US 2232017 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Feb. 1s, 1941. G, w, WLDER 2,232,017
Filed Dec. 28, ..1935 2 Sheets-Sheet I.
15 2O I \\Q my@ f l Nga /f ATTORNEY Feb. 18, 1941. G. w. wrLDER LOCK vFiled Dec. 2a, 1935 l 2 SheetsLSheet -2 Mil ufl
' A TTORNEY Patented Feb. 178, 1941 UNITED STATE-s jPArlazlla'r OFFICE Application December 28, A1935,'Serial'lTo. 56,461
This invention relates to a locking cylinder, preferably of the pin tumbler type, in which the tumblers are specially constructed for adjustment to various key contours, while allowing easy assembly of the plug relatively to the cylinder, and easy removal of the plug from the cylinder.
This invention is somewhat related to the invention disclosed by Frederic K. Heyer in his Patent No. 1,850,323, granted March 22,` 1932, in that it discloses a somewhat similar combination of elements adapted for the same purpose asthe Heyer invention.
The Heyer patent relates to the use of adjustable sliding tumblers in lock cylinders of the type in which the tumblers ar-e carried in a key plug, and when set relatively to the periphery of the plug, permit rotation of the key plug relatively to the cylinder in which it is mounted. My in-y vention solves thelong-standing problem of how to manufacture and `how to utilize adjustable tumblers in a cylinder lock of the pin-A tumbler type, in which the tumblers must be carried by the key plug for cooperation with other tumblers, or drivers as they are called in the trade, carried by the cylinder per se. Y Y
My invention contributes to the art a type of pin tumbler which is readily adjustable and Which retains its adjusted position, and yet functions as effectively as an ordinary tumbler.
In solving the problem regarding the utilization of adjustable pin tumblers in la, pin-tumbler cylinder lock, I was confronted with the problem as tohow to retain the pin tumblers in the key plug prior to the insertion of the key plug into the cylinder.V Since adjustable tumbler locks are probably most useful in the automobile industry where the key plug carrying the adjustable tumblersis sold as a separate article independently of the cylinder, and must therefore be shipped and handled independently of the cylinder, the problem of utilizing Aadjustable tumblers in the key plug and yet maintaining those tumblers assembled in the key plug and available for ready adjustment while so assembled, was indeed an important one to solve. v
In the development of my invention, it was necessary also to provide drivers for the cylinder which would be inherently retained relatively to the cylinder, but whichwould be capable of suficient movement relatively to the cylinder without unduly enlarging the cylinder. f
In the preceding paragraphs, I have explained rather .generally the problems presented to one seeking to `provide a commercially usable Vpin tumblerlock in which the `gpin-tun'xblers,are carried bythe key plug in assembled relation to that key plug, and adapted for ready adjustment to a particular key. It was also indicated that the general yfeatures of the invention are disclosed in a Heyer vpatent,`which patent also discloses the iield in which this invention is particularly usable, that is, in the automobile industry where it is desirable to assemble a plurality of locks in an automobile with all of them set to the same key, it being. undesirable to set the locks to a particular key except at the very time that the locks are to be placed in the-automobile. I shall now attempt to explaingenerally the construction of myinvention and will then refer to the drawings for a particular detailed description of the invention.
In general, my invention comprises a usualtype of key plug having a series of tumbler bores in which are mounted aseries of pins adaptedto be set by a key. Each of the pins comprises a pair of telescoping members, one member being sleevelike in form and terminating in a rounded portion contacted by the key. vIn this sleevelike portion, there is adapted to be inserted a corrugated rodlike portion, ,the corrugations of which bite into the inner sleeve surface to maintain the two portions in assembled relation. Initially, the corrugated portion is inserted to such a depth in the sleevelike memberthat the overall lengthof the pin corresponds to the lowest bitting of a key adapted vfor insertion into the pin tumbler lock.
This lowest bitting is known in my lock as a #4 bitting. It will readily be appreciated that the point of demarcation between the corrugated rodlike Ymember and the sleeve member of my tumbler, Will be marked by a shoulder, the corrugated member being of course smaller in diameter than the sleeve member in which lit is mounted. A plate is placed over the tumbler bores so as to restrict those'bores, so that while the corrugated rodlike members Will move freely beyond the periphery. of this plate when actuated by a key, this plate 4will cooperate with the tumbler shoulders previously described, to retain the tumblers within theplug.
Whenever Vit is desired to set the tumblers to a particular key, :that keyvis inserted and the tumblers are moved thereby to various positions, depending on how ,the :key is bitted. A suitable tool may then be utilized for compressing the tumblers so that :the upper vends of the corrugated portions lie inv alignment with the periphery of theplug while the key actuated portions are in contactwith'thebittings -of the key. `.This adjustment is made possible bythetelescoping of the corrugated portions relatively to the sleeve portions. The corrugations have not only the function of maintaining the parts in a. particular assembled position, but also function to permit the air to escape from the sleeve portion as the corrugated portion moves into the sleeve.
The cylinder per se has a series of driver bores terminating in restricted openings. In each of these driver bores there is mounted a single driver having a central drilled out opening. A spring operates between the upper or closed end of the driver bores and each of the openings of the drivers for pressing the drivers downwardly, as
is well understood by those skilled in the art.,
While I have now described generally the main features of my invention, there are certain other features which will be better understood in connection with the detailed description which follows.
I shall therefore refer now to the drawings wherein Fig. 1 illustrates a key plug of my invention containing a series of tumblers which are adaptedto be set to correspond to the plug periphery andthe bittings of the key. Fig. 2 illustrates the method of setting or adjusting the tumblers. Fig. 3 is a perspective view in partial section of one of my tumblers illustrating its construction. Fig. 4 is a cross section of a plug showing the adjustment of the tumblers to the hitting of a key and the plug periphery. Fig. 5 is a sectional view of an assembled cylinder lock embodying my invention. Fig. 6 is a section of Fig. 5 along lines 6 6. Fig. 7 is a sectional view of my invention showing the parts under certain conditions. parts under other conditions. Fig. 9 is a perspective partial section of a driver forming part of my invention.
Referring now more particularly to the drawings and especially Figs. 1 and 3, reference numeral I designates a key plug of the usual pin tumbler type into which may be inserted a, key I I having a series of bittings I2 in contact with a series of tumblers designated generally by the reference numeral I3. Each tumbler comprises a sleevelike portion I4 and a corrugated rodlike portion I5, as is best seen in Fig. 3. The sleevelike portion terminates in a chamfered shoulder I6 at its upper end, and at its lower end it is rounded as at I1 for cooperation with the bittings I2 of the key. The corrugated portion I5 is initially inserted into the portion I4 so that the overall length between the upper end I8 of the corrugated portion and the lower end I'I of the sleeve portion is that corresponding to a #4 bitting of a key, which bitting is the lowest for which the key is designed.
In other words, when a key is bitted to a #4 hitting, or the lowest bitting of which it is capable, then a tumbler of the type of Fig. 3, when positioned by the key will lie with its upper end I8 in alignment with the periphery of the key plug. In Fig. 1, the extreme left tumbler is one of the type adapted for a #4 bitting, and the bitting of the key in contact with this tumbler is a #4 bitting. Of course, the tumblers could be so designed that even for a #4 bitting, they would have to be compressed to some extent, but I prefer to utilize the construction shown.
` For the purpose of obtaining a certain type of protection, one of the tumblers in Fig. l designated by the letter A is designed so as to be incompressible beyond a #2 bitting. The purpose of this construction will be described later with reference to Fig. 8.
Fig. 8 is a similar view showing the Figs. 2 and 3 illustrate just how the tumblers are adjusted to the plug periphery and the key contour. A compression tool I9 presses down on the upper ends I8 of each of the tumblers, while the lower ends I1 are in Contact with the bittings I2 of a key. The parts I4 and I5 of the tumblers are then telescoped, with the corrugations biting into the sleeve portions I4 so that the tumblers will assume varying overall lengths in accordance with the various 'bittings of the key. The corrugations not only serve to maintain the tumblers in any particular telescoping relation of the parts I4 and I5, but they also permit air to escape from the sleeve portion I4 as the corrugated portion I moves downwardly into the portion I4.
For retaining the tumblers I3 within the plug I0, I utilize a plate'20 having a series of restricted openings 2I smaller in diameter than the diameter of the tumbler chambers and the chamfered shoulders I6 of the sleeve portions I4 of the tumblers. This plate is inserted into a specially provided opening 22 in the upper surface oi the plug (Fig. 4). This plate may be held by staking or any other means, and will naturally cooperate with the shoulders I6 of the tumbler sleeve portions I4 for maintaining the tumblers assembled within the plug. Preferably also, this plate 20 is chamfered as at 23 at each of the openings4 2I for cooperation with the chamfered shoulders I6 of the portions I4 of the tumblers. In this way, a full throw of the tumblers by the key may be readily obtained, as will be understood by those skilled in the art.
. Referring now to Figs. 5 and 6, it will be noted that the plug III is mounted for movement in the cylinder 24 in the usual way of plugs of this type. The cylinder 24 has a series o-f driver bores 25 in which are mounted the drivers 26 for cooperation with the pins I3. The lower ends of the driver bores 25 are restricted as by shoulders 2l for cooperation with shoulders 28 on the drivers. To permit a rather full throw of the drivers without unduly lengthening the driver bores 25, each of the drivers is drilled out as at 29, as best illustrated in Fig. 9, and a tapered spring 30, resting with one end in the portion 29 and with the other end against `a cooperating plate 3| for the driver bores 25, acts to press the drivers downwardly, as is well understood by those skilled in this art. The plate 3l may be retained as by staking at 32, as is shown in Fig. 6.
It will be readily understood that the relation between a pin tumbler I3 and a driver 26 and a driver bore 25, should be such that when the highest bitting of a key, which is Ithe #0 hitting, is in contact with the longestpin tumbler, a #4, and moves that pin tumbler into a full upper position, thus moving the driver into a full upper position and fully compressing the driver spring 30, this movement must not be such that the driver will be forced against a full stop so as to permit a surreptitious compression of the tumbler In Fig. 7 there is illustrated what happens when a #0 bitting, or highest bitting of a key, is in contact with a #4 tumbler, or the longest tumbler usable. I'he driver 26 is forced into a full upward position and the spring 30 is compressed fully, but because of the particular dimensions utilized, the driver 26 is not against a full stop. Therefore, it will bey impossible to compress the tumbler surreptitiously, as previously indicated. Similarly, the chamfered shoulder I6 of the sleeve I4 o1' the tumbler is against the chamfered surface 22 oi the plate 20, so that the tumbler I3 atrae-ir is incapable of further upward movement from the position of Fig. 5. Therefore, 'if altool instead-of ankey were utilized `for forcing the tumblers I`3 upwardly, the cooperation between the surface I6 and the plate 20 would "prevent any further movement beyond the position of Fig. 7, and would prevent a surreptitious compression of the tumblers.
It is conceivable that under certain cir-cumstances, the plug I0 might be surreptitiously rotated `and at least some of the tumblers so positioned that a blank key, that is a key with a #0 bitting such as illustrated in Fig. '8, might be inserted to fully compress Aall of the tumblers, provided those tumblerscould be moved into the position of-Fig. 8, with their upper surfaces lfiin contact with the fixed surf-ace of the cylinder in which the plug rotates. For the 'purpose of -preventing the use of such a methodo'f compressing the tumblers, I employ the special tumbler A previously described with reference to Fig. 1.
This tumbler A is incompressible beyond the #2 hitting, and therefore when positioned as in Fig.8, in whichposition it can not move further outwardly from the plugpit will prevent movement beyond its position of a key having a #0 or a #l `bitting. This Vis quite clearly shown in Fig. 8.
I believe that the operation and the advantageous features of my invention 4will now be fully understood by those skilled in the art. I should like to emphasize, however, that this invention is relatively broad andl basic, and that I intend to claim it in a broa-d and basic manner, and that the claims should be so construed.
1. In a cylinder lock of the pin tumbler type, a key plug, a pin tumbler comprising apair of relatively movable and ladjustable tumbler portions, means maintaining said tumb-ler portions assembled in a particular adjusted position, said plug having la diametric chamber in which said pin tumbler is mounted for actuation by a key, a driver in said cylinder, the lower end of the lower of said portions being adapted for engagement by a key while the upper end of the other portion lies in alignment with the periphery of the plug and in conta-ct with said driver, said tumbler portions being adjustable simultaneously to the key contour and the plugperiphery.
2. An article of manufacture, a key plug of the pin tumbler type having a pin tumbler chamber, a pin tumbler in said chamber and formed of two portions adapted for positioning adjustment relatively to one another by simple endwise pressure to determine the effective heighth of said pin in said chamber, cooperating means on said tumbler portions for yieldingly maintaining said portions in any adjusted position, said pin tumbler being adjustable simultaneously to the contour of la key and the plug periphery when the key is inserted into the plug and into contact with the lower end of lthe tumbler, and the upper end of said tumbler is pressed downwardly into alignment with the periphery of the key plug.
3. As an article of manufacture, a key plug of the pin tumbler type having a series of pin tumbler chambers, pin tumblers in said chambers and each formed of twotelescoping portions adapted for movement into different telescoping relationships upon application of endwise pressure whereby to vary the effective heighth of `said `pins in said chambers, cooperating means on said tumbler portions whereby said pins-remain in any one of la plurality -`of teles'coped positions into which they may beset-said pin tumblers Abeing originally assembled in said plug in such relation that Darticular-bittings-of keys inserted into said plug will cause the upper ends of some `of the pins to protrude beyond the 'plug periphery, so that pressure on thesaid protruding portions will telescope them `relatively to the lower key contracted ends until the said upper ends are in alignment with the plug periphery.
l4. VIn a key plug of the pin tumbler type, a series of `.tumbler chambers, tumblers in said chambers, each of said tumblers comprising a sleeve andpin in telescopic relation with a shoulder defining the sleeve, and lmeans constricting the upper ends of said tumbler chambers and cooperating with said tumbler shoulders to maintain said tumblers -wi-thin said chambers.
5. In a key plug of the pin tumbler type, a series of tumbler chambers, tumblers in said chambers, each of said tumblers comprising a pair of telescopic portions with a shoulder dening one of the said portions, said portions being movable relatively to one another by the application of endwise pressure, means constricting the upper ends of said tumbler chambers and cooperating with said tumbler shoulders to retain said tumblers .within said chambers, a cylinder in whichy said plug is mounted, said cylinder having driver chambers and drivers in said chambers cooperable with said tumblers, said drivers, tumblers, and tumbler retaining means being of such size that when said tumblers are moved to their upper limits, moving the drivers upwardly in their chambers, there will still remain spaces between the upper ends of the drivers and the upper ends of the driver chambers.
6. In a vkey plug of the pin tumbler type, a series of tumbler chambers, tumblers in said chambers, each of said tumblers comprising a pair of telescopic portions of different diameter, said portions being movable relatively to one Aanother by the application of endwise pressure, means constricting the upper ends of said tumbler chambers and cooperable with the portion of greater diameter to retain said tumblers within said chambers, a cylinder in which said plug is mounted, said cylinder having driver chambers and drivers in said chambers cooperable with said tumblers, said drivers, tumblers, and tumbler retaining means being of such size thatwhen said tumblers are moved to their upper limits, moving the drivers upwardly in their chambers, there will still remain spaces between the upper ends of the drivers and the upper ends of the driver chambers.
'7. In a pintumbler lock, a tumbler comprising a bored lower sleevelike portion having a lower end adapted for key contacting, and an upper rodlike .portion iitted into the bore `of said sleevelike 'portion and adapted to slide further into the bore of said 'sleevelike portion when force is applied thereto, whereby the overall length of said tumbler may be varied.
8. In a pin tumbler lock, a tumbler comprising a lower bored sleevelike portion having a lower end adapted for key contacting, and an upper corrugated rodlike portion iitted into the bore of said sleevelike portion and adapted to slide in said sleeve when force is applied thereto, the corrugations being adapted to bite in-to the sleeve Vsurface as said rod is forced into the sleeve, whereby the overall length :of said tumbler maybe varied by ythe'application `of Torce while the tumbler por- 9. In a pin tumbler lock, a tumbler comprising a pair of telescoping, members compressible into various Arelative positions to varyv the overall' length of said tumbler, and venting means for permitting the air between said telescoping members to escape when said members `are compressed. A
10. In a cylinder lock of the pin tumbler type having a key plug, a series of compressible tumblers in said key plug, said tumblers being adapted for compression to litl the highest bit of a key inserted into said plug, and a tumbler in said plug adjacent its front or vkey entering end and incompressible beyond a substantially low bitting of a key entering lsaid plug, whereby said tumbler Will preventthe full insertion of a high bitted key into said plug, wheneversaid tumbler is held against free upward movement in the plug.
11. In a pin tumbler lock, a tumbler comprising a sl-eeve portion of predetermined diameter having a central bore formed longitudinally therein, a pin portion fitted tightly into said bore and adapted to be forced into said bore to Vary the distance between the upper end thereof and the lower end of said sleeve portion. n 12. In a pin tumbler lock, a tumbler comprising a sleeve portion of predetermined diameter having a central bore formed longitudinally therein, a corrugated pin portion tted tightly into said bore and adapted to vbe forced into said bore to vary thedistance between the upper end thereof and the lower end of said sleeve portion, the corrugations serving also to maintain said pin and sleeve in each of their assembled and adjusted positions. v
13. In a pin tumbler lock, a tumbler comprising a sleeve portion of predetermined diameter having a central bore formed longitudinally therein, a pin portion fitted tightly into said bore and adapted to be forced into said bore to vary the distance between the upper end thereof and the lower end of said sleeve portion, the lower end of said sleeve being. formed for cooperation with a key while the upper end of the pin is adapted to lie on the periphery of a key plug in which said tumbler is mounted.
14. In a pin tumbler lock, a series of pin tumbler chambers, a tumbler in each of said chambers comprising a sleeve portion of predetermined i diameter substantially that of said tumbler chambers and having a central bore formed longitudinally therein, a pin portion iittedtightly into said bore and adapted to be forced into said bore to vary the distance between the upper end thereof and the lower end of said sleeve portion, a plate covering the seriesof tumbler chambers with its outer surface within the plug periphery, said plate having holes allowing free action of said pin portions of `the tumblers but smaller in diameter than the sleeveportionswhereby vto retain the tumblers in the key plug.
15. In a cylinder-lock having a casing member and .a cylinder member rotatably mounted in the casing, the said cylinder member and casing member each havinga set of spaced openings arranged to be aligned in one position of relative rotation of said members, a keyway in the said cylinder member communicating with the said openings and adapted to receive a key, a reciprocabfle tumbler pin foreach opening in the said casing member, a spring backing eachtumbler pin for projecting it into the opening in the said cylinder member to' lock lthe said members against rotation, a reciprocable driving pin for each opening in the cylinder member extending into the keyway and arranged to engage a corresponding tumbler pin whereby upon insertion of a key in the keyway the driving pins retract the tumbler pins flush with the outer surface of the cylinder to permit rotation of the cylinder within the casing, and cooperating stop means carried by each driving pin and the cylinder for limiting to equal ldistances the movement of each of the driving pins outwardly of the said cylinder, the said stop means arresting the movement of the driving pin into the casing at a distance insuincient to permit the tumbler pin and spring tor bottom on the opening in the casing, whereby decoding of the cylinder lock is made diiicult.`
16. In a cylinder lock having a casing member and a cylinder member rotatably mounted in the casing, the said cylinder member and casing member each having a set of spaced openings arranged to be aligned in one position of relative rotation of said members, a keyway in the said cylinder member communicating with the said openings and adapted to receive a key, a reciprocable tumbler pin for each opening in the said casing member, a coil spring between the bottom of each opening and the tumbler pin for projecting the tumbler pin into the opening in the said cylinder member to lock the said member against rotation, a reciprocable driving pin for each opening in the cylinder member extending into the keyway and arranged to engage a corresponding tumbler pin whereby upon insertion of a key in the key way the driving pins retract the tumbler pins flush with the outer surface of the' cylinder to permit rotation of the cylinder within the casing, a stop carried. by each driving pin, the stop on each driving pin being positioned the same distance from the key engaging end of tne driving pin as the stop on every other driving pin, and cooperating stops carried by the cylinder, the said cooperating stops on the driving pin and cylinderv being so positioned that outward movement of the driving pin will be arrested before the tumbler pin completely collapses the coil spring, the said cylinder stops being positioned at similar points along the path of reciprocation of the said driving pins whereby when the driving pins are full projected their key engaging ends are approximately aligned.
1'7. In a cylinder lock having a casing member and a cylinder member rotatably mounted in the casing, the said cylinder member and casing member each having a set of spaced openings arranged to be aligned in one position of relative rotation of the said members, a reciprocable tumbler pin for each opening in the said casing member projectable into the openings in the said cylinder member to lock the said members against rotation, a driving pin for each opening in the cylinder member arranged to engage a corresponding tumbler pin and retract the same flush with the outer surface of the said cylinder to permit rotation of the cylinder in the said casing, the said driving pins having different lengths, and cooperating stop means carried by each driving pin and the cylinder for limiting to equal distances the movement of each of the driving pins outwardly of the said cylinder, the movement of the driving pin outwardly of the cylinder being lessthan the difference between the length of the tumbler pin and the length of its opening in the casing whereby decoding of the cylinder lock is made difficult.
18. A pin tumbler lock pin unit having opposite ends for engaging a driver and key respectively and comprising parts with their longitudinal axessubstantially coinciding and extending substantially through the centers of their opposite ends, said parts being adjustable relative to each 'other longitudinally of the pin axis to vary the lengthvof the unit.
19. In a pin tumbler lock, a driver, a tumbler pin, said driver and pin having their longitudinal axes substantially coinciding and extending substantially through the centers of their opposite ends, and means for changing the height of the tumbler pin seat for said driver Without disassembling the tumbler pin.
20. In a key lock, a tumbler pin having a keyengaging part and a driver-engaging part axially aligned therewith, and means for varying the distance between the bottom of said key-engaging part and the top of said driver-engaging part.
2,1. A unit lock pin having opposite ends for engaging a driver and key respectively comprising telescoping parts, one of said parts consisting of a cylindrical tube and receiving the other of said parts.
22. In a key lock, a case, a rotatable plug therein'having a pin tumbler recess, a pin tumbler slidable in said recess and comprising a plurality of parts which may be shifted to different relative positions longitudinally of the tumbler, and means for temporarily holding one of said parts immovable in said plug while the other part is being adjusted relative to said first-mentioned part.
523. In a lock, a rotatable plug having a key receiving elongated passage, a pin tumbler lock pin unit extending at right angles to said passage and comprising parts adjustable lengthwise of the pin tumbler to vary the over-all length of the unit, and a driver engaging the outer end of said unit. 3
35324. A pin tumbler lock pin unit comprising telescoping cylindrical parts having a common axis extending through their outer ends, the outer end of one part being arranged for Contact With a key, and the outer end of the other part being arranged for contact with a driver.
GEO. W. WILDER.