|Publication number||US2228503 A|
|Publication date||Jan 14, 1941|
|Filing date||Apr 25, 1939|
|Priority date||Apr 25, 1939|
|Publication number||US 2228503 A, US 2228503A, US-A-2228503, US2228503 A, US2228503A|
|Inventors||Frank C Boyd, Burns Erwin, Ford A Pilgrim|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (104), Classifications (9)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Jan.14, 1941. B Y 2,228,503
LINER HANGER Filed April 25, 1939 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTORS Frank GBogd, Erwin Burns BY and Ford'A.Pi1gr'im ATTORNEY.
Jan. 14, 1941.
'F. c. BOYD ETA;
LINER HANGER Filed April 25, 1939 'lllglllllll m.
2 Sheets-Sheet 2 NVENIDRS 1 Frank C.Boyd, Erwin Burn;
- and Ford API'Igr im BY I A TTORNEY.
Patented a... 14,1941
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
Frank 0. swam: mgr-fits. Erwin Burns. 2
Los Angcles, and Ford'A. Pilgrim, Santa Monica, Calif.; said Burns and said Pilgrim assignors to said Boyd Application April 25, 1939, Semi No. zaasas 19 Claims.
This invention relates to hangers employed for suspending pipe, tubing or casing within cased well bore holes. The 0st frequent use of the hanger is for suspen ng a perforated liner within a producing formation from the lower portion of a previously set well casing.
Liner hangers, as ordinarily constructed, employ a plurality of wedges or serratedslips to 'grip the inside silrface of the well casing, the said wedges being retained in position on the outside of the hanger body only by means of relatively ,long' flexible steel strips or reins.
1 These reins are often subject to breakage allowing the slips to drop in the well hole.
It is an object of this invention to eliminate this defect associated with the conventional hanger by providing positivenieans to prevent the breakage and loss of the slip and to insure the retention of the slip within the hanger body.
The conventional liner hanger relies upon relatively long cage springs to force the slips into contact with the casing and this necessitates providing an excessively long hanger body for their accommodation. Another disadvantage of the use of-exposed cage springs is that when the liner or casing is being lowered,- the cage springs often come into rubbing contact with the 1 well casing wall resulting in burning the springs by the friction to the extent that they are rendered inoperative to actuate the slips when the hanger has been lowered to the position within the well, where it is to be landed. It is another object of this invention to eliminate the exposed cage springs and to utilize substantially enclosed springs which are protected from rubbing contact with the well casing.
Casing hangers, as conventionally constructed, are also usually provided with a conically shaped portion within the body upon which the slips move to the gripping or wedging position between the said conical surface and the inside surface of the well casing. The inside surface of'the slip which bears upon the cone, being necessarily also conical in contour, cannot make firm contact throughout its entire surface upon the said conically shaped portion of the hanger body while .at the same time be free to slide longitudinally into contact with the casing. Hence the slips are usually improperly and unevenly supported by the cone and, therefore, are subject to bending and crushing forces which often result in' their breakage and subsequent loss in the well bore hole.
It is, therefore,an object of this invention to (on. ice-4) slip and the hanger body which is cylindrical in contour and which, by reason of this, insures complete and uniform mutual contact at all times during operation thus minimizing the damage to the-slip and the casing upon which it grips.
, Another object of this invention is to provide a casing hanger which can be actuated at any position within the well casing and without the necessity-of setting the weight of the liner upon the bottom of the well bore hole. 1 Other objects and features of.the invention will be enumerated hereinafter. Referring to the drawings which illustrate a preferred embodiment of the invention, Figure 1 is an *elevationof the general assembly of the liner hanger in partial cross-section showing one form of releasing tool and supp rt in place in the well casing. Figures 2, 3 and 4 are crosssections taken at 2-2, 3-3 and 4-4, respectively, in Figure 1-. Figure 5 is a fragmentary enlarged cross-section detail of the liner hanger illustrates a releasing tool adapted to be operated by drilling fluid pressure, and Figure 10 illustrates a' releasing tool adapted to be operated by a weight which is dropped through the drill pipe. Figure 11 illustrates an enlarged cross section detail view of an optional arrangement for operating thehangerslips. a
The apparatus, referring particularly Figures 1-7, is as follows. The liner hanger with a length of perforated liner attached is shown lowered to the landing or setting position with-' in a well casing I 0,-set and cemented in-a well bore hole at H in a formation i2, overlying a producing zone illustrated at is. The liner hanger body Iii carries at its lower threaded end is ,the perforated liner l8 which extends downwardly in the bore hole into the producing for mation. A drill pipe tool joint 20 is shown at? tached at 21 to the upper end 'of a square mandrel 22 which is slidably mounted within the hanger body and terminates at its lower end in a threaded connection to. a mandrel nut 23 having an upper-sloping or truncated conical shaped face 24., lower internal threads, at 25 to which a length The mandrel nut 23 is provided with of tubing or tail pipe may be attached to extend downward into the liner. The tail pipe is generally used when it is desired to circulate fluid through the liner into the bore hole or to perform cementing operations under pressure through the liner perforations after the liner is set. The said circulating fluid or cement may reach the tail pipe from the drill pipe through the central opening 31 extending axially through the square mandrel 22. The said upper conical face 24 of the mandrel nut 23 when supporting the liner hanger in the bore hole bears upon the lower sloping conical shaped surface 25 of a releasing nut 26 which in turn makes a screwed connection with the inside surface of the upper portion of the liner hanger body by means of left handed threads, as shown at 28. The nut 26 also makes a right handed threaded connection, as shown at 3|, at its upper end with'the lower extended portion of a torque ring 30. The releasing nut 26 has a square opening 21 through which the square mandrel 22 passes with freedom to slide longitudinally therethrough but not to rotate therein; as best shown in section in Figures 3 and 4. The torque ring has a cylindrical opening 29 through which the square mandrel passes with freedom for both longitudinal motion and rotation, as best shown in section in Figure 2.
The torque ring 30 carries aplurality of radially extending friction shoes, as shown at 32, in suitable recesses 33, provided with U springs 34, adapted to force the said friction shoes outwardly and into forceful contact with the casing l0. The
friction shoes are provided with grooves 36 to aid the said shoes in gripping the inside surface of the casing wall so as to resist rotation therein.
The lower threaded extension 38 of the torque ring 30 carries the releasing ring 39, from the lower edge of which the compression lugs 40 extend downwardly and lie flush within recesses 4| in the liner hanger body and make contact at 43 with the upper ends of the slips 45.
The slips 45 are retained in the slip recesses 41 in the liner hanger body by means of guide grooves 49 in the sides of the said recesses.- Each slip is providedwith guide tongues 50 and 51 at the opposite edges thereof which make sliding fits in the said guide grooves 59 in the sides of the slip recesses. The slips, as shown in Figure l, are in a retracted position within the slip recesses and are in the position they occupy when the liner hanger is being lowered into setting position within the well casing.
The slips 45, one of which is best shown in plan view in Figure 6 and in sectional elevation in Figure '7, are wedge shaped in cross-section and carry on the outside surface thereof a plurality of downwardly facing, sharp edged grooves or wickers 52, forming an overall cylindrical contour corresponding to that of the inside surface of the casing Ill, with which they are adapted to make uniform contact. The smooth inside bearing surfaces 53 of the slips are also cylindrical in contour and adapted to make uniform sliding contact with the inner surface of the sliprecesses which are also cylindrical in contour and of the same diameter. The slips are thus free to slide longitudinally with respect to the axis of the liner hanger within the recesses 41 and to maintain at the same time uniform contact between the said inside cylindrical surfaces of the slips and the inner surfaces of the recesses. The axes of the inner cylindrical surfaces of the recesses intersect the axis of the liner hanger at acute slip recesses.
angles whereby said cylindrical surfaces ofthe slip recesses slope with respect .to the outside surface of the liner hanger, as shown at 59. Thus when the slips move upward within the recesses they are at the same time moved outward from the recesses and into contact with the inside surface of the well casing.
The lower edges of the slips are provided with a number of drill holes, as shown at 54, into which the upper ends of slip actuating spiral springs 55 fit. The lower end of the slip actuating springs 55 extends into recesses 55 drilled into the liner hanger body at the lower ends of the The said slip actuating springs 55, as shown in Figures 1 and 5 with the slips retracted, are under compression and serve to urge the slips upward in the recesses against the compression lugs 40. Guide rods 58 screwed into the holes 54 in the slips serve to retain the slip actuating springs 55 in place when the slips are in the maximum extended portion in the slip recesses.
The operation of the apparatus of Figures 1-7 is as follows: The liner hanger body carrying the perforated liner I8, or casing, which it is desired to setin the well, is lowered into the well through the casing 10 by means of suitable drill pipe or other tubing, to the setting position, shown in Figure 1. The lowermost tool joint of the drill pipe by means of which the liner hanger, as illustrated in the present invention, is lowered as shown at 20, making screwed connection at 2| with the square mandrel 22. The weight of the liner hanger and perforated casing during the lowering operation and prior to setting is supported by the said drill pipe through the square mandrel 22 and upon the conical faces 24 and 25 of nuts 23 and 26, respectively. The weight is thus carried, just prior to setting, by the left handed threads 28 between the nut 26 and the inside surface of the liner hanger body. The releasing nut 26 is provided with a plurality of radial slots 42 which provide limited freedom for expansion of the nut under the wedging force applied to the lower conical surface 25 when the weight of the whole apparatus is supported at this point. The left handed threads 28, which are normally of a free fit, are thus clamped, by the expansion of the nut, against unscrewing during the lowering of the liner hangerinto the well.
When .the liner hanger has reached the setting position within the casing I 0, as illustrated in Figure 1, the drill pipe upon which it has been lowered is given a sufficient number of right, hand turns to rotate the square mandrel 22 and the releasing nut 26 through which it passes, to break the right hand threaded connection 3! between the releasing nut 26 and the lower extension 38 of the torque ring 30. During this initial rotation the torque ring 30 is held against rotation by means of the frictional contact of the friction shoes 32 against the inside surface of the casing in. The effect of this initial rotation and the resultant breaking of the threaded connection 3| is to cause the releasing ring 39 and lugs 40 to be carried upward with the torque ring allowing the slips 45 to move upward in the recesses under the force of the slip actuating springs 55 a sufficient distance to make contact with the inside surface of the casing I0. Up to this stage in the setting of the liner hanger, the liner hanger body and perforated casing have beenfree to rotate together with the drill pipe and square mandrel 22 and thus, there was no tendency to break the left hand threaded connection 28 between the releasing nut 26 and the liner hanger body. Upon contact of the slips with the inside surface of the casing, following their release as just described, the supporting drill pipe may be lowered slightly to allow the weight of the liner hanger and perforated liner to be taken by the slips which are then free to move upward in the sloping recesses and wedge between the liner hanger body and the casing. Upon thuslowering the supporting drill pipe 29 and the square mandrel 22 the weight of the liner hanger and liner is relieved fromthe sloping surfaces 24 and 25 freeing the threads 28 and the expansion, nut
' 26 within the liner hanger body. Upon continued rotation of the mandrel 22 the threaded connection 28 is next broken leaving the releasing nut 26, friction ring 39, releasing ring 39 and the attached lugs free to be withdrawn together with the square mandrel and drill pipe from the well and leaving the liner hanger set in position upon the slips in the casing I9.
Figures 8 to 19 illustrate optional methods and apparatus for setting the liner hanger in place in the casing in the well. The apparatus of Figure 8 comprises the drill pipe'tool joint 29,
square mandrel 22 and threaded nut 23 at the lower end thereof, as shown in Figure l and described hereinbefore. The weight of the liner hanger 'is' carried, as described hereinbefore, upon the. conical surface 24 through a slotted releasing nut 69 making a left handed threaded connection at 6| with the inside upper surface of the liner hanger body in the manner similar against the said bearing ring 64, to retain the slips in their recesses prior to setting of the hanger.
The operation of the apparatus for setting the liner hanger, illustrated in Figure 8, is as follows: A
The liner hanger is lowered through the casing in the bore hole while'support'ed from the drill pipe 29, and the square mandrel 22 until the bottom end of the perforated liner rests lightly on the bottom of the bore hole. The drill pipe and the attached square mandrel 22 are then rotated to the right a suflicient number of turns to break partially the threaded joint BI and thereby allow\the releasing ring 66 and lugs 65 to move upward therewith a sufficient distance to release the slips 55 into contact with the inside surface of the casing I9. After this has been done the liner hanger and liner are lifted off the bottom to the setting position in the casing at which point the drill pipe and mandrel are lowered slightly to allow the slips 55 to wedge between the liner hanger bodyand the inside'surface of the casing and to thus relieve the weight from the said drill pipe and mandrel. The drill pipe is next rotated to the right until the breaking of the threaded joint 6I is completed and the releasing 7 nut 69, ring 66, lugs 65, together with the screw mandrel 22 may be withdrawn from the well leaving the liner hanger in place in the casing.
":89, respectively, allowing the releasing ring 16 Figure 9 illustrates another optional arrangement of the liner hanger setting tools whereby the liner hanger may be set at any position in tending through the cylinder wall. .tlon of the setting apparatus at Figure 9 is as follows: I v
When the liner. hanger has been lowered the well without setting the liner on the bottom of the well, the said apparatus being actuated by drilling fluid pressure through the drill pipe. The releasing tool, as illustrated in Figure 9 comprises a cylinder I9 supported by and in communication with the drill pipe 29 at the upper end through threaded joint I I. The lower end of the cylinder 19 makes a right hand threaded connection at I2 with a releasing nut I3 which in turn supports the liner hanger body through the left hand threaded joint I4, in a manner similar to that illustrated in Figures 1 and 8. The slips 45 are held in the retracted position by means of suitable lugs a portion of which are shown at 15 projecting downward from releasing ring I6 which surrounds the upper portion of the before mentioned releasing nut 13. The releasing ring and compression lugs 15 are retained in position against the compression of the slip actuating springs by means of apair of latches I1 and I8, slidably retained within suitable slots I9 and 89, re-
spectively, formed through the walls of said re-' leasing nut I3. During the lowering operation the said latches I1 and I8 are held in the position shown'in Figure 9 by means of suitable shear pins 8| and 82 which are driven through obliquely drilled holes in the outside surface of the releasing nut I3. Thein side ends of the latches I! and I8 carry a pair of levers 84 and 85 pivoted at. 86 and 81, respectively.
In the cylinder I9 immediately above the releasing nut 13 is a. piston 99 carrying suitable packing means 9| to make a fluid tight seal. The piston 99 is provided with a central passage way 92 normallyclosed by-means-of a poppet valve 93 acting under the compression of spring 94. 'Said piston also carries a downwardly projecting push rod 96 attached to the lower portion of the piston 99 by means of a perforateweb at 91. The said push rod 96 passes downwardly through a guide 98- having fluid passageways, as shown at 99. I
The piston 99 is retained, prior to setting of .the liner, in the upper-portion of the cylinder I9 against the compressive force of spring I99 by means of shear pins lol and I92. The cylinder I9 is-provided with a plurality of circumferentially spaced ports, as shown at I94, ex- The operathrough. the casing I9 to the setting position, fluid pressure is applied to the drill pipe which communicates with the top of the piston 99. The said fluid pressure is increased until the I downward force thus applied to the.top ofthe piston 99 is suflicient to shear the pins IM and I92 and allow the piston to move downwa to the bottom of the cylinder. The push r d 96 which is attached to the piston 99 is at th same time forced downward through the guide /98 and into contact with the inner ends of the releasing levers 84 and 85. The releasing levers 84 and 85 acting under the force of the push rod 96 with the rounded surfaces I and I96 acting as fulcrums againstthe inside surface of the releasing nut I3 pull the latches I1 and I8 inward with suflicient force to shear the pins 8| and 82 and .to allow the-said latches II and 18 to move inwardly through the slots I9 and and lugs I5 in turn to move upward over the releasing nut 13.' The slips 55' are thus released 4 aaaaeoe into contact with the inside surface of the casing l0 and the inner hanger is suspended thereby in the manner described hereinbefore in connection with the apparatus of Figures 1 and 8. After this action has taken place the drill pipe may be rotated to the right until the left hand threaded joint 14 of the releasing nut 13 is broken and the setting apparatus may then be withdrawn from the well.
As described hereinbefore, the fluid pressure in the drill pipe prior to the setting of the liner hanger forces the piston 90 to the bottom of the cylinder 10, in so doing ports Hi4 are uncovered and placed in communication with the bore of the drill pipe whereby drilling fluid may pass down the drill pipe and through the ports into the surrounding space within the casing H). The
piston is thus held in the lower position by the compression spring I00. Upon withdrawal of the setting apparatus and drill pipe from the well subsequent to .the setting of the liner hanger the fluid contents of the drill pipe are free to drain into the well through the ports I04 as the drill pipe is withdrawn from the well. A condition known as pulling wet drill pipe, Where the drill pipe remains filled with fluid which flows out of the'joints and upon the derrick floor as they are broken at the rotary table, is thus avoided.
During the running-in stage of the drill pipe carrying the liner hanger andrthe setting mechanism, shown in Figure 9, the drilling fluid in the well is free to flow up through the liner hanger through the passages 92, 91 and 99 in the setting apparatus, through the poppet valve 93 which lifts from its seat and on upward into the bore of the drill pipe whereby the drill pipe is filled with drilling fluid as it is lowered into the well.
Figure l0-illustrates another optional means for setting the liner hanger in the well. The apparatus here is similar to that shown in Figure 9 but instead of employing a piston, such as that shown at 90 operating under fluid pressure to actuate the slip releasing mechanism, a weighted rod [08 is dropped through the bore of the drill pipe, through the combined rod guide I01 and releasing nut H2 upon the ends of the latch releasing levers 84 and and the subsequent release of the slips into contact with the casing it is accomplished in the manner hereinbefore described in connection with Figure 9. The Setting tool is removed from the bore hole by right hand rotation of the drill pipe which breaks the left hand threaded connection Hi9.
Figure 11 illustrates an optional method of operating the slips to hold them in the retracted position within slip recesses and to force them into contact with the casing when the liner hanger is to be set. The compression lug which is shown at 40 in Figure 1 and at 65 in Figure 8 is modifled in form, as shown at M3, to provide at the lower end thereof an extension carrying a Ie leasable catch H0, making a spring fit into notch H4 provided on the inside surface of the top portion of the slip and by means of which the slip is withdrawn from the slip recess as the releasing ring moves upward, until said slip makes contact with the inside surface of the casing. Continued upward movement of the releasing ring as the setting tool is finally detached from the upper end of the liner hanger causes spring extension of the lug to spring inward in the recess III a sufficient distance to be released from the slip notch and to then be free to be withdrawn from the well with the setting mechanism.
With this arrangement the slip actuating springs shown in Figures 1 and 5 may be omitted.
, Advantages of the liner hanger setting apparatus as illustrated in Figures'l, 9, and 10 reside in their applicability to set the liner hanger at any position within the casing in the well without it being necessary to first set the liner on the bottom of the bore hole. The practice of setting the liner on the bottom of the bore hole as has to a large extent been conventional practice heretofore, is thus obviated.
One of the chief advantages of the liner hanger of the present invention resides in the compact manner in which the slips may be retained within suitable recesses in the liner hanger body and the freedom of exposed cage springs and rings which have heretofore been employed to actuate the said slips. The provision in the apparatus of this invention for internally contained slip actuating springs and slips consequently reduces the necessary overall length of the liner hanger and forms a more compact apparatus which is at the same time relatively free from the mechanical difliculties associated with the conventional types of liner hanger having externally retained and exposed springs and casing slips. v
Another outstanding advantage in the present invention resides in the cylindrical bearing surfaces between the slips and the liner hanger body whereby it is possible to maintain a uniform bearing pressure throughout the bearing area of the said slips. The sli-ps are thus largely freed from bending and crushing stresses associated with the conventional type of slips which heretofore moved upon conical surfaces. The slips as employed in the present invention are thus more free from breakage than those heretofore employed. Furthermore, the tongue and groove guides within the slip recesses insure the retention of the slips within the liner hanger body at all times thus eliminating the danger .of dropping them in the bore hole when if for any reason the liner and liner hanger are later removed from the well.
The foregoing is illustrative of a preferred embodiment of the invention and is not to be taken as limiting but may include any apparatus within the scope of the following claims.
1. A liner hanger comprising in combination an elongated cylindrical body portion, a recess in the wall of said cylindrical bodyportion having a cylindrical bottom surface inclined with respect to the axis of said body, a wickered slip slidably retained in said recess and having an inner cylindrical surface adapted to bear upon said inclined cylindrical slot surface and means to slide said-wickered slip longitudinally along the inclined surface of said recess wherebyv said slip may retract into or extend from said recess with respect.v to the surface of said cylindrical 2. A liner hanger as in claim 1 in which the means to slide said wickered slip comprises a spring bearing upon the lower portion of said slip.
3. A liner hanger as in claim 1 in which the- 5. In combination with a liner hanger a settingtool comprising a supporting member adapted to make connection with the top of the hanger body, means associated with said supporting-member adapted to retain the hanger slips in an inoperative retracted position within the hanger body, means associated with said supporting member to release the slips into operative position in said hanger body and means to detach said supporting means from said hanger body.
6. Apparatus according to claim 5 in which the said slip releasing means comprises a fiuid pressure actuated piston.
7. In combination with a liner hanger a setting tool comprising a supporting member adapted to make connection with the top of the hanger body, a cylinder in said supporting member, a piston in said cylinder, means tov impress fluid pressure upon said piston whereby said piston may be moved in said cylinder, a latch to retain the hanger slips in inoperative position within the hanger body, a lever adapted to be operated by movement of said piston and to actuate said latch whereby said slips may be released from said hanger to operative position and means to detach said supporting member from the top of said hanger body.
8. Apparatus according to claim 7 in which the means to impress fluid pressure upon said piston comprises a pipe by which the said hanger and supporting means is suspended and valve means associated with said piston and cylinder to allow passage of fluid from said suspending pipe subsequent to the actuation of said slip releasing latch.
9. Apparatus according to claim '7 in which the means to impress fluid pressure upon said piston comprises a pipe by which the said hanger and supporting means is suspended and valve means associated with said piston and cylinder to allow passage of fluid into the lower end of said suspending pipe prior to the actuation of said slip releasing latch.
10. Apparatus according to claim 5 in which the said slip releasing means comprises a weight adapted to be lowered through the supporting means.
11. In combination with a liner hanger a setting tool comprising a suspending member, a rotatable releasing nut attached to said suspending member and making left handed screwed connection with the top portion of-the hanger body,
a plurality of compression lugs carried by said releasing nut and adapted to initially retain the hanger slip in inoperative position within the hanger body, means to rotate said releasing" nut with respect to said hanger body on said threaded connection to first actuate said compression lugs to release said slips into operative position in said hanger body and subsequently to detach said suspending member from said hanger body.
with said releasing nut and square mandrel to clamp said releasing nut against rotation when the hanger body is supported by said suspending means.
14. A hanger slip comprising a curved metal wedge having cylindrically shaped faces whose extended axes intersect at an acute angle, the outercylindrical surfaces of said wedge having a plurality of sharp niches adapted to form gripping dies.
15. A hanger slip comprising a curved metal Wedge having cylindrically shaped faces whose extended axes intersect at an acute angle, the outer cylindrical surfaces of said wedge, having a piurality of sharp niches adapted to form gripping dies and the edges of said wedge having tongues adapted to slide in guide grooves in a casing hanger body.
16. A hanger slip according to claim with spring retaining means at the lower and thickest edge adapted to urge the slip upwardly in a hanger body recess.
17. A liner hanger .comprising in combination an elongated cylindrical body portion, a recess in the wall of said cylindrical body having a surface inclined with respect to the axis of said body, a
" the wall of saidcylindrical body having a surface inclined with respect to the axis of said body, a
wickered slip adapted to retract into said recess means to move said slip longitudinally along the inclined surface of said slot whereby said slip may. be caused to extend from said recess beyond the diameter of said body, threaded supporting means adapted to make a threaded connection with the 'wickered slip adapted to retract into said recess top portion of said body and adapted upon rotation relative to said body to first release said slip in said recess and then to release said body from said supporting means and means to resist rotation'of said body during rotation of said sup- 'porting means.
19. Aliner hanger comprising in combination an elongated cylindrical body portion, a recess in the wall of said cylindrical body having a surface inclined with respect to the axis of said body, a wickered slip adapted to. retract into said recess, means to move said slip longitudinally along the inclined surface of. said slot whereby said slip may be caused to extend from said recess beyond the diameter of said body, and supporting means adapted to make connection with the top portion" of said body and adapted to retain said slips in retracted'position within said recess. f
. FRANK CJBOYD.
ERW'IN BURNS; I FORD A. PILGRIM.
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|U.S. Classification||166/208, 166/215, 285/123.11, 166/216, 285/906|
|Cooperative Classification||E21B43/10, Y10S285/906|