US 2234198 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 11, 1941. REED EARTH 301mm APPARATUS 1 Filed March 24, 1939 3 Sheets-Sheqt l gin/newton.
March 11, 1941. Q 5 REED 2,234,198
EARTH sonme APPARATUS Filed March 24, 1939 3 Sheets-Sheet 2' glwucm/fm:
QZ arence E. Reed,
March 11, 1941. c. E. REED EARTH BORING APPARATUS 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 G'Janence E Reed,
Filed March 24, 1939 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE EARTH BORING APPARATUS Clarence Reed, Wichita, Kana, assignorto Chicago Pneumatic Tool Company, New York, N. Y., a corporation of New Jersey 1 Application March 24, 1939, Serial No. 263,973
This invention relates to earth boring tools of the type in which a plurality of independently rotatable cutters are mounted upon the under side of the bit head.
The invention contemplates the provision of a cutter support for certain of these independently rotatable cutters which may be made in one piece. In this respect, the general relationship between the cutters to'be supported is illustrated in the copending application 245,507 of Clarence E. Reed, filed on December 13, 1938. Instead of the separate cutter bearing supports of this copending application, which have to be r assembled to form a unit, the one piece sup-.
port of the present invention provides a more rigid structure and one which may be more easily fabricated.
In the accompanying drawings- Figure 1 is an elevation partly in section of a preferred embodiment of the invention.
Fig. 2 is an elevation of the righthand end of Figure 1, thejcutter being indicated in dotted lines.
Fig. 3 is an elevation of the integral spindle member of Figure 1.
Fig. 4 is a side elevation of the cutter separating collar..
Fig. 5 is an end elevation of Fig. 4.
Fig; 6 is a section through a modified collar. Fig. '7 is a side elevation similar to a portion of Figure 1 illustrating a. modification thereof.
Fig. 8 is an elevation of the righthand end of Fig. 7.
- Fig. 9 is a side elevation partly in section of the cutter separating collar of Fig. '7.
Fig. 10 is an end-elevation of Fig. 9. I Fig. 11 is an elevation of the end portion of the integral spindle member of Fig. 7.
Fig. 12 is a modification of the retaining means for the cutter separating collar of Fig. 7.
Fig. 13 is an end elevation of Fig. 12. Fig. 14 is a side elevation similar to Figure 1 illustrating a further modification of the inven- Fig. 19 is an end elevation of the cutter separating collar of Fig. 14.
to cut an area between the areascut by cutters I and I, an uncut space being left between the area cut by 4 and the areas cut by I and I. It
is intended that with these cutters I, 4, and 1 5 shall be associated the cutters 2, 3, 5, and 6 illustrated in application Serial No. 245,507, so that the uncut areas between cutters I, 4, and I will be disintegrated. I
The axes of rotation of cutters I, 4, and I are all disposed in a common vertical plane containing the vertical axis :c-a: of the bit head In. Cutter 4 is of smaller diameter than cutter I, and is located lower than cutter I, so' that it operates upon substantially the same horizontal area with the tooth portion lb of cutter I. Cutter 1 preferably is of still smaller diameter, and by being located still lower, operates upon the horizontal plane cut by the teeth of cutter 4 and teeth Ib. Cutter 1 rotates upon a substantially horizontal axis, whereas cutters 4 and I rotate upon axes inclined to the horizontal, and which are acute with respect to each other. As a result of this arrangement, the cutters I, 4, and l converge upwardly within the bit head.
Cutter I is rotatably mounted upon a spindle H, which projects laterally from a carrier I2, having a stemv portion I3 for attachment to the side of the bit head I0. Upon the spindle portion II are formed raceways l4 and I5 which are separated by a flange I6. Roller bearings l1 and I8 are rotatable respectively upon the raceways I4 and-I5, and cooperate with raceways formed within the interior of the cutter ;I.
A spindle member' 20 is provided to support the roller cutters 4. and 1, this spindle member,-
as a feature of the invention, being made entirely in one piece. The spindle member 2|] includes a stem portion 24 which may be inserted within a borehole 25 through the spindle portion I! of carrier I2. Welding may be applied at 22 to retain the stem 24 within the bore hole Adjacent the base of stem 24 is a flange 21, which is of a size to overlie the endsof roller bearings l1 and retain them upon raceway l4.
In this manner, the cutter I is retained uponv separating collar made up of segments 44 and:
45. As is shown in Fig. 4, one side of the collar formed by these segments is-intended to bear against the ends of rollers 42 to retain them upon their racew'ays 33, and to thereby retain cutter 4 in position. To secure the segments 44 and 45 upon the spindle portion 43, their periphery is formed withagroove 45 in which lies I a band 41 which encircles the segments andv is welded at its ends.
Next in order along the spindle member 20 are'raceways 50 .and which are separated by a flange 52. Upon these raceways are roller' bearings 53 and 54 respectively, and which are within corresponding raceways of the cutter l. The rollers 53 are retained in position'by the adjacent side of the cutter spacing 'collarmade up of segments Y44 and 45. The bearings 54 are retained inposition by a flanged enlargement 55 of the spindle member 20.
To support the end ofthe cutter member 20, which is adjacent the cutter 1, a central. hanger 31, which may be attached centrally of the bit head, is provided. The lower end of hanger 31 is forked, so that one portion 32 will receive the flanged enlargement 55, and the other por-' tion 33 thereof will receive the exterior of the collar segment 44. It is desirable that the opposite vertical sides of flanged enlargement 55 be flattened to form faces 34, and that the'interior of the forked end 32 be correspondingly flattened to thereby prevent rotation of the spindle. In like manner, it is desirable that the exterior of the collar segments 44 and 45 be formed with flattened faces 35 which will bear against correspondingly formed flattened faces within-the forked portion 33 to thereby prevent rotation of the collar segments about the portion 43 of spindle member 20.
In assembling this cutter arrangement, the roller bearings l8 would flrst be placed upon. their raceway l5, and the cutter I would there after be placed in position over them. Rollers Il would next be placed in position uponrace-- way l4, and the stem 24 of spindle member would be inserted in bore hole 25, and the welding 22 applied to retain flange 2! against the end of spindle portion-l l. The bearings 4| wouldnext be placed upon their raceway 33, and the cutter 4 would be brought into. position upon them by passing the cutterover the flanged enlargement 55 .and over the flange 52. For this reason, it is important that the flanged enlargement 55 and the flange 52 be of smaller diam-.
eter than-the interior portion of cutter 44, which is to lie adjacent to the flange 4ll.
The cutter l is next passed over the end of the spindle member 20, and inasmuch as the fianged'enlargement 55 is of the same diameter as, or is smaller than, the flange 52, such positioning of the cutter l is made possible. This cutter I is moved close to cutter 4, so that the bearings 54 may be placed upon raceway 5|.
The cutter "I is then moved in position over rollmaterial 41a.
ers 54, and it is apparent that these rollers are held in position by the flange 52 and the flanged enlargement 55 on opposite sides of them. The
' bearings 53 are next placed in position on raceway 50, and the bearings 42 are placed in position upon raceway 39. Such positioning'of the bearings 42 and'53 is readily possible because of the wide spacing between the cutters 4 and 1 due to'the absence of the collar segments 44 'and 45, and due to the length of and the small diameter of the portion 43 of the spindle mem ber 20. The collar segments 44 and 45 are next placed in position upon their receiving portion 43, andthe retaining band 41 is placedabout them and welded to prevent their separation.
This assembly is then placed in position in the bit head, and due to the cooperating relationship between the flat faces 35 and the inner faces of the forked end 33, rotation of the 'collar segments 44 and 45 will be prevented, as
above noted Instead of the collar segments 44 -and 45,
which have been discussed, the collar segments 44a and 45a of Fig. 6 may be provided. These segments 44a and 45a are similar in general shape to the segments 44 and 45, buttheir meeting faces are inclined so as to receive welding These meeting faces should be so widely separated that'the welding material 4la will extend to the spindle portion 43 to thereby prevent rotation of the segments 44a and 45a.
collar segments is the same as with they collar segments 44 and 45.
In the embodiment of Figs. 7 to llfinclusive, a somewhat different manner of retaining the The manner of assembly with the use of these cutter spacing collar in position and of retaining the cutter l in position is utilized; In this arrangement, the raceways 38b and. 39b, the cutter 4b, and its manner of mounting upon the spindle member 20b, are similar to that of cutter'4 of Fig. 1. This includes the bearings 4lb and 42b which rotate upon the raceways 38b and 39b.
ihe cutter separating collar receiving portion 43b is similar to portion 43 of Fig. 3, withthe exception that this preferably is formed with the flattened sides 60.
I Cutter lb is rotatableupon bearings 53b and 54b which rotate uponracewaysjllb and 5"; of the spindle member 23b, and in this respect is similar to themounting of cutter l- .of Fig. 1. At the end of spindle member 20b is a cylindrical portion 55b preferably having the same diameter as the largest part of raceway 5lb.
The collar between cutters 4b and 1b is made.
up of segments 44b and b. The exterior of segments 44b and "45b is-formed with a cylin-.
drical surface 6|, which is concentric with the axis of rotation of cutter lb. Projecting from the side of cutter 'lb which is adjacent thecol-.
lar segments 44b and 45b, is a hub or ring-like member 62 formed integrally with the cutter lb, and the interior of which closely flts the surface 6|. In this manner, the collar segments 44b and 45b. are prevented from separation and are retained in position upon portion 43b of spindle member 201;. The interior of collar segments 44b and' 45b is formed with flat faces 63 which fit against the flat faces 80 of portion 43b, and thereby prevent rotation of thesecol-- lar' segments. If desired, welding may be applied at 34 to firmly secure the segments to the spindle portion 431), but the hub 62 of cutter lb will serve to prevent separation of the collar segments Mb and 45b in the event that this welding 64 is not applied, or becomes fractured.
Upon the end portion 55b of spindle member 20b is intended to be aflixed a retaining collar 65. This retaining collar 65 may be welded directly to the spindle, or, as is here shown, is
.welded to the lower end 32b of central hanger 31b, and in this manner is held in place.
To assemble the collars of Fig.7, the bearings Mb are first placed upon raceway 38b, and the cutter 4b is then passed over the end of spindle member 20b in place upon these rollers. To permit this positioning of cutter 4b, it is necessary that the flange 521) between raceways 50b. and 5lb be smaller than the smallest diameter inside of cutter 4b. The bearings 421) are next placed in position within tire cutter 4b and upon raceway 39b, and the collar segments 44b and 451) are next placed upon the spindle portion 43b.
With the collar segments 44b and 45b held in position, as by the welding material 64, the bearing rollers 53b are placed in position upon race-' way 501), and the cutter lb is then passed over and upon these rollers. Rollers 54b are next placed upon their raceway 5H), and the retaining collar 65 is then placed upon the projecting end 55b of the spindle; This cutter assembly may be secured to a carrier similar to the carrier 12 of Figure 1 for insertion in a bit head.
Instead of utilizing a hub portion 62 of the cutter 1b to retain the collar segments Nb and 45b in position, a separate ring member 66 may be placed upon the surface SI of these collar segments. This ring 66 would be placed upon the collar segments immediately before the cutter lb is placed in position upon its bearings 53b, and in all other respects the assembly of this arrangement would be similar to that of the arrangement of Fig. 7.
In the embodiment of Figs. 14 to 20, inclusive, the cutters to, do, and 1c are supported upon a spindle which is integral throughout its length, and which is formed in one piece with the carrier I20. Adjacent the base portion I20 of this carrier are formed the raceways l5c and No to receive the bearings I80 and H respectively.
The flange 210, which is next in order along the spindle, should be the same or slightly smaller in diameter than the'flange I60 between the raceway its and 150. This relationship is important, because with this embodiment of .the invention, the cutter to is to be located in its proper position by passing it over the free end of the spindle, and over the flange 210.
At a point around the periphery of flange 21c is formed a notch 10 which should extend inwardly of the flange as far as the largest diameter of the raceway I40. This notch should be large enough to permit the insertion through it of the roller bearings llc when the cutter I0 is in position upon the rollers I80. To close the notch 10 after all of the rollers llc are thus placed in position, a ring member H having a lug12 on its interior may be placed upon the periphery of flange 210. The lug I2 serves as a closure for the notch 10, so that the surface of flange) 210 against which the rollers ilc bear is uninterrupted.
The cutter 4c is rotatable upon roller bearings 41c and 420 which bear upon raceways 38c and.39c. Next toraceway 390 is a portion 430 intended to receive collar segments 48c and 450, which are similar to the segments a and 45a of Fig. 6 in that they are to be welded together,
and by this welding material are to be held upon the spindle portion 430.
A raceway 500 is formed upon the spindle similarly to the raceway 50 of Fig. 3, and next to this raceway 500 is a flange 52c. From the flange 520 the spindle is formed with a reduced extension 550, this reduced extension being of a length to extend beyond the side face of cutter 'Ic. Upon this reduced extension 550 is intended to be-placed a member 650 which has a portion Ic thereof providing a raceway for bearings 540 for the roller cutter 1c, and another 'portion 66 which serves as a flange to retain the rollers 540 in position.
To assemble the cutter of Fig. 14 in place, the rollers IBc would first be placed upon their raceway l5c, and the cutter lc, .by passing along the entire length of the spindle, would be brought in position upon these rollers. Thereafter bearings Iic would be inserted in. place upon the raceway Me by passing them through the notch 10 of flange 210. The ring member ll would then be located onflange 210 with the lug 12 thereof within the notch 10, and welding material would be applied at 13 to retain this ring member in'place. The bearings 4Ic would next be placed upon raceway 38c, and the cutter 40 would be passed over the end of the spindle and upon these rollers. The rollers 420 would next be placed upon raceway 39c and within the cutter 40. The bearings 53c should next be placed upon the raceway 50c, and the cutter 10 be passed over the end of this spindle and in position upon them. Thereafter the collar segments 44c and- 4.5c would be afiixed by welding upon the spindle portion 430. The rollers 54c would next be placed within the cutter Tic, and the member'GBc would be passed over the projecting portion 550 of the spindle to bring its raceway portion 5lc within the rollers 54c, and to bring the flange portion 660 thereof against the ends of these rollers 540. By then welding the member 650 to the spindle, as at 67., all of the cutters will be retained in place upon the spindle. This-spindle assembly may then be attached to a bit head by welding the stem I30 to the side of the bit head, and by welding the member 650 to the fork 320 of the central hanger 310.
It will be understood that departures may be made from the details illustrated in the drawings, and that details illustrated in connection with one embodiment of the invention may be substituted for the corresponding detail of another embodiment. For example, instead of the retaining member 65 of Fig. 7, it would be possible to substitute a member 650 of Fig. 14, which would provide both the raceway and the retaining flange for the roller 54b of Fig. 7.
All of the roller bearings mentioned in the foregoing description preferably are frusto-conical in shape. There are two sets for each cutter and arranged with their smaller diameter ends adjacent each other, and bearing upon the inclined faces of thev flanges on the spindle organization, such, for instance, as in Fig. 1, where ,the smaller diameter ends of the roller bearings wardly from the vertical axis of the. drill, while the companion set of roller bearings take end thrusts of the cutter in a direction inwardlyv towards the vertical axis of the drill. A like ar- 55 tached, said retaining means including a porder a bearing surface for a side roller cutter, a
' flange, a bearing surface for an intermediate roller cutter, a portion for receiving a cutter separating collar, and a bearing surface for an adjacent roller cutter; roll'er cuttersupon said bearing surfaces; a collar upon said portion; and
- retaining means at one end of the spindle for retaining the adjacent cutter in place on the spindle, said collar receiving portion being of a diameter not greater than the smallest internal diameter of the intermediate cutter, and the bearing surfaces forthe intermediate and adjacent cutter being upon parts of the spindle which are integral with the collar receiving portion.
2. A cutter assemblyaccording to claim 1 in i -which said flange-is integral with said integral between the cutters and their respective bearing parts of the spindle to form a unit removably attached to the shank portion of the support. 1 30- 3. A cutter assembly according to claim 1 in which the entire spindle and shank constitute an integralsupport, and said flange and remaining parts of the spindle away from the shank are of a diameter not greater than the, smallest internal diameter'of the side cutter.
4. A cutter assembly according to claim 1 in which said'fiange and said retaining means are integral with said integral parts of the spindle to form a unit removably attached to the shankportion' of the support, and roller bearings are surfaces, said portion of the spindle for receiving a cutter separating collar being of a length to'permit insertion of the bearings within the central cutter, and said collar is segmental.
5. A cutter assembly according to claim 1 in which the spindle includes a free end portion projecting beyond the central cutter. and upon which saidretaining means is removably attached. i
6. A cutter assembly according to claim 1 in which the spindle includes a free en'd portion projecting beyond the central dutter, and upon- "an earth boring tool, having between its ends F which said retaining means is 'removably attion lying within and providing a bearing 'surface for the central cutter.
7 A cutter assembly according to claim 1 in which the axes of rotation of the center and intermediate cutter are at an acute angle with respect to each other, and the opposite faces of said collar are perpendicular.to the respective axes, and means is provided to prevent rotation of said collar. v
8. A one-piece spindle for rollar cutters of a flange, and on one side of the flange attachmentmeans for securing the spindle in place, and on the other side of the flange and in the following order away therefrom a bearing surface for a roller cutter, a portion for receiving a cutter spacing collar, and a bearing surface foranother roller cutter, said collar receiving portion being no larger in diameter than the largest diameter of the bearing surface next to said flange.
9. A one-piece spindle according to claim 8 which includes as an integral part thereof a retaining flange beyond the bearing surface furthest from said flange.
10. A one-piece spindle according to claim 8 having as an integral part thereof a projection extending beyondthe bearing surface to receive thereon a cutter retaining member.
11. A one-piece spindle according to claim 8 in which said bearing surface furthest from said flange includes a roller bearing raceway, and said collar receiving portion is at least as long as said raceway.
12. A one-piece spindle according to claim 8 in which said attachment means is a stem projecting laterally from the flange.
13. A one-piece spindle according to claim'8 in which said attachment means is a shank for attachment to the side of a bit head, and another bearing surface is upon said spindle between said. flange and said shank. a
14. A one-piece spindle according to claim 8 which includes between said flange and said attachment means, a bearing surface with respect to which the said flange is no larger in diameter.
15. A roller cutter assembly comprising a onepiece spindle having a flange and in order away from said flange a bearing surface for a roller cutter, a portion for receiving a cutter spacing collar, and a bearing surface for another roller cutter; roller cutters upon said bearing surfaces;
wardly of bearing surfaces thereon for each ofsaid cutters, a portion for receiving a cutter spacing-collar, and a segmental collar assemble upon said collar receiving portion.
'a segmental collar upon said'collarreceiving portion; means at the end ofthe spindle beyond the 19.- Aroller cutter assembly according to claim 18 and roller bearings between-the cutters and their respective bearing surfaces.
20. A roller cutter assembly comprising two cutters, a spindle therefor and roller.bearings between the cutters and the spindle, some of said bearings being insertedfrom between the cutters to operating position, and a segmental collar assembled between the cutters.
21. A roller cutter assembly comprising a spindle, a cutter, roller bearings positioned between the spindle and cutter, a flange on the spindle, a gate in the'flange and a ring having a lug shaped to fit said gate, said ring being secured to said flange.
22. A cutter assembly for an earth boring drill comprising means for attachment to a drill head and projecting therefrom an integral spindle having therealong in the following order away from the attachment means, a roller bearing surface for an inclined side roller cutter, a flange, a roller bearing surfacefor an intermediate roller cutter, a portion for receiving a cutter separating collar, and a roller bearing surface' for an adjacent 7 cutter; roller bearings upon said roller bearing surfaces; roller cutters upon said roller bearings; a collar removably mounted upon said portion, and means removably mounted upon said spindle for separately retaining gaid roller bearings and said cutters on said spindle;
23. A roller cutter unit comprising a side roller cutter, an intermediate roller cutter and a central roller cutter; an integral spindle member for said cutters, double rows of tapered roller bearings between each of the cutters and said spindle, the axes of said cutters being all inclined to each other in the same vertical plane.
24. As an article oi manufacture, a spindle for a roller cutter assembly of a rotary earth boring drill, said spindle having a portion for receiving a side roller cutter, a portion tor receiving an intermediate roller cutter, a portion for receiving a central roller cutter, and a portion for receiving a separating collar for two roller cutters, said spindle portions and said collar receiving portion being integrally connected together, and each cutter receiving portion having an annular flange integral therewith intermediate of its length separating-frusto-conical roller bearing raceways on the spindle, said spindle portions having their axes at an inclination to each other in a vertical plane, the said collar receiving portion of the spindle being of less diameter than the" annular 'flanges of roller cutter receiving portions of the described.
spindle, substantially as CLARENCE E. REED.