Method and apparatus for displacing
US 2229912 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
R. W. BAILY Jan. 28, 1941. L
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR DISPLACING PENETRABLE MATERIAL f @l1/ivi www Filed Deo. 18, 1959 Patented Jan. 28, 1941 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE Robert William Bally, Narberth, Pa. Application December 18, 1939, Serial No. 309,854
My invention relates to but does not have exclusive reference to method and apparatus for displacing a plastic material by subjecting the material to impact, or pressure, or both.
It is frequently desirable to displace a somewhat plastic material, such as earth or the like, to permit the passage of pipes and tubes or other structures, and for posts and poles, also for ditches and grooves. Where the desired void is obtained by excavating or removing the material within the area or volume to be occupied by the structure to be introduced,-the original material remaining adjacent to thevoid isv normally in its original state of plasticity and-density.y In this state the material may collapse inlp the void, or other undesirable eilects may be experienced.
The objects of my invention lare to provide method and apparatus for lcreating such v'qids or displacing the material by subjecting the material to impact, or pressure, or"both, in a manner to displace, compact and densify the material so that it will remain in theldesired position or status, and to attain a further economy by reducing or eliminating the amount of material to be excavated or removed a substantial distance, thereby reducing or eliminating labor and expense of. disposing of or dumping such material.
To practice my method I provide apparatus of various forms which displace and densify the material, thereby creating a void and forcing the material formerly occupying the void, aside. The apparatus may be in various forms, some of which I am about to describe, but I do not limit myself to the various forms of apparatus to be described, but may use varying combinations of such apparatus, or may use other apparatus to accomplish my purpose, either by themselves or in combination with the apparatus to be described.
Some of the uses of my invention include the formation of horizontal holes in earth to receive conductors of water and the like, also vertical holes to receive telephone. poles, pilings, and the like, also ditches and grooves.V
With respect to the vertical holes for poles, or pilings, it is obvious that where the void is formed merely by excavating or removing the material, the material forming the wall remains as soft and plastic as when in its original state. By my method I drive the material formerly occupying the void in lateral directions, compacting it and the adjacent material, so that when the pole is set in the hole and material packed between any desired purpose.
(Cl. Z55-1) the pole and the walls of the hole, greater resistance to overturning is provided.
My method also includes a treatment .for the material during its displacement whereby its rigidity is radically increased. For instance, while forming a void through a plastic material such as sand and the like, I have found it advisable to introduce into the material simultaneously with displacement, a stabilizing substance which may either impregnate the material or l0 upon the removal of the displacement apparatus 2G and the introduction of another structure, the material or the walls then permitting the material to close in on the structure.
My method also includes treatment of granular or other material whereby the material is 25 sufficiently displaced to permit the introduction of cementitious or other substance into the material, whereby the material may be densied, stabilized or otherwise treated to improve it for One form of apparatus by which I practice my method consists of a housing in which I mount an out-of-balance Weight on suitable bearings. As the weight is revolved it causes the housing to oscillate. with the plastic material, the housing impinges on the material, causing it to be moved by the impact of the housing. The housing then proceeds to penetrate the material by displacing the same, and as the housing progresses, the surrounding material is densied and compacted, becoming a stable material, able to retain its displaced position, with the result that as the housing passes through the material it leaves behind it a void which desired purpose.
When it is desired to introduce cementitious or stabilizing substance simultaneously with displacement, I provide a conduit which terminates in orifices in the walls of the housing. The ce- 50 mentitious or stabilizing substance is forced through the conduit and orifices while the housing is oscillating or being introduced into the material, or later, and as it exits through the orifices it either penetrates the material being 55 into a rigid mass, 15
When the housing makes contact 35 may be utilized for any 45 displaced, or forms a lining against the surface of the material, or both. A
To facilitate the passage of the housing through the material to be displaced, I may provide the housing with a nose or point; in other cases I may provide fins on the forward end of the housing, these fins acting sometimes as chisels to initiate the displacement of he material. In some cases I may use a housing, the exterior of which is provided with wedge-shaped ridges arranged approximately laterally to the direction of travel, the slope of the ridges being such that as the housing is forced against the material being displaced, the sloping surfaces urge the housing forwardly into the material. Or I may arrange these ridges helically around the housing to expedite the penetrating movement thereof by rotating the housing.
To facilitate the movement of the housing from place to place, such as when forming holes for poles, piling, and the like, the housing may be supported from a carriage carrying, if desired, motive power for the carriage and power to actuate the housing, and also provided with devices to hold and guide the housing through handles attached to the housing, or otherwise.
In another form of my apparatus, I provide a structural member engaging the exterior of the housing so that through the displacing energy of the housing, the structural member may penetrate the material, then permitting the actuating housing to be withdrawn. The structural housing, remaining embedded in the material, may be utilized to support other structures, acting like a driven pile. The structural member may be lled with concrete or like material to increase its stability. Likewise the structural member may be so arranged that a stabilizing maten'al may be forced through proper orices in the walls of the structural member to stabilize the material that is penetrated by the structural member.
In another form of my apparatus I attach the housing to the structure which I desire to embed in the material. For instance, in setting posts or poles, I attach my oscillating housing to the pole. As the housing oscillates, it causes the pole to oscillate, whereupon the pole itself causes the material to be displaced, permitting the pole to be introduced into the material to any desired depth or distance. Many other obvious combinations and uses for the method and apparatus are apparent` In the accompanying drawing:
Figure 1 is a vertical longitudinal cross-sectional view of one form of my apparatus:
Figure 2 is a vertical elevation view, taken on the line 2-2 of Figure 1;
Figure 3 is a vertical cross-sectional view, taken on the line 3-3 of Figure 1;
Figure 4 is a vertical elevation view, taken on the line II--4 of Figure 1;
Figure 5 is a vertical cross-sectional view, taken on the line 5-5 of Figure l;
Figure 6 is a vertical elevation view of another form of my apparatus;
Figure '1 is a vertical side elevation view of another form of my apparatus;
Figure 8 is an elevational view of a part of the apparatus of Figure 7, taken on the line 8-8 of Figure 7, and
Figure 9 is a vertical sectional view of another form of my apparatus.
In Figures 1 through 5 I show the housing I, containing the bearings 2, supporting the outof-balance weight 3, which is propelled by the revolving shaft 4. One end of the housing I is provided with a point 5, and the rear end of the housing 6 engages and holds the cap 1. having the central opening 8, carrying the shaft 4. The cap 1 terminates at the end 9, where it is engaged by the extension hollow handle ill, having the passage II receiving the shaft 4. The cap 1 is provided with the inlet channel I2 to which is attached the tubular conduit I3, leading to a source of stabilizing material under pressure, not shown. The cap 1 is provided with an annular groove I4, connecting with the channel I2. The housing I is provided with the passages I5 opening at one end into the annular groove I4, and at the other end near the opened portion 5 of the housing I, terminating in the orifices I6.
The forward end of the housing I in Figure 2, may be provided with the displacement ribs I1.
In Figure l, I have shown the material 33 which has been penetrated by the housing I, leaving the void 34 and the packed stabilized material 35, forming the walls of the void.
In Figure 6 I show the housing I of Figure 1 povided with circumferential helical projections In Figure 7 Ishow the housing I vertically disposed with respect to its own axis, and having the cap 1 and the handle II'I connected to the casing of the motor I9. The motor I9 is cooperatively connected with and propels an out-ofbalance weight in the housing I, similar to the arrangement of Figure l. Motor I9 receives its power through the conduits 20 from a source of power 2I and the prime mover 22. As illustrated, the motor I9 is electric, the source of power 2l is an electric generator, and the source of power 22 is a gasoline engine, although the motor I9 might be pneumatic and the source of power 2l might be a compressor, or the motor I9 a fluid motor and the source of power 2| a pump. The carriage 23 has a forwardly extending arm 24 provided with a guide 25 which slidably receives the handle III of housing I. The elevating handle 2B engages bearing faces 21 on handle III. The handle 26 is pivoted at 28 on bracket 29, supported by the carriage 23. By depressing the end 30 of the handle 26, the housing I may be raised vertically. The carriage 23 has the wheels 3|, riding on the surface 32 of a material 33. The housing I is in position where it has penetrated and displaced the material 33, leaving a void 34 with the stabilized material at 35.
In Figure 9 I have shown the housing I and handle I0 projected into the interior to a cylindrical structure 3G, which has penetrated a material 33, producing the stabilized portion 35 of said material.
Method of operation In operation, as shown in Figures l through 5, the housing I is caused to oscillate at high frequency around its longitudinal axis by means of a revolving out-of-balance weight 3, the longitudinal axis of the apparatus being in a general horizontal position. At the commencement of operations the point 5 of housing I is pressed against the face 31 of the material 33 by means of lateral or horizontal force impressed upon the handle I0, the oscillation of the point or nose 5 displaces the material 33, and the housing I continues to enter the material 33 by displacing the material in directions perpendicular to the axis of the housing I, and due to the oscillating movement of the housing I there remains a space 38 surrounding the housing I, and permitting its forward movement in the direction of the arrow 39. housing I into the material 33 I may introduce a stabilizing mixture through the conduit I3 and passage l2 and through annular groove I4 and passages I5, the stabilizing material discharging through the orifices I6 and lodging in the area 35 of the material 33 to stabilize the same, so that the void 34 may remain without deformation. As the housing I continues to be introduced into the material 33, additional lengths of handles I may be assembled one behind the other. Upon the completion of the formation of the desired length of void 34, the housing I may be withdrawn from void 34 and supplementary lengths of handles I0 may be disconnected therefrom as desired.
The apparatus of Figure 6 may be operated in the same manner as the apparatus of Figure 1. The oscillation of the housing I about its longitudinal axis will cause the surface 40 to coact with the material 33, and due to the slope of the surface 40 the movement of the housing I in the direction of the arrow 39 will be assisted, and if the surfaces 40 are helical, as shown in Figure 6, this forward action may be further assisted by revolving the handle I0 in the direction of the arrow 4I.
In the apparatus of Figure 7, the point of the housing I will be lowered from the free position until the point 5 makes contact with the horizontal surface 32 of the material 33. By continued downward movement with the housing I oscillating, there Will be created the void 34, producing the stabilized material 35. The void 34 may be of any desired depth and upon the elevation and removal of the housing I, any
desired structure may be introduced into thel void 34.
In Figure 9 I show a structure"'36, which may be a desired shell for piling. The oscillating housing I is made to fit snugly within the structure 36, so that the structure 36 coacts with the oscillating housing I and a stabilizing material may be introduced into the material 33' in the same manner as the housing I of Figure 7. 'I'he housing I may be provided with the passages I5 of Figure 1 for the ow of a stabilizing material from a source not shown, and the structure 36 may be provided with mating orifices 5a whereby the material 33 is stabilized at 36. When the structure 36 has penetrated the material 33 to the desired distance, the housing I may be then withdrawn from structure 36, and said structure utilized for the support of any other structure, and the interior of the structure 36 may be filled with any desired material such, for instance, as concrete.
The structure 36 may, instead of being hollow, be of solid material, such as a concrete or wooden piling and the housing I may be attached to the exterior of the structure 36 and by imparting high frequency oscillations to the structure 36, it will cause said structure to penetrate the material 33. Conduit I3 of Figure l may be provided exterior to the housing I and structure 36 to permit the deposit of stabilizing material at end 5a of structure 36, such stabilizing material being permitted to rise in the void 34 to create stabilized material 35.
lThe stabilizing material may be Portland cement grout or asphalt or any other stabilizing agent. The stabilizing material may be so manipulated as to intermingle with the material Simultaneously with the passage of the 33 to form av stabilized area 36 to prevent the distortion of the void. The stabilizing material may also be utilized where the structure 36 penetrates a spongy or unsuitable material 33 so as to form a permanent lock or engagement between the structure 36 and the material 33. 'I'he stabilizing material may also be of a viscous nature, so that for a desired interval after the removal of the oscillating housing I of Figure 7 from the material 33, the void 34 will remain undeformed long enough to permit the introduction of any other desired structure into the void 34, whereupon the stabilized material 35 will, due to the pressure of the surrounding material 33, close in against and make contact with the structure which has been introduced into the void 34, to act as a support for said structure.
For the purpose of illustrating my invention, I have shown a. housing oscillated by means of an interior revolving out-of-balance weight, but any other arrangement of devices may be used to accomplish my purpose without departing from the spirit of my invention.
1. 'I'he method of forming a void in a displaceable material comprising introducing into the material a member whose walls oscillate in directions laterally to the direction of travel of the member, thereby displacing the material laterally to the direction of travel of the member and creating a void in the material and stabilizing the walls of the void.
2. The method of fixing a structure in a displaceable material comprising introducing the structure into the material While oscillating the structure in directions laterally to the axis of travel of the structure into the material, where- .by the material adjacent to the structure is compacted and stabilized and assists in fixing the structure in the material.-
3. The method of formingY a void in a displaceable material comprising introducing into the material a. member whose walls oscillate in directions laterally to the direction of travel of the member, thereby displacing the material laterally to the axis of the member and creating a void in the material and stabilizing the walls of the void, withdrawing the member and introducing a structure into the void, including filling the space between the structure and the walls of the void thereby fixing the structure.
4. 'I'he method of displacing a material and forming a stabilized void therein comprising introducing into the material a member whose walls oscillate in directions laterally to the axis of travel of the member, whereby the material is displaced laterally to said axis and forming a void, and thereby permitting the penetration of the member into the material, and introducing between the walls of the member and the material displaced thereby, a stabilizing substance for maintaining the void.
5. An apparatus fordisplacing a penetrable material and creating a usable void therein comprising a housing arranged to penetrate the material, the walls of the housing oscillating in directions laterally to the direction of travel of the housing into the material, thereby displacing the material and creating a usable void therein having stabilized walls.
6. In an apparatus of the kind described, an oscillating housing, a structure associated with the housing and receiving oscillations therefrom, said structure being adapted to be propelled into a penetrable material, means for causing the walls of the housing to oscillate in directions laterally to the direction of travel of the housing, said oscillating housing oscillating the structure, said oscillating structure displacing the material to form a void having stabilized walls, whereby the structure may be propelled into the material, and means for disassociating the housing from the structure.
'7. In apparatus of the kind described, a carriage, a guide on the carriage engaging a handle,
said handle having a longitudinal axis, a housing mounted on said handle, the housing having walls oscillating in directions lateral to the axis of the handle, means on the carriage to manipulate and propel the handle through the guide, thereby propelling the housing into material in which a void is to be formed by displacement by the oscillating walls of the housing, forming a usable void in the material and said apparatus having means for supplying additional material for stabilizing the walls of the void as the void is being formed.
8. In an apparatus of the kind described, a carriage, an oscillating housing having a handle, means on the carriage engaging and guiding and propelling the handle and the housing, a structure associated with the housing and oscillated and propelled thereby into a material to be penetrated, means for forming a void in the material to receive the structure, means for fixing the structure in the material and means for disasseciating the housing from the structure.
9. The method of making holes in material, such as earth, comprising moving a vibrating member into the earth and thereby displacing the material and forming a hole and simultaneously supplying stabilizing material to the displaced first-named material.
10. In an apparatus of the kind described, a carriage, a handle mounted on the carriage for lengthwise movement, a vibrator on the handle,
a motor on'the handle for operating the vibrator, said vibrator having a casing for penetrating material for forming a hole therein.
11; In an apparatus of the kind described, a carriage, a hollow handle mounted on the carriage i'or lengthwise movement, a vibrator on the handle, a motor on the handle for operating the vibrator, s aid vibrator having a casing for penetrating material for forming a hole therein, and means in the handle operatively connecting the motor and the vibrator.
12. In an apparatus of the kind described, a carriage, a handle mounted on the carriage for lengthwise movement, a vibrator on the handle, a motor on the handle for operating the vibrator, said vibrator having a casing for penetrating material for forming a hole therein, and means for longitudinally adjusting the handle.
13. In an apparatus o! the kinddescribed, a carriage, a vibrator mounted thereon for adjustment to a variety of positions for forming voids in suitable material, said vibrator having a casing for entering the material and means in the casing for imparting vibrations to the casing, and means carried by the carriage for operating the vibrator during its void-forming movement.
14. In a device of the kind described, a hole forming vibrator having a casing and means for vibrating the casing, said casing having helical projections.
l5. In a device of the kind described, a hole forming vibrator having a casing and means for vibrating the casing, said casing having a cap provided with a manipulating handle, said casing having passages extending lengthwise of the casing and terminating in orices near the advancing end of the casing, said cap having a passage through it communicatingl with the passages in the casing proper.
ROBERT WILLIAM BAILY.