US 2224216 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 10, 1940. C. J; COBERLY 2.224,216
FLUID FLOW GOVERNOR Original Filed April 11, 1934 A 2 Sheets-Sheet l /N VEN TOR Dec. l0, 1940.
c. J. COBERLY 2,224,216
FALUID FLOW GOVERNOR Original Filed April ll, 1934 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 A TroR/VEKS.
rPatented Dec. 10, 1940 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE? to Roko Corporation, of Nevada Reno, Nev., a corporation Original'xapplieations April 11, 1934, Serial No.
720,059, now Patent No. 2,119,736, dated June 7, 1938, and December 16, 1935, .Serial No. 54,557, now Patent No. 2,119,737, dated June 7. 1938. Divided and this application May 6, 1938, Serial 4 Claims.
This is a division` of my copending applications, Serial No. 720,059, :tiled April 11, 1934, now Patent No. 2,119,736, granted June 7, 1938, for Governed fluid operated pump, and Serial No. 54,557, led December 16, l1935, now Patent No. 2,119,737, grantedJune 7, 1938, for System of operating fluid-operated pumps.
Fluid operated pump mechanisms for use in deep wells ordinarily include a fluid motor with a pump unit connected to the moving part `of the iluid motor and being adapted to pump oil from the well up through a tube leading to the top of the well. For operating the mechanism fluid, such as oil, is pumped under relatively high pressure through a tube which connects to the motor of the mechanism. As long as the device is pumping oil from the oil formation in the well, it will operate at a normal speed, but it often-occurs that gas forms in or enters the pump unit so that instead of a liquid being pumped, the
pumping mechanism is operating against a com. pressible gas, the result being that a material portion of the pumping load is removed and the pump then races or operates at high speed until the gas is removed from the pumping unit. Fluid operated deep well pumps, due to space limitations, are customarily of cylinder-piston type, both the iluid motor and the pump unit of the pumping mechanism having cylinders and pistons respectively. When a pump of this character is allowed to race, very great liability of injury is present. For example, the pistons will strike the ends of the cylinders in which they operate, battering the same and upsetting the ends of the pistons, and in some instances breakage of parts may occur.
It is a primary object of the invention to provide a simple form of governor for controlling the ow of a fluid under pressure, which governor operates in response to changes inthe load against which the fluid pressure is working.
It is a further object of the invention to provide a governing device adapted to be placed in a pressure fluid delivery line ahead of the mechanism to which the fluid is being delivered, such governor having a moving body with one face thereof exposed to the pressure of fluid in the delivery tube `and the other face thereof exposed to a pressure which varies in accordance with the pressures existing in the mechanism which receives or is operated by the pressure fluid.
Further objects and advantages of the invention will be made evident throughout the follow- 55 ing part of the speciiication.
(Cl. 137-152)y Referring to the drawings, which are for illustrative purposes only,
Fig. 1 is a vertically sectioned view` showing the governor of the mechanismwith the parts thereof in one operating position.
Fig. 2 is a sectional view similar to Fig. 1, showing the parts in another extreme position of operation. u
Fig. 3 is an enlarged cross section on a plane represented by the line 3--3 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 4 is an enlarged cross section on a plane represented by the line 4-4 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 5is an enlarged cross section on a plane represented by the line 5--5 of Fig. 1.
Fig. 6 is a projection of the upper portion of the movable valve member of the device shown in Fig. 1, showing the relative lengths of the ow controlling channels or oriiices therein.
Fig. 7 is a cross section showing details of construction of an alternative form of differential-pressure control means forming a part of the invention.
Fig. 8 is a section on line 8-8 of Fig. 7. Fig. 9 is a sectional view oi. an alternative form of my invention.
,My pumping mechanismconstitutes a direct improvement over the prior art in the provision of a means for maintaining the delivery of pressure iiuid to the motor element so as to maintain a substantially constant motor speed even when the working load on the pumping mechanism is decreased, thereby preventing the pumping mechanism from racing in such a manner that injury to the pump structure may occur. The means which I employ for this purpose consists of a governor of the character of the governor 20, details of which are shown in Figs. 1 to 6 inclusive. Such governor comprises a tubular shell 2i having a threaded counterbore 22 at its upper end for connection to the lower end 23 of a pressure fluid delivery pipe 23a. The lower portion 24 of the shell -2I is of externally reduced diameter so as to provide a fluid space 25 within the upper end of a discharge tube 26, the upper end of the tube 26 being threaded onto an intermediate portion 2l of the shell 2|. The shell has a `a plane indicated by the bor-e or axial opening 28 consisting of an upper major bore 29 and a lower smaller minor bore 36, the bores 29 and 30 being separated by a radial shoulder 3|. Threaded into the lower end of the minor bore 30 is a plug 32 having a central extension 33 projecting upwardly t"erefrom to serve as a stop for the downward movement oi a' member 34 which is movable in the bores 29 and 30. Below the shoulder 3| the minor bore 30 is provided with llateral ports or openings 35 communicating withthe space of theI discharge tube 26. Slidable within the major bore 29 isa body or piston 36 which in the present form of the invention is directly connected to and forms the upper extremity of the member 34. This body 36 has metering orifices 31 extending from an upper face 38 thereof to a lower face 39 thereof for the purpose of transmitting pressure fluid from the pipe 23a to the space 40 within the major bore 29 below the piston or body 36. The
space 40 is connected by passage means to the.
lower space 4| below the member 34 in the minor bore 30. Such passage means may be conveniently formed from an axial passage 42 extending upwardly from the lower end of the member 34, and a lateral passage 43 connecting the upper end of the passage 42 with the space 40. The pressure of the fluid in the pipe 23a is ap-v plied directly to the upper face 38 .of the body 36, tending to move this body downwardly in the major bore 29. Reacting against this downward pressure is the pressure of fluid against the face 39 of the body 36, the pressure of iiuid against the lower end face 44 of the member 34, and upward pressure of a spring 45 which extends within the lower chamber 4| and between the plug 32 and the member 34. Under normal conditions of operation, that is, with the reciprocating parts of the pump moving at a slow normal rate of speed, the upward pressure against themember 34, which is connected to or includes the piston 36, is slightly in excess ofthe downward pressure exerted by the pressure uid in the pipe 23a so that the member 34 may be held in raised position, as shown in Fig. 1, against a shoulder provided by an inserted ring 46. Should the pressure of fluid upwardly against the member 34 be decreased, as, for instance, by racing of the pump mechanism, the member 34 will move downwardly. The invention provides flow restricting means, or, in other words, velocity and pressure reducing means operating in consequence of the downward movement of the member 34 so that the flow of pressure fluid from the pipe 23a to the delivery pipe 26 will be restricted in volume.
The iiow restricting means which I employ is of simple character and consists essentially of channels or orifices 50 in the member 34 near the upper end thereof but spaced below the body or piston 36. These grooves or orifices 50 lead upwardly from a vertically elongated annular channel 5| in the member 34 and increase in length progressively so that as the member 34 moves downwardly from the position in which it is shown in Fig. l, the entering of the passages 50 into the upper end of the minor bore 30 will cause a gradual reduction in the communication between the space 4l] above the shoulder 3| and the space 52 formed by the channel 5| l of the member 34 in the minor bore 3U. When the member 34 is in its extreme lowered position, against the stop 33, the communication between the space 40 and the space 52 will be restricted to the groove or orifice indicated at\ 53 in Figs. 1, 2, and 6, which is the only one of the grooves 50 which extends entirely to the shoulder 3| which is formed near the upper end of the member 34 in a position confronting the space 40. As shown in Fig. 1, when the pumping mechanism is operating at normal speed, so thatv the pressure in the delivery tube 26 is high. the raised position of the member 34 provides a free communication from the space 40, through the channel 5I and the ports 35, with the space Z5 of the discharge tube 26.
An especial feature of my invention is the provision of a structure wherein the control member 34 moves downwardly in proportion to the difference in pressures existing in the inlet and outlet portions of the governor valve. It will beperceived that as the member 34 moves downwardly, the movement of the orices 58 into the upper end of the minor bore 38 proportionately restricts the escape of uid from the space 40, and that as the restriction of the eS- cape of fluid increases, the pressure inthe spaces 40 and 4|v is increased until such time as the fluid pressures acting upwardly against the member 34 balance the uid pressure acting downwardly thereon. Accordingly, therefore, the reduction in the pressure-of uid in the outlet space 25 of the governor 28 causes a movement of the member 34 downwardly into a ow restricting position controlled by the relative differences in pressure in the pipe 23a and in the discharge tube 26. Any increase in pressure in the discharge tube 26 will be transmitted through the ports 35 and the space 52 to the lower ends of the orifices 50 where the pressure will cooperate with the frictional head produced by the orices 50 to increase the pressure in the space 40, the result being that the'member 34 moves upwardly until a balanced condition of as to connect an outlet pipe 60 therewith. In- Y serted in the bore 51 is a tubular member 6| which is of such length that a chamber 62 is left inthe forward or leitward end of the bore. The leftward end of the tubular member 6| is provided with a' primary bore 63 and with lateral openings 64 communicating with the discharge passage 58. A head 65 closes the leftward end of the bore 51, this head 65 being bolted in place and having an opening 66 in alignment with the bore 51 but being of smaller diameter than the bore to provide a shoulder 61. In crossing relation to the opening 66, the head 65 is provided with an opening 68, in one end of which a valve seat 69l is formed leading through an inlet passage 1| to a flange fitting 10 which is adapted to be bolted to the head 65 for the purpose of connecting an operating fluid header 12 to the inlet passage 1| of the control device 55. The upper or opposite end .of the opening 68 is threaded at 13 to receive a valve member 14 having the lower end 15 thereof tapered for engagement with the valve seat 69. For moving the valve member'14 relative to the seat 69, a
squared stem 16 is provided thereon, which stem 16 extends into a socket 11 formed in a member 18 having a stem 19 which projects within an opening 80 in a cap member 8| bolted on the upper end of the head 65. The stem 19 is prothe cap 8|. To transmit fluid pressure to the inner face of .the member 18, an opening 81 is formed longitudinally through the side portion of the member 14.
Slidable in the leftward end of the bore 51 is a piston member 88 which is secured vto the leftward end of a tubular stem 89 having a pin 90 therein provided with a pointed and diametrally reduced rightward end 9| with radial `open- 10 ings 92 communicating with an axial opening 93 extending to the leftward end of the stem. The openings 92 and 93 provide a passage through which uid may flow from the space 66 into the rightward end of the bore to balance l the fluid pressure applied to the opposite ends of the tubular stem 89. The end 9| of the pin 90 eng-ages a plate 94 which rests against the leftward end of an vadjustment; spring 96 which passes through a rotatable sleeve 91 to a. block 20 98 having a laterally extending pin 99 therein.
is closed at its rightward end and is provided` with an outwardly projecting stem or extension |02 which passes through an opening |03 in a cover plate |04 on the rightward end of the body 56. At a point within the opening |03 the stem |02 is provided with a shoulder |06 which bears against a packing ring |01 which rests against an inwardly faced shoulderl |08 provided by the cover plate |04. The outer end of the stem has a projection |09 prepared for engagement with a wrench adapted to turn the sleeve 91, and a dial plate ||0 may be secured to the stem |02, this dial plate ||0 being set in a recess l i formed in the outer portion of the cover plate l 04 and being calibrated to indicate various settings of the control device. Such calibra- 'tions may be in terms of barrels per day of operating fluid delivered through the outlet pipe 60.
The piston member 88 is provided with open- 56 ings ||2 forming metering oriiices so'that as the iiuid delivered to the device through the inlet passage 1| passes from the opening 66 of Ithe head through the orices ||2 into the chamber 62, there will be a drop in pressure to form 56 a pressure diierential on the inner and outer Sides of the piston member 33 tending to move the pistonmember and the stem 89 rightwardly against the leftward pressure of the spring 96. Fromthe chamber 62 the operating fluid passes en through an annular space ||3 in the leftward end of the tubular member 6| to the radial passages 64 and iinally through the outlet passage 58 to the discharge pipe 60. A wear ring Ht is provided in an inset recess in the leftward end 65 of the tubular member 6|, and the stem 89 and a Valve sleeve member H6 carried thereon have a close sliding t in the wear ring. The pressure differential between the pressure in the opening 66 and the pressure in the chamber 62 70 plus the force exerted by the spring 96 determine the position of the piston 68, the stem 89, and the valve sleeve H6.
` sure tending to move the piston 88 to the left, as seen `in Fig. 7, may be adjusted by rotating the sleeve 91 having`the spiral grooves |00 therein Accordingly, the presto give the desired compression to the spring 96. Any increase in fluid pressure in the pipe 12 will be transmitted to the uid in the opening 66 to increase the force tending to Vmove the piston 88 to the right, and if this force exceeds 5 the leftward counter forces exerted by the fluid pressure in the chamber 62 and by the spring 96, the piston 88 will move to the right. Rightward movement of the piston 88, however, causes the valve sleeve I6 to also move to the right towards 10 a close t with Vthe Wear ring ||4 which tends to close the annular space ||3 normally `between the valve sleeve and the wear ring. Partial closure `of the space ||3 restricts the ilow of fluid from the opening 66 to the radial passages 64, 15 so as to maintain the discharge through the outlet 58 at a substantially constant rate of low.` When the fluid pressure in the opening 66 drops below the leftward pressure exerted by the fluid in the chamber 62 and by the spring 96, the pis- 20 ton 88 will move to the left so as to open the` annular space ||3 to permit an increased ow of fluid therethrough.
Likewise,` ,should there be a reduction in fluid pressure in the pipe 60 and the opening 58, a 25 momentary drop in pressure in the chamber 62 would result, thereby increasing `the pressure differential on the leftward and rightward faces of the piston 88 to cause a similar rightward movement of the piston 88 and the valve sleeve H6. 30
To show the pressure of iluid being delivered into the pipe 60, the control device may be providedwith a pressure gauge ||1. The gauge H1 has an inlet ||8 into which a screw I9 is threaded. Thisscrew ||9 passes through an opening 35 |20 in a connector ring or link |2|. The ends of` the opening |20 are counterbored lto lreceive gasket rings |22 and |23` which respectively er1- gage the lower end of the inlet I8 and a shoulder. |26 formed on the upper part ofthe head of the 40 screw H9. The link |2| has another opening |26 spaced from the opening |20, and a screw |21 passes lthrough the opening |26 into threaded engagement with an opening |28 formed in theA body 56 so as Ito communicate with the pas- 45 sage 56 thereof. The lower end of the opening cape of fluid under pressure.
The screw |21 has an axial opening |36 leading downwardly from the upper end thereof and connecting withlan opening |38 of larger diam- 60 eter which leads upwardly from the lower end ofthe screw |21. The opening |38 has a valve needle |39 threaded therein so as to enter the lower end of thevopening |36, this needle |39 being provided with packing means |40 to prevent leakage therearound. Radial holes |4| lead outwardly from the upper part of the opening |38 to carry fluid under 'pressure into the space |62 in the opening |26 around the body of the P screw |21. From the annular space |32 the iiuid is carried through a hole |43, diagonally drilled in the link |2|, to the annular space |44 formed in the opening |20 around the body of the screw ||9. A radial hole |45 in the screw H9 communicates with an axial opening |66 leading up- 75 wardly to the upper end of the screw ||S to the mechanism of the pressure gauge ||1, not shown, but which may be of yconventional design.4
Another alternative form of ilow governor 55h is shown in Fig. 9. This control member 55h is provided with a body |50 of tubular form internally threaded at its upper end |5| for connection to the lower end of an inlet pipe |48 which carries the operating iluid to the governor 55h. Employing the same principles of construction as the device shown in the preceding gures, the body |50 has an interior space- |52 in which a piston |53 is vertically movable.- This piston |53 has a tube |54 extending downwardly therefrom into the diametrally reduced borev |55 of the body |50- A spring |56, bearing against the lower end of the tube |54, tends to move the tube and piston i |53 upwardly. A pressure differential to move the piston downwardly is produced by metering orices |58 in the piston through which the operating fluid must pass from the chamber |59 above the piston |53 to the chamber |60 formed below the piston |53. An increase in pressure above the ypiston |53, or a decrease in pressure below the piston, will increase the pressure differential and move the piston downwardly against the action of the adjustment spring |56, causing valve openings |6| in the wall of the tube |54 to move downwardly relative" to the upper end |62 of the bore |55, thereby restricting at this point the area of passage for the fluid which passes through the openings I6| and then through radial passages |63 and down through longitudinal passages |64 which extend to the lower end of the body |50 and connect with a chamber |65 in a tubular part |66 threaded at |61 to the lower end of the body |50.
The lower end of the spring |56 rests against an adjusting plug |68 which is screwed into threads |69l at the lower end of the bore |55. The plug |68 has a flattened tongue |10 which projects downwardly through a slot |1|gformed in the upper end of a body |12 which is disposed within the tubular member |66, and which body |12 is threaded into the upper end of the motor which forms a part of the pump unit (not shown). The body- |12 has passages |13 therein through which the operating fluid may ilow from the chamber |65 into the other end of the fluid motor to operate the pump mechanism. 'Ihe body |50 of the control valve and the member |66 thereof are rotatable relative `to the .body 12 which is secured in the upper end of the motor. The adjusting plug |68, being connected through the use of the tongue |10 with the body |12, remains stationary when the inlet pipe |46, and likewise the valve body |56, is turned, with the result that by rotation ofthe valve body |50, the adjusting plug |68 may be caused to screw upwardly or downwardly in the lower `end of the bore |55 so as to change the compression of the spring |56 Y and thereby change the adjustment of the control valve. This form of the control val"e is adjusted by turning the inlet pipe |48 until a desired flow of operating uid is obtained therethrough. Packing means |14 are provided between the body |12 and the member |66 to prevent leakage of fluid from the space |65.
Although I have herein shown and described my invention in simple and practical form, it is recognized that certain parts or elements thereof are representative of other parts, elements, or mechanisms which may be usedin substantially the same manner to accomplish substantially the same results; therefore, it is to be understood that the invention is not vto be limited to the details disclosed herein but is to be accorded the full scope of the following claims.
I claim as my invention:
1. A governor of the 'character described, in-
cluding: a tubular shell having an inlet end and an outlet end, there being a bore in said shell comprising a major bore portion facing the inlet end of said shell and a minor bore portion facing the outlet end of said shell and of less internal diameter than said major bore portion, the inner ends of said bore portions being in open communication; a movable member slidable in said bore, one end of said member making a sliding i'lt in said minor bore portion, said member having a valve head thereon adapted to cooperate with a shoulderformed bythe junction of said major bore portion and said minor bore portion to throttle a ilow of iuid through said bore, said member having a passage therein communicating between said major bore portion and said minor bore portion below the end of said member; a
piston formed on the other end of said member and slidably disposed in said major bore portion, there being orlce means connecting the inlet end of s'aid shell with said major bore portion below said piston; and a spring disposed in said minor bore portion below said member and adapted to normally urge said member toward said inlet end of said shell.
2. A governor of the character described, including: a tubular shell having an inlet end and an outlet end, vthere being a bore in said shell Acomprising a major bore portion facing the inlet end of said shell and a minor bore portion facing the outlet end of said shell and of less internal diameter than said major bore portion, the inner ends of said bore portions being in open communication; a movable member slidable in said bore, one end of said member making a sliding fit in said minor bore portion, said member having a valve head thereon adapted to cooperate with a shoulder formed by the junction of said major bore portion and said minor bore portion to throttle a flow of iluid through said bore, said member having a passage therein communicating between said major bore portion and said minor bore portion below the end of said member; a piston formed on the other end of said member and slidably disposed in said major bore portion, there being orifice means connecting the inlet end of said shell with said major bore portion below said piston; a spring disposed in said minor bore portion below said member and adapted to normally urge said member toward said inlet end of said shell; and means for varying the normal compression on'said spring. l
3. A governor of the character described, including: a tubular shell having an axial open bore therethrough; means for connecting an inlet pipe to an inlet end of said shell and in axial alignment therewith; means for connecting an outlet pipe with an outlet end of said shell and in axial alignment therewith, said inlet and outlet pipes being of substantially the same external diameter as said shell; a movable member slidably disposed in said bore, one end of said member making a sliding t in one end of said bore, the other Vend of said member forming a piston making a sliding fluid-tight fit in the other end of said bore, said member having a valve element intermediate its ends adapted to throttle a flow of fluid through said bore; orice means communicating between said inlet pipe end of said shell and said bore below said piston so as to becapable of impresssliding uidftight lit in the other end of said ing a differential uid pressure across said piston through said orifice means; port means for communicating between said bore below said valve element and an outlet pipe; a plug closing said outlet end of said bore; and resilient means for normally resiliently urging said movable member toward said inlet end.
4. A governor of the character described, including: a tubular shell having an axial open bore therethrough; means for connecting an inlet pipe to an inlet end of said shell and in axial alignment therewith: means for connecting an outlet pipe with an outlet 'end of said shell and in axial alignment therewith, said inlet and outlet. pipes being of substantially the same external diameter as said shell; a movable member slidably disposed in said bore, one end of said member making a sliding fit in one end of said bore. the other end of said member forming a piston making a bore, said member having a valve element intermediate its ends adapted to throttle a now of fluid through said bore and a passage communieating with the space between said piston and said valve element and said outlet end of said bore; oriilce means communicating between said inlet pipe end of said shell and said bore below said piston so as to be capable of impressing aj differential fluid pressure across said piston through said orice means; port means for communicating between said bore below said valveY