US 2229714 A
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Jan. 28, 1941. G, wlRRER HEATER Ton STARTING DIESEL ENGINES Filed April 19, 1959 1NVENTOR isi: T
` aglmied www', BY
l A ORNEYS Patented Jan. 28, 1941 PATENT OFFICE Gottfried Wrrer, Plainfield, IN. J., assignor to Mack -Manufacturing Corporation, Long Island City, N. Y., a corporation of'DelawareI 'Application April 19;
1939, Serial Nl 268,681
s claims. (Cl.- 12a-1ra) Y The Ipresent inventionv relates .to starting devices for Diesel engines and embodies, more particularly, an improved mechanism by means of which the air temperature, upon starting, is elevated in order that the final compression temperature of the air and fuel charge of the engine may be above theignition .temperature of the fuel, 'regardless of the external conditions at the time of starting. v
Inasmuch as the air in the cylinder of a Diesel engine must be compressed to a temperature above the ignition temperature of .the fuel in order to start the engine, the initial air temperature is an important factor in easy starting. The eiect of the initial airtemperature upon the final compression .temperature will be readily apparent when it is' recalled that the iinal compression temperature depends upon the ratio .of compression and the' initial air temperature. Y The electric heaterplugs or elements in thev inlet manifold that have heretofore been used to pre-heat the air before it enters the cylinder have not proved entirely satisfactory, and an object of the present invention is to improve the starting characteristics ofV la Diesel engine by pre-heating not only the air but also the inlet manifold and the interior of the combustion spacel during the starting operation. This results in a great improvement in the starting operation over the voperation of devices now available. A further object of the invention is -to provide i an effective-mechanism Py means of which the starting of Diesel engines :is facilitated and 're- 'quiring only a effective.
A further object of a device ofthe above character which isset in opera-tion by a predetermined action and then requires no further attention upon starting off.
.10 the engine.-
Further objects of the inventionmill be appa-rent as it is described in greater detail in connection with the accompanying drawing, wherein:
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic illustration of a mech- 45 anisni embodying the present invention;
Fig. 2 is a view in section taken on the line 2 -2 of Fig. 1 and looking in thedirection of Fig. 3 is a view in section taken on ther4 line 5o 3-3 of Fig. 2 and looking in .the direction of the arrows.
vFig. 4 is a partial view in section, taken on the line l.' Fig. 1 and looking in the direction of the arrows.
55 Referring more particularly the above drawvery simple operation' to render the invention is to provide ing, aminlet manifold is shown at I0 and is provided with air from a passage II, vat one side of which is formed .a threaded boss I2. -A fl-tting I3 is secured to the boss, as illustrated in Fig. 2, and .this fitting is adapted to receive a nozzle 5 I4 Which is illustrated in enlarged section in Fig. 3. The passage 'If is also formed with a baille l5, the purpose of which Will be described in greater detail hereinafter. The baille is formed I of two plates spaced upon opposi-te sides of the l0 axis of the inlet duct II. f A sparkplug I6 isl mounted so that its terminals extend into the passage II and lie upon one side of the baille I5. The spark plug is connected by means of a wire ll to an ignition coil l5 IB having a vibrator I9.I One end of the primary winding-of the ignition coil is grounded at 20 and theother end is connected by a wire 2| to a :battery 22. The starting motor is shown at 23 and is connected to Wire 2| by means of wire 24 20 and grounded by means of-wire 25. The starting switch is illustrated at'f26 and is connected tothe battery by means of a wire 21 and grounded b y means of a wire 28.
`The nozzle I4 is connected to a fuel tank 29 25 by means of a duplex tubing 30 and an air pump 3| is also connected to the fuel tank 29 through a tubing 32. As illustrated in Fig. 3, the duplex tubing 30 consists of an outer tube 33 and an inner .tube 34. vThe outer tube communicates 30 with the top of the fuel tank 29 and is secured to the nozzle I4 by means ofra fitting 35 which is provided with a fluid tight bushing 36. The nozzle I4 is formed with a chamber 31 and passages 38 so that the air within the tubing 33 is 35 supplied .to a chamber 39 which communicates with the nozzle aperture 40.- The inner tubing 34 extends downwardly into the fuel tank 29 as indicated at 4I in order that the air preure upon the top of the fuel created by the pump 40 .3| may force .the fuel into the -tubing 34 where it is supplied to ay chamber 42 and a. passage 43 which directs the-fuel through the air chamber 39 and to the aperture 40. A filter cap 44 and screen 45 may be provided for replenishing the 45 fuel in the fuel tank 29. l
The head or. cap 4 6 of the nozzle I4 is mounted by means of threads in order .that it may be manipula-ted to meter the fuel and air in aldesired fashion.
It will thus'be seen that air pressure from the pump 3| forces the -fuel oil and air from the tank 2 9 through the respective tubes 34 and 33 to the nozzle I4. After the pump3lv is operated, the starting switch 26 is depressed to start the 55 of the primary winding of the ignition coil which results in igniting the atomized fuel supplied through the fitting I3 by thel resulting operation of the spark plug I6. 'I'he air entering the manifold carries the ame throughthe manifold and into the cylinders. The baille l5 diverts a portion of the air takenin so that only a part thereof is used for thecombustion of the atomized fuel, the other portion of the air, being taken into the cylinder. to support the combustion of the fuel injected into the combustion chambers. This is 'illustrated schematically in Fig. 4. This baille further provides a large sura face whichy will `greatly increase the heating of the incoming air after the ame of the atomizer is extinguished. f
In operation, the spray from the atomizer should be adjusted so that small globules will be formed which will cling to the electrodes of the spark plug. The spark heats these globules to a high-temperature and ignites them, the resulting burning of these globules igniting the fuel oil coming from the atomizer. If the fuel oil at. low temperature is -atomized to a very iine degree, the sparkwill not ignite it, whereas, if the particles are tool coarse, they will extinguish the spark. It, therefore, is essential that I the atomized particles be such as to cling to the electrodes as above described.
It-will be observed that the device will stop automatically as soon as the air in the tank leaks out through the atomizer. Inasmuch as all of the atomized fuel will burn, no4 fuel oil will be drawn into' the engine. J
While the invention has been described with reference to the speciilmstructureshown in the accompanying drawings, it is not to be limited save as dened in I claim:` A 1. Starting device for internal combustion enthe appended claims.
`gines cmprising, an air inlet manifold having an` air inlet duct, a nozzle to supply fuel and air under pressure to the manifold in spray form adjacent said inlet duct, a badle plate extending along said manifoldx and partially across said inlet duct and means to ignite lsaid`fuel in the manifold whereby combustion of said fuel heats the incoming air and said baille plate. e
2. Starting devicefor internal combustion engines comprising an inlet manifold, a plate formed therein, means lying substantially in the plane of the plate to introduce fuel in spray form into the manifold upo-- opposite sides ofA the said fuel.
fold to divert a portion of the air entering from the inlet duct, means to introduce fuel in spray -form into the manifold in thepath of 'air entering the manifold from the inlet duct and not diverted by said baille plate, and means on the side of the manifold away from the inlet ductV to ignite said fuel.
4. Starting devicefor internal combustion engines comprising an inlet manifold, an air inlet duct on the manifold, baille plates in the manifold on opposite sides of the inlet duct to divert a vportion of the air entering from the said inlet duct, means to introduce fuel in spray form into the manifold in the path of air entering the manifoldfrom the inlet duct and not diverted by said baffle plates, and means on the side of the manifoldaway from the inlet d uct to ignite 5. A heater for internal combustion engines comprising a manifold pipe havingan air inlet branch projecting from one side thereof, an igniting device in said manifold pipe substantially opposite to said-inlet branch, a baille plate extending along said manifold pipe' having one end disposed adjacent to said inlet branch to divert `a portion of the incoming air away from said -having theiradjacent ends 'spaced'apart and extending partially across said inlet branch to divert a portion of the incoming air away from said igniting device toward the ends of saidv manifold pipe and a fuel atomizer for injecting a spray of fuel into said manifold pipe intermediate said igniting device and said inlet branch and adjacent the inner endspf said baie plates for ignition and combustion-to heat said baille plates and said incoming ali'.