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Publication numberUS2231494 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateFeb 11, 1941
Filing dateJul 25, 1939
Priority dateJul 25, 1939
Publication numberUS 2231494 A, US 2231494A, US-A-2231494, US2231494 A, US2231494A
InventorsArthur H Dickinson
Original AssigneeIbm
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Sorting machine for statistical records
US 2231494 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)


Filed July 25, 19:9 .s she ts-sri'et 1 FIG. 3.

FIG. 2.

& 2fl0 3456 88 n W J) I, a e C n. 9 II u U27 p 1.. 21,, 2 man m" F mum 6 c nan w 0N5. mi P mm 1 INVENTORI AT-TORNEY 1 Feb. 11, 1941. mc l NsoN son'mxe mcnmm FOR swxnsncm. nscoa 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 Filed July 25, 1939 V Y a on 2 INVENTOR f ATTORNEY 3 Shoets Sheet 3 :INVENTOR BY 4 v A'TToRNEY "llll al-l l j A. H. DICKINSQN Filed July 25. 1939 SORTING MACHINE FOR STATISTlCALI RECORDS Feb. 11, 1941.


Patented Feb. 11, 194i uuiro FWCE mailer SORTING MAQHINE FQR STATHS'K'KCAL RECORDS York Application July 25, 1939, Serial No. 286,447

8 Claims.

This invention relates to sorting machines and more particularly to improvements in record controlled sorting machines adapted for sorting the individual records in accordance with the statlstical data disposed thereon in the form of suitable index marks.

Heretofore, it has been customary to employ differently positioned index marks in different columns on the record elements or mediums for controlling the operations of statistical systems and having all the index marks in the different columns formed in precisely the same manner. For example, in the Hollerith system differed tially positioned perforations are employed to represent the data, the size of which are all the same in the different columns on the record cards. In other suggested systems employing graphical characters on the record mediums in combination with different forms of analyzing devices the configurations of the index marks vary but solely for the purpose of identifying the value of the data representing marks.

In none of the systems suggested have index marks of different patterns or variations been used for determining the value of the representing mark by virtue of its differential position and in addition thereto by virtue of its configuration or pattern denote its columnar value or relationship with respect to the record medium. In most of the systems referred to, wherein the different columns or orders of data are sensed con currently, columnar segregation or differentiation is obtained by the use of individual circuits or control elements, one for each column or order of data to be sensed, which in turn control the connected control means representing and controlling the individual and different orders ofl thedata accumulating or printing sections ofiithe machine.

It is now suggested that in the electrically controlled statistical systems, wherein different columns of data are sensed or analyzed concurrently for control purposes, a single control channel between the data sensing and data manifesting sections be employed instead of the multiple channels or conductors used at the present time. In addition thereto it is suggested to provide in the simplified and improved statistical system a novel combination of elements compriswhich are impressed upon. the common circuit or channel connecting the said data sensing and manifesting sections. In this manner columnar segregation or differentiation of the data is obtained.

It is important to note that provision is made whereby the data sensing means is controlled directly by the index marks for creating the differentially timed electrical impulses. Light sensitive devices are provided for sensing the index marks on the records, which devices vary the electrical pulses or currents in the associated circuits in response to and in accordance with varying amounts of light to which the light sensitive devices are subjected. Novel records are provided for controlling the light sensitive devices not only at differential times in the sensing cycle when the index marks thereon are sensed, but

also for controlling the different light variations umn are alike, but the patterns of the index marks in the different columns differ with respect to each other. These index marks comprise light controlling representations which are formed in different patterns having a plurality of light controlling portions arbitrarily disposed in the index mark areas for controlling the frequencies of light variations directed to theassociated light sensitive devices, or stated in other words, the light controlling portions are arranged in the index mark areas for controlling the changes in the amounts of light to which the associated light sensitive devices are subjected. It is now understood that upon sensing these inden marks having different light controlling properties the light sensitive devices are controlled accordingly to generate electrical oscillations differing in frequency depending upon the frequencies of light interruptions caused by the index marks. The differentially timed impulses or oscillations of different frequencies which are generated are then impressed upon the common connecting circuit for controlling the data manifesting sections. Appropriate tuned circuits are provided with the different control elements for each order of the data manifesting sections to direct the impulses of different frequencies to the proper control elements thereby controlling the with respect to each other.

statistical operations of the machine in accordance with the sewed index marks.

Provision must be made in the suggested system just described for sorting or segregating the records referred to, which records are provided with differentially positioned index marks of varying patterns. The subject matter of the instant application pertains solely to the sorting means adapted to be controlled by such records.

In this application, the control circuits referred to hereinabove are utilized for controlling the operations of the sorting means. The novel records referred to and described hereinbelow, and accounting machines having automatic control features for controlling the feeding of the records and the selective accumulation of the recorded data, are claimed in copending applications filed July 25, 1939, Serial Nos. 86,444, 286,448, and 286,449, respectively.

Means are provided whereby the sorting control magnet is not only energized at the differential times the index marks are sensed, but energized at such times only if the frequencies of the oscillations initiated by the sensed marks correspond to selected or predetermined frequencies desired to be sorted.

Accordingly," an object of the present invention resides in the provision of means for segregating records in accordance with the differentially positioned index marks on the records and/or in accordance with the frequency values represented by the index marks.

Other objects of the invention will be pointed out in the-following description and claims and illustrated in the accompanyingdrawings, which disclose, by way of example, the principle of the invention and the best mode, which has been contemplated, of applying that principle.

In the drawings:

Fig. 1 is a detail view of a fragmentary sec tion of a novel record car Fig. 2 is a diagrammatic view of one form of record analyzer.

Fig. 3 is a detail of a light limiting disk.

Fig. 4 is a section of the sorting machine showing the major control elements thereof.

Fig. 5 is a circuit diagram of the machine.

Fig. 6 is a timing diagram of the machine.

Control records Referring now to Fig. 1 one of the preferred types of light controlling" records adapted for use in the novel statistical machine will-he described. The reference numeral Ill designates a record card similar to the type now used in the present Hollerith statistical system which is shown divided into different columns as indicated at a, b, 0, etc. Each column is divided into twelve index point or mark positions, so that the positioning of the index marks at these different positions in the different columns denotes the different values of the data represented by the index marks. The differently positioned Index marks are shown in the said figure and indicated by the reference numeral H. It is to be noted that the configurations of the index marks in the different columns which in Fig. 1 comprise graphical wave forms or patterns are different It is to be understood that the configurations of the index marks appearing in each column, but at different positions therein, are alike. It is seen that the light and dark portions of the index mark areas are arbitrarily arranged so as to produce differently shaped wave forms or patterns. The

' such as a photocell.

' is directed to the light sensitive devices whenever the card and index marks thereon are exposed to the light rays. It is well known that varying amounts of light are reflected by light and dark areas on control records which are scanned by light rays, the frequency of the light variations depending upon the arrangement of the light controlling portions or areas. It is seen that the configurations of. the graphical patterns at the different index mark positions in the columns differ with respect to each other,

and for illustrative purposes, assume that the configurations are so shaped so that the index mark ii in the column designated a is effective to cause fl variations in the light reflected thereby, or stated in other words represents a fre quency of If, the index mark in column b represents frequency fit, the index mark in column 0 represents frequency i3, etc. It will be understood as the description progresses that the dif ferent frequencies represented by the different index marks will be effective for determining thecolumnar segregation or differentiation of the data represented by the index marks. The varying patterns of the index marks may be printed in black ink on record cards affording a white background for the marks, or if desired the light controlling records may be made photographically in accordance with well known photographic methods. The record cards can be provided with a light sensitive surface so that individual light controlling patterns or graphs can be formed thereon photographically.

Analyzing the light controlling records Referring now to Figs. 2, 3, and 4 the method of and means for analyzing or sensing the light controlling index marks disposed on the records will be described.

A lens system is provided comprising two lenses l6 and H to cause a narrow beam oflight to be projected on the record card it) from the light source l8. A lens system comprising lenses l9 and is provided to focus the light reflected from the record upon a light sensitive device 2|,

Interposed between the individual lenses I9 and 20 a slotted disk 22 is provided to limit the amount of light reflected and projected from the card to the photocell. It is understood now, that, if a record card provided with differently shaped patterns at different index mark positions is fed past the sensing station described, the amount of light reflected and transmitted to the photocell will pulsate or vary exactly in accordance with the pattern of light and dark portions of the index mark sensed. If the photocell is connected in a closed circuit, the varying amounts of. light projected thereon will cause a corresponding pulsating current to flow therein, the frequency of which will correspond to the frequency of the variations in the light caused by the sensed index mark. It is obvious that the varying amounts of light are directed to the photocell only at the particular timed intervals the index marks are fed past the said beam of light. The position where the said beam of light is projected upon the card will be referred to as the data sensing position.

, 29 which engage and slide the link 51, which In Fig. 4 the reference character 25 designates an assembly comprising the lens it and H and a suitable housing or case which assembly is fixed in the insulating block 26. Similarly, the lens l9 and 20, and disk 22 with a suitable hous ing are designated 27 which assembly also is fixed in the said block. The light source it is disposed within block 25 directly above the first mentioned lens system and inserted in a suit able socket 28 provided with conducting rods along the conducting rails 3!! whenever the block 26 is positioned from one columnar position to another. The said con ducting rails are secured to a suitable insulating member 3i which in turn is fastened to the frame of the machine. A second pair of conducting rods is provided to afford a connection to the photocell 2i which receives the light toflected from the record by means of the lens lit and 2!] and a light conducting member such as the quartz rod 33. The insulating block as or carriage is slidably supported by the square bar 35; which extends across the machine and can be fastened to the s de frames thereof. Also, journaled in the side frames is the worm shaft 35 which engages the partial nut 36 secured in the block 26. By means of a suitable crank the worm shaft can be rotated to set the car riage to any desired columnar position for effooting the sensing of the index marks in the selected columnar positions.

Record sorting means The mechanical features embodied in the present invention are predicated upon the principles described in U. S. Patents Nos. 1,982,216 and 1,933,357. For this reason the following brief description is deemed suflicient. Referring now to Figs. 4 and 5, the motor 58 which drives the sorting mechanism by gearing not shown is started by depressing a start key El to complete a circuit from conductor 52 to contacts 53 of the start key, relays Rl, R2, and R55 to conductor 54 energizing the said relays. Closure of contacts RZCL and R341 connect the motor terminals to the power supply conductor to start the motor. A holding circuit is then established from con-= ductor 52 to contacts 651:. (the usual card lever contacts), contacts 66 of the stop key, contacts Rla to relays Rl to R3 and conductor 5% thereby effecting continuous operation of the machine.

The records it] are fed from the magazine by means of a picker 55 actuated by the slotted arm 56 which is oscillated once each machine cycle by a crank pin 58 on the disk 59 through link is pivoted to both the crank pin and the slotted arm. The disk as is fixed to a shaft fill which is driven by any suitable means by means of the motor. A record removed by the picker mechanism from the magazine is brought between the first set or feed rolls and carried to the left far enough for similar feed rolls l3 and i l to grip the record and advance it to the appropriate sorting pocket (one of which is shown at El).

The sensing means described hereinabove is positioned between the pairs of feed rolls i2 and l3 to sense the differentially positioned index marks in the desired columns of the records. The guide blades 62 rest upon an armature associated with the control magnet 6 3. The ends of the guide blades are so spaced relative to the sensing means so that the index marks on the records are sensed at the instances the left edges of the record underlies the end of the guide blade corresponding to that index mark position. Each guide blade leads to a sorting pocket which is designed to accumulate all of the records having a given index mark in the column analyzed, providing the index mark is formed with a predetermined pattern or wave form. The usual provision ing pocket for each index mark position on the record and an additional reject pocket. The first blade on the right corresponds to the f9 pocket, the next to the 8 pocket, etc.

In view of the description hereinabove, it is understood now that as the differently shaped index marks are fed past the sensing position photocell ii is subjected to light variations in accordance with the patterns of the index marks at the differential times the said index marks appear at the sensing position. Now, whenever the photocell 2i, which is connected to the input of the amplifier unit generally designated 65 is subjected to such light variations, the said cell is effective to control the conductivity ofthe amplifier so that electrical oscillations of frequencies corresponding to the frequencies of the light variations impressed upon the cell are caused to flow in the output circuit of the arnplifier which includes the primary winding of the transformer til. To each or" the secondary windings of the said transformer suitable filtering and rectifying units are connected which are represented generally by the reference characters er and respectively. Each of the filters at are so adjusted that only one frequency of the multiirequency oscillations is passed by each filter which in turn is impressed upon the connected rectifying and the common amplifying unit will to effect energization of the control relay is which is included in the output of the amplifier unit.

Now, assume that the sensing means is properly positioned for sensing a desired columnar position on the records and that the index marks on some of the records in the selected column are formed to represent frequency fl, that some index marks in the same column on other records are formed to represent frequencies f2 and f3. Furthermore, assume that it is desired to segregate only those records which have the inden marks formed to represent frequencies fl and f3. For these conditions the filter units tuned for frequencies fl and it are connected to the secondary windings of the transformer 66. Now, as the oscillations of frequencies fl and iii are initiated by the sensed index marks these oscillations are passed by the said filters to be impressed upon the related rectifying units and thence upon the common amplifier unit to energize relay Rd at the particular timed intervals the index marks are sensed. All other index marks initiating oscillations of different frequensites are blocked by the filter units and present these oscillations to effect energization of relay n3 "Upon energization of the said relay contacts R611. are closed, and a circuit is completed to the sorting control magnet 6 3 when the contacts Eula are closed at a timed interval when the column selector it is effective to be conductive. is well known in the art that the colun selector lo can be set to represent any des index mark position and is effective to cornpletethe circuit connected thereto only at a interval representative of the selected index mark position. Now, Whenever the indeX' marks sensed initiate oscillations of the selected frequencies and at the timed intervals for repreis to provide a sortthe invention as applied to it will be understood that various omissions and senting the index mark position for which the column selector is set a circuit is completed from conductor 52 to the impulse distributor 1|, column selector 10, contacts Rda, relay R5, and sorting magnet 64 to conductor 54 energizing the said relay and magnet.

A holding circuit is then established through the conducting ring Cl, contacts R5a, relay R5 and magnet 64 to conductor 54 which is maintained energized until near the end of the machine cycle (see timing chart). Energization of While there has been shown and described and pointed out the fundamental novel features of What is claimed is: 1. In a sorting machine of the character described controlled by records bearing differenpredetermined frequency values.

2 In a sorting machine of the character dethe sensed index marks.

In a sorting machine scribed co trolled by records tially positioned stant speed, means for sensing the index marl positions on each of light directed thereto, which-light rays are modified by the light marks.

4. In a sorting machine of the character described gating the generated oscillations of difierent frequency values, and means conjointly controlle by the sensing and segregating means for conthe machine operations and operated at differential times in accordance with the positions'and frequency values of the index marks on the records. v 7. In a statistical machine controlled by rec ords bearing difierentially positioned index marks, the relative positioning thereof representing the different data values, said index marks being formed to represent difierent frequency values in accordance with their formations, a sensing station, means for feeding the records past the sensing "station at a constant speed, means for sensing the index mark positions on each record for determining the different data values of the index marks on the records including means for determining the frequency values represented by the sensed index marks, and means controlled selectively by the sensing means for controlling the machine diiferential times in accordance with the data values of the sensed index marks including means said controlled means effective the frequency for rendering the selectively in accordance with values of the sensed index marks.

machine controlled by tea- 8. In a statistical sensing station at ords bearing differentially positioned index marks, having different light controlling properties, the relative positioning thereof representing the difierent values of the data, tion, means for feeding the records past the a constant speed-means for sensing the index mark positions on each record for determining the different positions of the marks on the records comprising a light source and light responsive means, said light responsive means'being conditioned by the rays of 11 directed thereto, which rays are modified by the light controlling properties of the index marks, means controlled by the sensing means for gen.- erating oscillations of different frequencies in accordance with the conditioning of the light responsive means at the different times the index marks are sensed, and means selectively controlled by the oscillations generated at the diflerential times, in accordance with the values of the index marks for controlling the machine including means: for rendering the controlled means effective selectively in accordance with the frequency values of the oscillations initiated by the sensed index marks.

, ARTHUR H. Dickinson.

controlled by the.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2427383 *Jul 29, 1941Sep 16, 1947IbmStatistical machine controlled by magnetic, frequency coded records
US2438825 *Jun 16, 1945Mar 30, 1948Trans Lux CorpSelector
US2600817 *Dec 10, 1945Jun 17, 1952Victoreen Instr CompanyMethod and apparatus for photoelectrically assorting, recording, or computing
US2609928 *Jan 12, 1948Sep 9, 1952Doust James FrederickApparatus for sorting postal packets
US2840237 *Dec 21, 1953Jun 24, 1958Burroughs CorpMachine for sorting record forms
US2896763 *Jul 23, 1954Jul 28, 1959Lehigh IncVending machine
US2932392 *Feb 23, 1954Apr 12, 1960Alan FosterApparatus for determining the denomination and/or genuineness of paper money and thelike
US3003633 *Jul 23, 1956Oct 10, 1961Sperry Rand CorpRecord card sorting machine
US3043504 *Nov 26, 1957Jul 10, 1962IbmInductively controlled card reading
US3194969 *Feb 12, 1962Jul 13, 1965Burroughs CorpOptical reader with integral lens and light responsive device
US3386397 *Dec 16, 1965Jun 4, 1968Ellison Tufting Machinery LtdPattern control device for textile tufting machines
US3408482 *Jul 5, 1962Oct 29, 1968Optical Seanning CorpMachine for sequentially scanning lines, as in test scoring
US4559644 *Jan 28, 1983Dec 17, 1985Fuji Xerox Co., Ltd.Image processing apparatus and method for recognizing only desired patterns
U.S. Classification209/583, 73/156, 235/454, 235/494, 209/563
Cooperative ClassificationB07C5/3412