US 2224506 A
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R. W. BAILY APPIARATUS FOR PLACEMENT OF CONCRETE Dec. 10, 1940.
Filed April 13, 193s 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 Dety.. 10, 1940. R. w BAlLY I i 2,224,506
APPARATUS FCRPLACEMENT OF CONCRETE Filed April 13, 193e 2 sheets-snaai 2 P'atentedDec.` 10, 1940 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE APPARATUS FOR PLACEMENT F CONCRETE Robert William Baily, Narberth, Pa.
Application April 13, 1936, Serial No. 74,114
. 4 Claims.
My present invention has for one of its objects the provision of an apparatus of simple and inexpensive construction for practicinga method of placement of concrete, which method is dis- 5 closed in my co-pending application Serial Number 698,471, filed November 17, 1933, the present application being a continuation in part thereof.
A further object is to provide an apparatus for use with a grid-like member adapted to reinforce concrete floorshslabs or the like, the4 apparatus being effective to compact concrete into the grid-like member, even into spaces below bottom surfaces of the member so that all voids or air pockets are eliminated and the concrete l5 contacts with the entire surface of the gridlike member exposed to the concrete so that no air or Water can g-et to the metal, thus causing deterioration.
Still a further object is to provide apparatus for vibrating concrete so that it will settle into the interstices of a metal grid-like reinforcing member even though the member itself is quite rigidly mounted, and therefore only semi-susceptible or altogether non-susceptible to vibration.
A further object is, to provide an apparatus for imparting vibrations to the upper surface of plastic concrete in grid-like reinforcing members Without .imparting such vibrations to the grid-like members, whereby the concrete is compacted by the vibrations and rendered more plastic so as to fill all interstices in the grid-like members.
Still a further object is to provide an apparatus for use in connection with non-flowing, unworkable filler concrete deposited in metal grid-like reinforcing members, whereby such concrete may be compacted into the members by the application of vibrations thereto by the apparatus which f renders the concrete fiowableand workable so that it can be so compacted to eliminate voids and air pockets therein.
A further object is to provide apparatus which can also be used in the treatment of a material with or without reinforcement and with or without grid-like supporting structures therefor, to which end I provide one form of apparatus usable upon the upper surface of a material to be treated by propelling the apparatus across the material and allowing all or part of the weight of the apparatus to be imposed upon the material while the apparatus is vibrated.
Another obj-ect is to provide a form of my apparatus provided with downwardly extending fingers so that as the apparatus is positioned in contact with the upper surface of the material to be treated, the fingers are immersed in `the material, and since the iingers partake of the vibrations of the apparatus, they in turn transmit vibrations to the interior of the mate- 5 rial while the apparatus vibrates the material from its upper surface, this apparatus being associatable with the material so that the fingers are immersed without the apparatus resting on the surface of the material if it is desirable to 10 treat the material interiorly by the fingers without imparting vibrations to` the upper surface of the material.,
My invention consists in the provision of apparatus in which the construction, arrangement l5 and combination of the various parts will accomplish the objects contemplated, as hereinafter more fully set forth, pointed out in -my claims, and illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a perspective view of a portion of a grid-like reinforcing member with which my apparatus is used.
Figur-e 2 is a perspective view of another form of grid-.like reinforcing member.
Figure 3 is an enlarged sectional view on the line 3-3 of Figure 1, showing my apparatus in side elevation and being operated to accomplish the iirst step in the method disclosed in my above referred to co-pending application. 30
Figures 4 and 5 are similar side elevations showing additional steps in practicing the method.
Figure 6 is a sectional view on the line 6-6 of Figure 2, showingconcrete in place after my method of placement Vhas been practiced on the grid-like member of Figure 2.
4Figure 7 is a front elevation of a modied form of apparatus.
Figure 8 is a diagrammatical end elevation of 40 Figure 7.
Figure 9 is a front elevation of an apparatus similar to that shown in Figure 7 with an in-` ternal combustion engine being used as the mo- 45 tive power instead of an electric motor.
Figure 10 is an end elevation of Figure 9, parts being broken away and other parts being shown in section.
Figure 11 is a front elevationy of another modi- 50 fied form of apparatus provided with ngers to extend into the concrete or other material to be treated.
Figure 12 is an end elevation of the same.
Figure 13 isv a diagrammatical end elevation 55 showing a different manner of using the apparatus shown in Figures 1l and 12.
Figure 14 is a front elevation showing a different manner of mounting manipulating handles on the apparatus; and
Figure 15 is an end elevation of same.
On the accompanying drawings I have used the reference numeral I8 to indicate a supporting beam such as used under concrete floor slabs or the like either in buildings, bridges or other structures.
A grid member is indicated generally by the reference character A and comprises T irons II having notches I2 receiving bars I4. The bars I4 are arranged on edge as illustrated, and their ends may be bent as indicated at I5 to retain them in position.
Grid-like members of the form illustrated and also other forms are built up of steel shapes into which is placed concrete to fill the interstices and to form the top wearing surface of a floor or slab. In some cases, the upper edges or surfaces of the grid-like member A are allowed to remain at the top surface of the concrete to assist in resisting the wear of traiiic, for instance, on bridges and viaducts. In all cases, the concrete is relied upon to furnish the ller between the various elements of the grid-like member, to furnish or assist in furnishing the top wearing surface and to contribute a large proportion of the strength of the slab against deflection from superimposed loads.
Obviously, to obtain the greatest total strength from the combination of metal and concrete, it is essential that the concrete make intimate contact with all the surfaces of the metal grid-like member and that the concrete itself have the greatest possible density, not only to give the concrete the greatest possible inherent strength, but also to prevent the ingressof water or other destructive agents against the surfaces of the metal to eliminate the possibility of corrosion.
In the construction of such slabs it has been found to be exceedingly difficult to place the concrete in a manner that will exclude voids and air pockets in the mass and to bring the concrete into intimate contact with the metal, especially in concave corners of the metal and beneath cross bars thereof. Ramming the concrete by hand or with impact hammers or the like, or manipulating its upper surface with frictional oats or trowels, does not satisfactorily accomplish the desired result. In most grid-like systems, vibrations applied to the grid do not accomplish the desired effect since the grids are rigidly attached to heavy supports which do not allow the concrete to be vibrated and also the grid is too rigid and heavy for vibrations to be imparted to it so that it will vibrate the concrete, causing it to settle into the interstices of the grid.
My method of placing concrete in the grid-like member involves simultaneous surface manipulation of the concrete and the application of vibration to the mass of concrete placed upon the grid-like system without necessarily vibrating the grid itself, thus forcing the concrete down into the interstices of the grid, into all the corners thereof, into intimate contact with all surfaces thereof and beneath all cross bars, while at the same time allowing the use of a dryer and harsher concrete and the use of larger coarse aggregate in the mixture. All of these factors produce the most nearly perfect combination having the greatest combined strength and wear resistant qualities when the slab is completed.
-rounded leading edge 20.
'from discharge chutes or the like.
In fact, my method will permit the satisfactory placement of concrete which would otherwise be non-flowing and unworkable.
,My apparatus comprises a vibrator plate I6 having a vibrator mechanism B thereon and a handle I8 for manually manipulating the plate I6. The plate I6 preferably has a beveled or The vibrator mechanism B may consist of an electric motor 22 or other power unit, means for mounting the vibrator mechanism on the plate I6, such as by a casing 24 and an off-center weight 26 on the shaft of the motor. The casing 24, as illustrated, houses the off-center weight 26.
It will be obvious that rotation of the motor shaft, causing rotation of the volf-center weight 26 will impart vibration tothe vibrator plate I6. The eil'ective weight of the vibrator can be increased by supporting plate-like weights 28 thereon, the number of which can be varied. These are preferably supported iioatinglyl for instance, by mounting them slidably on supporting rods extending from the upper surface of the vibrator plate I 6 and arranging springs 32 and 34 on the rods.
'Ihus the plates 28 are supported so that their weight is effective to increase the weight of the vibrator unit, yet the vibrator mechanism does not have to overcome the inertia of the plates 28 and move them up and down each revolution of the motor shaft. Since the shaft rotates, there will also be horizontal vibration of the plate I6 as well as vertical and this is prevented from being transmitted to the weights 28 by the rods 30 bending as illustrated in an exaggerated manner in Figure 8.
The plates thus produce a continuous downward pressure but without absorbing any considerable proportion of the vibratory energy.-
The weights 28 and 28a being in non-rigid relation to the plate I8, which may be considered a base, continuously impose their weight as' a gravity load upon the plate without substantial resistance to the vibration of the plate. The vibrator is preferably driven at a speed which is out of resonance with the load, the speed being preferably high in order to effectively increase the iiowability of the concrete.
In practicing the method for which my apparatus is designed concrete 36 is deposited in the grid-like member A (see Figure 3) by shovels or Enough is deposited in thegrid-like member to fill it with some surplus for manipulation. The concrete is preferably somewhat dry for obtaining maximum strength since sloppy concrete does not have the requisite strength even though it could be used and would eliminate the diiiculty of having voids and air pockets, as indicated at 38 and 40 respectively, because it can flow into the interstices without difliculty.
With respect to the illustration of the concrete, it is shown as sectioned with stippling to indicate the sand, gravel, crushed stone or other aggregate in the concrete so as not to confuse the concrete with the air pockets 40.
After deposit of the concrete or while it is being deposited, the vibrator plate I6 is preferably propelled manually across the concrete in an inclined position, with the vibrator mechanism B in operation so as to drive the air out of the air pockets and voids and with the inclination tending to force the concrete down between the T irons II and the bars I4 as well as under the bars.
I have found it advisable to propel the vibrator plate I6 across the concrete to drive out the major portion of the air, as shown in Figure 3, then back it up and propel it across once more to drive out the remaining air, as shown in Figure 4.
There should be enough concrete so that during both of these operations the vibrator plate I6 does not come in contact with the grid-like member so that only the concrete is vibrated and thereis no possibility of the vibrator tending to vibrate the grid-like member. By contact therewith, the apparatus will perform its function even if it rests directly upon the grid-like structure, for in this position it will cause the grid-like member to vibrate, such vibrations being transmitted to the concrete by the grid-like member to cause the concrete to flow to position filling all void spaces and eliminate any trapped air and surplus water. Figure 5 the plate I6 is illustrated in contact with the grid-like member A and the vibrator B can be operated in this position to thus impart vibrations to the grid-like member. l
After the steps of Figure 3 and Figure 4, the remaining concrete can be trowelled off by the vibrator plate I6 drawing it in a reverse direc'- tion, as indicated by the arrow in Figure 5, with the vibrator mechanism in operation. This last operation eliminates stripping off or trowelling by hand to obtain a smooth surface and the concrete is left in position untouched and undisturbed. Hand ieveuing would tend to tear and In Figure 6, I have'shown lhow the concreteplaced by my method fills the space between the bottom edges of the bars I4a and thebottom plates I'I. Likewise, in the form of grid shown in Figure 1, the space between the bottom edges of the bars I4 and the horizontal iianges of the T irons II will be filled.
The apparatus shown in Figures 9, 10, 14 and l5 may or may not be provided with downwardly extending fingers 45. In these figures I have indicated the fingers with dotted lines.
In Figures 9 and 10 I have shown a modified form of apparatus provided with oating weight producing members 28 and 28a. The weight 28a may be removed atwhich time the mass of the weight 28 will be less than the weight of the plate I6. total mass of the weights 28 and 28a will equal that of the plate I6. Additional weights 28a may be used so that the total mass of the weights will exceed that of the plate I6. Likewise the total mass of the weights may be so selected that it will be in resonance with the period of vibration of the plate I6 or.out of resonance therewith as desired. It is obvious that the same objects may be obtained by various combinations of the weight 28 with one or more weights 28a.
In F-igures 9 and 10 I have also illustrated the prime mover such as an internal combustion engine 4I carried on the weight 28a, although it could be otherwise supported as on the plate I6, as shown in Figure 7L The object of supporting For instance, in I With the weight 28a in place, the
the prime mover on the weight 28a is to furnish a means for damping the transmission of vibrations from the plate I6 or the vibrator mechanism 24 to the prime mover 4I. Power is transmitted from the prime mover to the vibrator mechanism by means of a exible, and preferably.
elastic, belt 42 engaging a'drive pulley 43 on the prime mover and a driven pulley 43a on a shaft 44 journalled in the vibrator housing 24. This shaft has the out-of-balance /welght 26 secured to it.
In Figures 9 and 10 I have also shown the manipulating handles I8 connected to the weights 26 and 28a for the purpose of damping the transmission of vibrations from the vibrator 24 and the plate I6 to the handles.
If desired the downwardly extending fingers 45 may be secured to the lower surface of the plate I6, as shown in Figures 1l, 12 and 13. These are attached to the plate by means of bolts 46, so that when the Vvibrator mechanism 24, mounted on the plate, operates, the Vibrations imparted to the plate will be communicated to the ngers 45 and from the fingers 45 to the material 36, causing the material to thereby be vibrated. Likewise, the plate I6 being in contact with the upper surface 36a of the material will limpart vibrations directly to'the material. Since the out-of-balance weight 26 rotates, the vertical movements imparted thereby to the plate I6 will cause the plate to vibrate the material 36, while the horizontal vibrations imparted thereto will cause the fingers 46 to impart vibrations to the material, whereby the material has vibrations imparted to it both from above externally and from the fingers internally.
In Figure A13 I have shown the bottom plate I6 out lof contact with the surface of the material 36 and the lower ends of the fingers 45 as en gaging a sub-grade 48. In some uses of the apparatus lt may be advisable to have the fingers submerged in the concrete without the plate I6 being in contact therewith, and in other instances to further have the lower ends of the fingers contacting with the sub-grade as shown in Figure 13. Figures 11, 12 and 13 have reference to the placing of concrete on a sub-grade. whereas the concrete can also be placed in the containing forms shown in Figures 1 and 2 andthe lower ends oi the fingers 45 engaging the form instead of the sub-grade as shown in Figure 13.
In Figures 14 and/15 I show a modification wherein Ithe handles I8 are attached to the plate I6 by fiat, horizontal, flexible belts 5`I attached by suitable brackets 52 to the plate I6. The handles I8 are attached to the belts 5I intermediate the brackets 52. Due to the action of the out-of-balance weight 26, the plate I8 will have /lateral movements, but the belts 5I having lateral flexibility will damp out the vibrations loefore they reach the handles I6. Likewise the vibrations caused by up and down movement of the plate I6 will, because of the vertical flexibility of the belts 5l, be damped before they reach the handles I8.
Instead of a flat bottomed vibrator plate I6 as illustrated I may use other shapes of vibrating devices to compact the concrete, such as vibrating rollers or the like as shown in my Patent No. 1,876,271 and in the Baily and Gage Patent No. 2,025,703, or other appropriate devices.
The change just suggested in the apparatus and other modified forms of structure or mechanical equivalents might be used without departing from the real spirit and purpose of my invention and the method of agitating the concrete by vibration can be performed with various apparatus I have not disclosed and still be reasonably included within the scope of my claims.
I claim as my invention: l v
1. Apparatus for compacting material which becomes plastic when vibrated, comprising a member having a substantially flat under surface adapted to rest on the top of and cover the material being treated and transmit= vibrations thereto, a seri of fingers secured to the under surface of the member and projecting downwardly therefrom a substantial distance, a weight made up of a series of separately removable parts, yieldable means for supporting the weight on the member, and mechanism for imparting vibrations to the member, and through it to the fingers, whereby when the member rests on the material with the fingers immersed in the material, the material is subjected to surface vibration and to internal vibrations in directions some of which are horizontal for a substantial depth while under pressure. l
2. Apparatus for compacting material which becomes plastic when vibrated, comprising animperforate member having a substantially -fiat under surface adapted to rest on the top of the material and transmit vibrationsthereto, a series of -ngers secured to the under surface of the member and projecting downwardly .therefrom a substantial distance, and mechanism for imparting vibrations to the member, and through it to the fingers, whereby when the member rests on the material with the fingers immersed in the material, the wholly covered material is subjected to surface vibration and to internal vibrations in directions some of which are horizontal for a substantial depth while under pressure, and a weight imposed upon but fioatlngly supported relative to said member but-out of resonance therewith,
whereby continuous pressure is transmitted there- A through to the material thereby assisting in the compaction ofthe material.
3. Apparatus for compacting material which becomes plastic when vibrated, comprising a member having a substantially flat under surface adapted to rest on the top of the material and transmit vibrations thereto, a series of fingers secured to the under surface of the member and projecting downwardly therefrom a substantial distance, said member having substantial weight, mechanism for imparting vibrations to the member, and through it to the fingers, whereby when the member rests on the material with the ngers immersed in the material, the material is subjected to surface vibration and to internal vibrations in directions some of which arehorizcntal for a substantial depth while under pressure, a prime mover associated with said vibrator mechanism, flexible means for transmitting power from said prime mover to said mechanism, means for damping the transmission of vibrations from the mechanism to the prime mover, said prime mover being of substantial weight, means for suspending the prime mover in resilient relation above the vibrator member whereby to impose continuously its weight as a supplemental gravity load upon the member without substantial resistance to-the vibration of the member, and means for propelling said apparatus over and through the 'material to be vibrated.
4. A unitary mobile apparatus for compacting material which becomes plastic when vibrated having a flat' faced member adapted to rest on and wholly cover a definite area of surface of such material and adapted to be moved about on such surface during operation, vibrators extending downwardly from the underside of the member for a substantial distance, said vibrators being slender to permit free movement of the member over the surface of the material and being adapted to be moved with said member, a vibratory mechanism for imparting vibration to the member and to the vibrators, some of which vibrations are substantially horizontal, said mechanism being mounted to impose its weights on the member so that portions of the material may be conveniently successively subjected to vibrations applied simultaneously to the material and to the surface of the material while such portions are covered and subjected to surface pressure.
. ROBERT WILLIAM BAILY.