the locking hooks of this locking bar with the locking openings 62 after which the locking bar is moved 'longitudinally downwardly so that the hooks other by the wedge action of the hooks 14 againstthe inner sides of the anchoring bars iii.
The locking bars are retained in their lowermost operative position by securingly connecting the same with the lower and upper plate bars 81 and 69 of the respective slabs of the inner and outer panels or shells. This is preferably accomplished by means of bolts 16 each of which connects the lower end of a slab locklng'bar 13 with the upwardly projecting stem of one of the T-shaped lower plate bars, as shown in Figs. 4 and 5 while the upper ends of the locking bars of the companion slabs of the inner and outer .panels or shells are connected with each other by securing the same between the depending stems of the upper T-shaped plate bars 69 and the head and nut of the tying or spacing bolt III which passes through "these stems, as best shown in Fig. 6.
At the corner of the building the adjacent ends of the plate bars of the wall sections which are arranged at an angle relatively to one another may be connected by forming the same integrally from a single straight T-bar this being preferably done by forming a notch 11 in one side ,of the head of this bar and a slit 18 in the opposite side of the same and bending the stem of this straight bar in line with this notch and slit so as to provide two branches ofthe same which are arranged at right angles to each other, as shown in Fig. 14.
For the purpose of connecting the adjacent vertical edges of two upright slabs of a wall adjacent to a corner of a building the anchoring bars in the opposing edges of the respective slabs may be connected by a slab locking bar 19 which is of angular form in cross section, as shown in Figs. 2 and 12, and provided on the edges of its twowings with inclined locking hooks 80 adapted to engage with the locking openings of the anchoring bars 6| in the opposing edges of the respective slabs. The gap between the opposing edges of the corner slabs may be closed by concrete fillings 8!, 82 applied to the inner and outer corners of the angular locking bar and connected with each other by concrete necks 83 extending through openings 80 in this bar, as shown in Fig. 2.
In the case of a building having a basement story below ground and a story above ground, as shown in Figs. 1 and 3, the slabs 85 of the upright outer panel or shell of this upper story are preferably comparatively long and extend from the upper edge ofthe outer panel or shell of the lower or basement story to the next higher ceiling I3I which in this case is on the under side of the roof, and the slabs 86 of the inner panel or shell of this upper story wall are comparatively short and extend from the floor of the horizontal ground wall to the ceiling I3I under the roof. Each of the slabs of the inner and outer panels or shells of this upper story, the reenforcement in the concrete body thereof and the means for connecting the opposingvertical edges of adjacent slabs are identical with those employed in the construction of the inner and outer panels or shells of the lower or basementstory and the same description and reference characters therefore apply to corresponding parts as well as the manner of assembling the same. The lower ends of the horizontal row of slabs of the outer panel or shell 85 are held in alinement with each other 'andalso securedagainst displacement relative to the slabs in the outer panel or shell of the lower story by engagement of a horizontal T-shaped lower plate .bar 81 with the correspondingly shaped grooves in the lower ends of the slabs 855 and securing this plate bar 81 to the upper plate bar 69 of the slabs of the outer panel or shell of the lower story, as best shown in Fig. 6. This connection between the upper plate bar 68 and the-lower plate bar 81 is preferably effected by electric welding, as shown in the last mentioned figure.
The horizontal grooves in the upper edges of the several slabs of the outer panel or shell of the upper story wail receives an upper plate bar 88 for holding these slabs in alinementj The horizontal grooves in the lower edges of the several slabs constituting the inner panel or shell 86 of the upper story vertical wall receive a lower plate bar 88 which rests on the floor IOI of the horizontal ground floor wall D, and the horizontal grooves in the upper edges of the several slabs of the inner panel or shell 86 of the upper story vertical wall G are engaged by an upper plate bar which is connected within the upper plate bar 88 of the companion outer panel or shell by means comprising a tie bolt 10, a spacing sleeve II and covering I2, of the character shown in Fig. 6 and the same descriptions therefore apply.
The uppermost portions of the upright wall constituting the parapet H includes a plurality of slabs 9i forming an outer panel or shell and extending from the upper ends of the outer slabs 85 to a place above the roof I32- of the building and 'with each other in like manner.
a plurality of slabs 92 forming an inner-panel or shell and extending from the roof upwardly to a place flush with the'upper ends of the slabs 9| of the outer panel or shell. The grooves in the lower edges of the outer slabs 9| receive a lowerhorizontal plate bar 93 which is secured by welding or otherwise to the upper plate bar 88 of the upper story slabs 85, and the grooves in the lower edges of the slabs 92 receive a lower metal plate bar 94 which rests on the roof of the building. The slabs SI, 92 are constructed, reenfor'ced and 1 connected with each other in the same manner as the corresponding members in the slabs 56, 85
v and 86 of thelower basement story and the upper these slabs, a spacing sleeve 98 surrounding this bolt between said brackets or lugs, and a pro-' tecting covering 99 of concrete surrounding this bolt between said lugs.
Thefirst horizontal wall D of the building forming the ceiling of the basement and the floor of the upper ground story of the same comprises the lower horizontal ceiling panel or plane. I and the upper horizontal floor panel or plane IOI which are spaced apart to form a horizontal air chamber between the same. Each of these planes or panels comprises a plurality of slabs which are constructed and assembled substantially like the slabs forming panels, planes or shells of the upright wall and are 'reenforced and connected Accordingly the slabs of each panel I00, IOI are a row and the opposing edges of adjacentslabs engage each other. These slabs are also interlocked by means of a horizontal slab locking bar I02 crossing the joint between the abutting ends of adjacent slabs and having its opposite longitudinal. edges arranged in grooves I03 in the respective ends of said slabs and said locking bar being provided in its opposite edges with rows of inclined hooks I04 which have wedging engagement with openings I of anchoring bars I06 embedded in the concrete bodies I0'I of these slabs, as best shown in Figs. 26 and 27. The marginal parts of the lower panel or plane I00 formingthe ceiling of the basement rest on the upper ends of the slabs forming the inner panel or plane of the adjacent upright side wall, and the marginal parts of the upper panel or plane IOI forming the floor of the horizontal ground story:
are arranged lengthwise between and connected with the ceiling and floor planes I00, IM and connected with their extremities to the outer arranged in shells of the transverse upright walls of the buildings, and a'plurality of comparatively short transverse girder locking bars I09 connected at their inner ends with the sidemost longitudinal girder bars and at their outer ends with the outer panels or shells of the adjacent upright walls, thereby tying the several units of the building firmly together. Each of the longitudinal girder bars I08 is'constructed of metal in the form of a plate which is arranged upright and projects with its lower edgeinto the joint between the opposing ends of two slabs in the ceiling plane I00 while its upper edge projects into the joint between the opposing ends oi. two slabs in the i0 floorplane IOI, as best shown in Fig. 26. The
girder is able to project into the joints between the horizontal slabs for the purpose described by forming a rabbet or clearance space 48 on the inner longitudinal corner of the slabs so that the" rabbets of adjacent slabs together form a groove which receives the girder bar. Each of the main longitudinal girder bars is provided on its lower and upper edges with rows of inclined coupling hooks IIO which engage respectively with openings HI in the central parts of the locking bars I02 which connect the respective anchoring bars I08of the adjacent abutting, slabs such as those forming the ceiling and floor planes I00, IN, and operate by a wedge action to draw the respective slabs of these panels or planes together upon moving the girder bar lengthwise of the joints between these slabs.- Each end of a main or 1ongitudinal girder bar I08 projects inthe vertical joint between two adjacent slabs of the outer shell or plane of one of the upright walls, a groove, for the reception of the outer end of the girder being provided for. this purpose by the rabbets on the inner corners of the slabs as shown in Fig. 9. Each end of the girder I08 is provided with one or more inclined coupling hooks II2 which engage with openings H3 in the upright locking bar I3 which connects the anchoring plates of the respective slabs, as best shown in Figs. 6 and 25, said hooks operating by a wedge 49 action upon said locking bar to firmly draw the same against the end of the respective girder and hold these members of the building rigidly in position relative to each other.
In order to permit of manufacturing the main ,5 girder bars economically the coupling hooks IIO thereof are formed at regular intervals on .its opposite longitudinal edges while the same is part of a longer stock bar and thereafter the latter is cut into sections of the required length which at times leaves idle hooks H0 in thespace between the irmer and outer upright wall panels, shells or planes, as shown in Figs. 3 and 6. This however is not objectionable as these idle hooks at this time perform no function and may, if
desired, be omitted from the main girder bars.
Each of the short transverse or auxiliary girder bars I08 projects at its outer end into thevertical joint between two abutting slabs of the outer upright wall panel, shell or plane, as best shown (30 in Figs. 23 and 24 and is provided with one or more inclined coupling hooks I'll which engage with openings H5 in the central part of the upright locking bar I8 which connects the anchor ing bars of the respective abutting slabs similar 05 to the manner in which this is done in Fig. 9,-
and the inner end of each short auxiliary girder bar I08 is provided with inclined coupling hooks II8 which engage with openings III in the adjacent sidemost longitudinal girder bar II8 as shown in Fig. 24, thereby serving to retain the outer panel or shell of the respective longitudinal wall in its proper position relative to the other members of the building. To facilitate the mounting of these short auxiliary girder bars each longitudinal edge portion of the ceiling and the building and have the same serve as a metal floor panels or planes I80, IIII is provided with a comparatively narrow auxiliary slab II8 which is connected with the adjacent full or regular width slab by the same meansand in the same manner employed in connecting the'regular hor- 6 izontal slabs with each other and this sidemost longitudinal girder bar H8 is provided at its upper and lower edges with hooks I20 similar to the hook IIO on the other longitudinal girder bars I08, which hooks I20, as shown inFig. 24, 10
engage with openings in an auxiliary locking bar I2I connected on its inner edge with an anchoring'bar I22 embedded in the outer portions of the respective auxiliary slabs in the same manner as this is accomplished by the means for con- 15 necting adjacent horizontal slabs with each other.
In order to stiflfen the girder bars and prevent the same from buckling under the heaviest loads which may be imposed on the same, bracing or bridging means are provided which connect the 20 central parts of adjacent girder bars. This, as shown in Figs. 6, 8 and 19, for example is accomplished by metal brace bars or plates I28 arranged at suitable intervals in the spaces between the main or longitudinal girder bars and each brace 25 bar provided at its opposite ends with coupling hooks I24 which engage with openings I25 in opposing parts of adjacent girder bars.
Means are provided for connecting the main or longitudinal girder bars I08 with the upper and lower platebars 88,88 of the inner panels, shells or planes of the upright transverse walls of the building in order to form a direct mechanism connection between theseveral metal members of 35 skeleton or frame which is self-sustaining and operates as a reliable support for the concrete parts which are associated with the same. Al-' though the means for this purpose may vary, those shown in Figs. 6, 8 and 13 are satisfactory and constructed as follows:
The numeral I28 represents a coupling pin passing upwardly through an opening in one of the edge portions of the T-shaped plate bar 69 and also through the adjacent end of the respective locking bar I02 and having a head I21 at its lower end which bears against the underside of this plate bar. The upper end of the coupling pin I28 is provided with a vertical slot I28 which receives the adjacent lower edge portion of the respective girder bar I08. The numeral I28 represents a retaining cotter pin which passes through the slotted part-oi the coupling pin and the girder bar seated in the slot thereof, thereby 55 directly connecting this plate bar and the girder bar and indirectly connecting the horizontal ceiling and floor panels or planes I00, IOI with th vertical wall panels,- planes or shells.
The upper edge of this main girder bar is con- 0 nected with the lower plate bar 88 of the inner vertical wall panel or planeresting on the floor. panel or plane IOI by means of a coupling I28 and retaining pin I28 in the same manner as the lower edge of this girder bar I08 is connected with as the plate bar 68. except that the coupling pins are reversed to one another, as shown in Figs. 6 and 8. thereby directly connecting the main girder I08 with the plate bar 88 and indirectly connecting the floor, panel or plane IOI with the inner 70 panel or plane "of the respective upright wall.
If the building is comparatively short the slabs forming the ceilings, floors and roof may extend in one piece from one transverse upright outer wall to the other. but if the building is compara- 7g tively long, each of the ceiling, floor and roof panels, planes or shells may be constructed in the form of a plurality of sections, as shown in the ceiling I30 in Fig. 25.
The several elements comprising .the upper horizontal wall E of the building, which in this same and also present a finished and even appearance when completed, for example the notches 60 at the corners of the several slabs are filled with cement so as to cover the head and nuts of the tie bolts 10 and 97 and adjacent metal parts and cement is inserted in the joints between I adjacent slabs and the means for interlocking the same. i
In order to permit the slab locking bars 13 to be drawn in contact with the anchoring bars 6! notwithstanding that the latter are surrounded at intervals by the fastening loops of the reenforcement embedded in the concrete body of each of these slabs, clearance is provided which preferably consists of a plurality of clearance notches 49 formed in the longitudinal edges of the slab locking bars, as best shown inv Fig. 10, which clearance notches receive the outer strands of the loops-. forming part of the sheet of woven wire fabric embedded in the concrete body and securing'this fabric to the slab locking bars, as best shown inv Fig. 16. v
If desired two pairs of upright locking bars 13 forming parts of the inner and outer panels of an upright wall may be connected by a pair of upright flue plates 47 which extend vertically the required extent to form a flue or conduit 46 for the passage air, for heating, cooling or other purposes, as shown in Fig. 2, these flue plates being connected with said upright lo'cking bars by the means employed for connecting the short auxiliary girders I09 with the outer vertical bar 13 and the horizontal bar 109, in Fig. 24.
Instead of providing the building with a fiat roof, as shown in Fig. 8, the same may be provided with a gable roof which is shown in Fig. 20 and constructed as follows: v
The numerals 43l, 3| represent two of the metal rafters forming part of one of the trusses of the roof which rafters rest at their lower outer ends on the upper edges of the outer panels, planes or shells of the opposite upright walls of the building and incline upwardly to the ridge of the roof where the same may be connected in any suitable manner. The lower outer ends of each pair of rafters are connected by a horizontal metal tie bar 432 and a plurality of metal struts I33 and a king post i34-connecting the rafters with the tie bar, these members being connected with each other by electric welding or in any other suitable manner.
On top of the rafters are mounted inclined roof covering slabs I35 which are constructed like the slabs of theupright and horizontalwalls and connected with 'eachother and with the rafters in the same manner as the upright and horizontal slabs, slab locking bars and girder locking bars are connected with each other in Figs-1., 4,
9 and 24. The inclined roof slabs I35 preferably project beyond the outer sides of the outer upright panels, shells or planes of the upright wall so as to form the eaves of the roof and the joint at the ridge of the roof between the upper ends of the opposite inclined roof slabs is spanned by a ridge cover I36 which may be of any approved form and secured in place in any desired manner.
In the building shown in Fig. 20 a ceiling I3! is shown between the underside of the tie bar 432 and the upper ends of the inner panels, shells or planes of the side walls of the building which ceiling ma be constructed of a plurality of slabs which are constructed, supported and connected with each other and adjacent members of the building in the same manner as the ceiling slabs heretofore described and shown.
The interior of the building may be divided into a plurality of rooms by means of upright partitions comprising either a single panel or plane I38, as shown at the right in Fig. 20, or by means of two upright panels or planes I39 spaced apart, as shown at the left in the same figure. Each of these panels or planes may be constructed of "slabs of the character heretofore described and connected with each other in like manner.
As shown in Fig. 20, each of the partition planes I38, I39 is provided in its upper and lower ends with longitudinal grooves containing plate bars I 40 of T-shape cross section and these ends may be secured to the floor and ceiling of the respective room by any suitable means, uch for example, as the means employed for connecting the plate bars 69, 89 with the adjacent girders. In the case of two adjacent partition panels or planes I39 the connection between the same, and the floor and ceiling may be effected at each of the corresponding ends of these planes by means similar to those shown in Fig. 24 and comprising a bolt ill connecting the companion plate bars I40 of these panels or planes, a spacing sleeve M2 mounted on this bolt between said plate bars and surrounded by a covering I d3 of cement, and a retaining pin I 44 passing through this sleeve, bolt and covering and entering an opening in the adjacent part of the respective horizontal slab, as shown in Figs. 20, 21 and 22.
I claim as my invention:
1. A building construction including adjacent structure elements each of which has a concrete body provided with coupling recesses and a reenforcement bar embedded in said body and provided with openings which register with said recesses, and a locking bar arranged between said structure elements and provided with hooks engaging said openings and recesses.
2. A building construction including adjacent structure elements each of which has a concrete body provided with a groove and a row of recesses at the bottom of said groove, and a metal reenforcement bar embedded in said concrete body between said groove and recesses, and a metal locking bar having its opposite edges arranged in the grooves of said bodies and provided with rows of hooks which project through the openings of the respective reenforcement bars and into the recesses thereof, and said hooks having in 'clined faces engaging the edges of the openings in said reenforcement bars.
3. A building construction including a structure member having a concrete body and a reenforcement for said body including bars embedded in said bod adjacent to opposite edges of the same and a sheet of woven wire embedded in said body in line with one pair of corresponding edges or said bars and having fastening loops at cplsite edges oi said sheet which extend around said bars; and said bars being provided with notches which receive said loops. 4. A building construction including a plurality of-upright wall slabs arranged edge to edge and provided on their opposing upright edges with upright grooves and provided in their upper and lower edges with horizontal grooves, upright reenforcement bars embedded in said slabs, a looking bar arranged between the opposing vertical edges of adjacent slabs, horizontal plate bars engaging with the horizontal grooves of said slabs, and fastenings connecting the ends of the vertical locking bars with the adjacent parts of said horizontal plate bars.
5. A building construction including a plurality of upright wall slabs arranged edge to edge and provided on their opposing upright edges with edges with horizontal grooves, upright reenforcement bars embedded in said slabs, a locking bar arranged between the opposing vertical edges of adjacent slabs, horizontal plate bars engaging with the horizontal grooves of said slabs, fastenings connecting the ends of the vertical locking bar with the adjacent parts of said horizontal plate bars, said slabs being provided with notches adjacent to said fastenings for receiving said fastenings. I v
6. A building construction including two panels of slabs arranged in spaced relation and the slabs of each panel being arranged edge to edge, each slab having a concrete body and metal reenforc- 5 ing bars embedded therein adjacent to the opposite edges thereof and provided with openings,
locking .bars arranged between the; opposing edges of adjacent slabs and having hooks engaging with the openings in the respective reenforc- 40 ing bars of said slabs, and each locking bar having coupling openings, and a spacing bar having hooks engaging with the openings. of a corresponding pair of locking bars connected with the two panels of slabs.
'7. A building construction including two panels of slabs arranged in spaced relation and the slabs of each panel being arranged edge to edge, each slab having a concrete body and metal reenforcing bars embedded therein adjacent to the oppo- 50 site edges thereof and provided with openings,
locking bars arranged between the opposing edges of adjacent slabs and having hooks engaging with the openings in the respective reeniorcing bars of said slabs and each locking her having vertical grooves and on their upper and lower a coupling opening, a spacing bar having hooks engaging with the openings of a corresponding pair of locking bars connected with the two panels of slabs, and brace plates having hooking engagement with the central parts of the adjacent spacing bars.
8. A building construction including a plurality of superposed tiers of slabs, plate bars engaging the opposing horizontal edges of said tiers of slabs and connected with each other, means for connecting the slabs in each tier with each other and also with said plate bars comprising reenforcing bars embedded in said slabs, vertical locking bars connecting the reenforcing bars in adjacent slabs, and bolts connecting the ends of the 'locmng bars with said plate bars.
9. A building construction including a plurality of slabs which are arranged in panels which are spaced from one another and each panel having a plurality of slabs which are superposed one above another, horizontal plate bars connected with each other and engaging respectively with the horizontal edges of opposing slabs, and means for connecting the plate bars of one panel of slabs with the plate bars of another panel comprising a spacing tube arranged between the plate bars v of the several panels of slabs, and a tie bolt passing through said spacing tube'and the plate bars of the respective panels of slabs.
10. A building construction including inner and outer Wall panels each of which comprises a pluralityof tiers of slabs, lower ceiling and upper floor slabs arranged one above the other and engaging the tier of said inner panel, means for connecting the slabs in the tier of the outer panel including an upright locking bar, and means for connecting the slabs of the ceiling with the slabs of the floor including a spacing girder bar which is also connected with said locking bar.
11. A building construction including a vertical slab, a horizontal slab engaging the horizontal edge of the vertical slab, a horizontal plate bar connected with the vertical slab, a spacing bar connected with the horizontal slab, and fastening means for connecting the plate bar with said spacing bar comprising a coupling pin having one of its ends passing through said plate bar and provided with a head bearing against said plate bar and having its opposite end provided with a split end which receives said spacing bar, and a cotter pin passing through the split end of said coupling pin and said spacing bar.
mwron M. maxaons'r.