US 2225178 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Dec. 17, 1940. s; w. NICHOLSON CONCEALED DOOR HINGE 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed Feb. 11, 1938 Dec. 17, 1940. I s w; c o so 2,225,178
CONCEALED DOOR HINGE Filed Feb. 11, 1938 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 9 arm/6 l V/V/a/70/50/7 Dec. 17, s. w. NICHOLSON CONCEALED DOOR HINGE 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Feb. 11, 1938 Jib/2k; l l/M/rolson Dec. 17, 1940. s. w. NICHOLSON CONCEALED DOOR HINGE Filed Feb. 11, 1938 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 'FJE: 5.
gjwve/ntom 5722/7/11 W Nicholson Patented Dec. 17, 1940 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CON CEALED DOOR HINGE Application February 11, 1938, Serial No. 189,991
This invention relates to door hinges particularly adapted for use on vehicles but of much wider application and is particularly concerned with hinges of the so-called concealed type which are out of sight when the door is in closed position, thus distinguishing particularly from the so-called butt hinges which, when the door is closed, project outwardly and are objectionable and unsightly in appearance.
Numerous concealed hinges for automobile doors have heretofore been designed but none of them so far as I am aware has been entirely satisfactory. Among the objections to existing hinges of this type are .the sizable expense of manufacture, the exceedingly complicated structure involving the use of links and slides, and the necessity for cutting out or removing substantial portions either of the door structure or the supporting frame.
This invention overcomes the above dii'ficulties by producing a concealed door hinge which is exceedingly simple in construction, sturdy and reliable in operation, relatively inexpensive to manufacture and install without cutting or removing substantial areas of the door or frame. Contrary to the operation of many door hinges, the hinge in accordance with this invention does not impart such a strain on the frame as to distort it, thereby militating against the door becoming sprung or otherwise distorted.
An object of this invention is therefore to produce a new and improved concealed door hinge which is simple in construction, reliable in operation, inexpensive .to manufacture, convenient to install and has the novel features of construction and operation hereinafter described.
For purposes of illustration but not of limitation, embodiments of the invention are shown on the accompanying drawings in which Figure 1 is a side elevation of an automobile door showing the concealed hinges in dotted lines;
Figure 2 is a vertical end elevation showing the relative arrangement of the two hinges;
Figure 3 is an enlarged elevation of a portion of the door and its frame with a portion broken away to show a hinge member and the bearing socket members therefor;
Figure 4 is a side elevation of a hinge member;
Figure 5 is an end edge view of the hinge member, showing particularly the relative angular position of the connector arm with respect to the crank and stem portions;
Figure 6 is an enlarged transverse sectional view substantially on the line 8-6 of Figure 3;
Figure '7 is a vertical sectional elevation substantially on the line 'l-! of Figure 6;
Figure 8 is a fragmentary end elevation of the socket bearing member secured to the door;
, Figure 9 is a vertical sectional elevation substantially on the line 9-9 of Figure '7 Figure 10 is a transverse sectional view on the line I-l0 of Figure 7, diagrammatically illustrating the swinging movement accomplished by the door; 1
, Figure 11 is a side elevation of an automobile door showing an alternate form of concealed door hinge;
Figure 12 is a vertical end elevation showing the relative position of the hinge members;
Figure 13 is an enlarged fragmentary elevation of a portion of the door and frame broken away to show in sectional elevation the hinge structure;
Figure 14 is a side elevation of one of the hinge members shown on Figures 11 to 13;
Figure 15 is an enlarged transverse sectional elevation on the line l! 5 of Figure 13;
Figure 16-is a vertical sectional view substantially 'on the line IBIE of Figure 15; and
Figure 17 is a sectional view substantially on the line l'l-I'l of Figure 16 and diagrammatically illlustrating the arc of swinging movement of the connector arm.
The illustrated embodiment of the invention shown on Figures 1 to comprises an automobile door IU provided with the usual latch operating handle II and window glass 12, the door being mounted in the frame formed in the vehicle body I3 for swinging movements about a substantially vertical axis to and from closed position. The vehicle body 13 has a vertically disposed panel or pillar l 4 and ordinarily the hinges for connecting the door and body are connected respectively to the pillar l4 and adjacent portion of the door in the form of a vertical panel or pillar I5 integral with the door, the body being recessed at l6 and an overlapping flange l1 covering the space between the door and the frame. I Two vertically spaced hinges I8 connect the door to the body and enable the door to swing to and from closed position in the desired man-- ner. As will hereinafter appear, these hinges do! not have to be exactly in alignment with each other, and this is a distinct improvement over the usual butt hinges whose axes must be in exact alignment for the door to swing properly.
Within limitations, the'hinges I8 can be disposed:
out of axial alignment Without adversely affecting the Swinging movement of the door. The
hinges l8 are identical in construction and each comprises a stem portion it which inclines upwardly and outwardly from the body pillar M, a downwardly and outwardly inclined crank arm 20 which is integral with the upper end of the stem l9 and a connector arm 2i which is integral with the lower end of the crank arm 20 and extends outwardly therefrom. The stem portion or bearing arm 59 is rotatably mounted in an elongate bearing socket 222 formed in a bearing member 23 which is secured on the inside of the body pillar i l by screws 23. The arm 59 is round in cross section and is adapted to rotate in the socket 22, the lower end bottoming against the lower end of the socket or if desired, a Washer 3d disposed therein as illustrated in Figure 16. The crank arm 20 is disposed in the space between the body pillar l4 and door panel E5. The connector arm Si is round and, as shown, inclines upwardly into a bearing socket 25 formed in a bearing member 2% which is secured to the inside of the door panel or pillar [5 by screws 21.
It will be observed that openings preferably oval in shape are formed in the pillars l4 and 15 to receive the arms 19 and 2| respectively. The socket 25 laterally is of a dimension to fit nicely the round connector arm 2| but in a vertical direction is elongate as shown on Figure 8. The upper and lower sides of the socket 25 taper downwardly to the lower end of the socket to substantially the circumference of the arm 2|, thereby enabling the outer end portion of the arm 2! to have limited rocking movement in a vertical direction for a purpose which will hereinaiter appear. The connector arm ii is held in position by a washer 28 on the outer end thereof which engages the outer side of the bearing member 26.
As shown, the stem portion or bearing arm [8 is inclined at about 30 from .the vertical and the depending crank arm 23 forms with the arm 59 an angle of the order of 39. The connector arm 2i forms with the crank arm 20 an angle of approximately 80. It is important that the connector arm 2i be out of parallel with respect to the arm l9 and although an angle of 80 between the crank arm ill and connector arm 2i operates satisfactorily, and is desirable because it provides a hook support or mounting for the door and takes away the load or thrust upon the washer 28, that angle can be varied within certain limits. I found that the more closely the connector arm 2i approaches the crank arm 29, the more restricted will be the door opening movement.
As above mentioned, however, it is important that the arms l9 and 2| be non-parallel with respect to each other because in their parallel relation, swinging movement of the door to open it in the desired manner cannot be effected. With the connector arm 2i disposed at substantially right angles with respect to the crank arm 20, a door swinging, movement of substantially 90 can be obtained but ordinarily in the case of vehicle doors, an opening movement of between 70 and 80 is considered adequate .and with the connector arm 2i disposed at an angle of approximately 80 relative to the crank arm, a door opening movement of approximately 72 is obtainable. It is not imperative that. the stem portion or bearing arm ill be disposed at an angle of 30 with respect to the vertical and that should not be considered a critical'angle but by experience, the bearing arm disposed at a 30 angle has been found to be entirely satisfactory for'effecting the desired door swinging movement. It should also be mentioned that the relative lengths of the arms and the angles which they form within the limits above defined can be varied but experiments have established that a hinge as shown and above described operates entirely satisfactory to effect the desired door swinging movement.
As shown on Figure 5, the arms l9 and 20 are in alignment with each other but the connector arm 2! is inclined laterally. This inclination is desirable only because it lessens the movement of the arm 2| within the socket 25. The amount of inclination of the arm 2| is limited by its nearness to the upholstery. If the upholstery did not interfere, it would be desirable to increase the inclination of this arm. This is most clearly illustrated on Figure 6 which shows that the socket bearing 26 for the arm 2! terminates close to the inside of the door. As the door swings to and from closed position, a slight vertical rocking movement of the arm 21 in the socket 25 takes place but such movement is diminished when the arm 2i is laterally inclined as above described.
In the movement of the door to and from closed position, it should be understood that the stem or bearing 99 rotates in its socket bearing 23 and also the connector arm 2! rotates in its socket bearing 26 as well as having a slight rocking movement therein as above indicated. During this movement, the crank arm 20 swings through an arc of approximately 60 but the door is enabled to swing through approximately an arc of 72 in the form shown. This additional 12 of door swinging movement is obtained because of the angularity of the parts and the compensating action of one part with respect to another.
The form of the invention shown in Figures 11 to 17 is similar to the hinge above described, and has a stem or bearing arm lSa which is disposed at an approximately 30 angle with respect to the vertical and is rot-atably socketed in a bearing member 23a secured by screws 24a to the body pillar Me of the vehicle body ISa. The crank arm 20a which is integral with the upper end of the arm Isa extends downwardly similar to the arm 2i! but, as particularly shown in Figure 14, widens out materially at its lower end to provide laterally spaced integral bearing bosses 29. In the space between the bosses 29 is an annular bearing sleeve 30 the bore of which aligns with the bores of the bosses 29. A pin 3| extends through the bores of the bearing bosses 29 and sleeve 3t, and about which the sleeve 30 is adapted to rock. Integral with the sleeve 30 is a connector arm 32 which is in screw-threaded engagement with the socket bearing member 33 secured by screws 34 to the'pillar 35 of the door Illa. It will be observed that the connector arm 32 is disposed at substantially right angles to the crank arm 20:: which, as above pointed out, enables the door to swing through approximately an arc of 90. The connector arm 32 rotates in the bearing member 83 during its swinging movement to and from closed position, the screw threads causing it to move slightly in and out of the bearing 33 but these threads also function to hold the connector arm against undesirable axial movement. Portions of the door and frame pillars are suitably embossed inwardly to accommodate the parts.
Attention is called to Figure 17 which diagrammatically illustrates the manner in which the connector 32 swings during the door-openingmovement. It will be observed that it swings relatively to the crank arm 29a and also rotates relative to the bearing 33. Since the angularity of the parts and the relative lengths of the arms is similar to that hereinbefore discussed, further description is not considered necessary.
From the above description, it will be apparent that I have produced an exceedingly simple hinge which in one instance comprises merely a onepiece round bar forging which can be produced for an extremely low cost and because of its inherent simplicity of construction can be easily installed and in operation there is virtually nothing to get out of order, adjustment or alignment. The socket hearing members manifestly can be inexpensively manufactured and installed and adequately support the hinge parts. Thus, a hinge of this character fully satisfies the objects primarily enumerated and satisfactorily overcomes objections and difficulties heretofore experienced in connection with concealed door hinges.
It is to be understood that the invention is not limited to hinges for vehicle bodies but can be used in many other places and it will be also understood that changes in details of construction and operation may be effected without departing from the spirit of the invention especially as defined in the appended claims.
What I claim is:
1. A hinge for connecting door and frame parts comprising a stem portion obliquely socketed in one part for rotation therein and extending therefrom into a space provided between the edges of said parts when the door is closed, a crank portion rigid with said stem portion and forming therewith an acute angle, and a connector portion extending substantially horizontally from said crank portion at a level below the upper end of the stem portion and rotatably socketed in the other part.
2. A hinge for connecting door and frame parts comprising a stem portion obliquely socketed in one part for rotation therein and extending therefrom into a space provided between the edges of said parts when the door is closed, a crank portion rigid with said stem portion and forming therewith an acute angle, and a connector portion extending substantially horizontally and away from said crank portion and rotatably socketed in the other part, the axes of said stem and connector portions being disposed at an angle and out ofparallel relationship to each other.
3. A hinge for connecting door and frame parts comprising a stem portion obliquely socketed in one part for rotation therein, a crank portion rigid with said stem portion and forming therewith an acute angle, and a connector portion pivoted to said crank portion and extending substantially horizontally into rotatable socketed engagement with the other part.
4. A hinge for connecting door .and frame parts comprising a socket bearing connected to one part inclining longitudinally relative thereto, a rod-like stem portion having a nice rotatable fit in said socket bearing, a crank portion with its upper end rigid with the outer end of said stem portion and forming therewith an acute angle, a socket bearing in the other part, and a rodlike connector portion extending substantially horizontally from the lower end of said crank portion and in screw-threaded engagement with said last socket bearing.
5. A hinge for connecting door and frame parts comprising a stem portion, a crank portion integral with one end of the stem portion and forming an acute angle therewith, and a connector portion hinged for movements to and from said crank portion and disposed to provide an angle of the order of relative to said crank portion when the door is closed, and screw-threads on said connector portion.
6. A hinge for connecting door and frame parts comprising a rod-like stem portion obliquely socketed in one part for rotation therein and extending therefrom into a space provided between the edges of said parts when the door is closed, a crank portion with its upper end rigid with the outer end of said stem portion and forming therewith an acute angle, and a rod-like connector portion pivoted to said crank portion at its lower end and extending substantially horizontally into rotatable socketed screw-threaded engagement with a socket bearing on the other part.
7. A hinge for connecting door and frame parts comprising a stem portion obliquely socketed in one part for rotation therein and extending therefrom into a space provided between the edges of said parts when the door is closed, a crank portion integral with said stem portion and forming therewith an acute angle, and a connector portion pivoted to said crank portion and extending substantially horizontally into rotatable engagement with the other part.
STANLEY W. NICHOLSON.