US 2234797 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
March 11, 1941. c, M BURNER SLAB cous'rnucTIon Filed July 29, 1938 2 Sheats-Sheat 1 ffl/ am.. u x mww March 11, 1941. C, M BURNER SLAB CONSTRUCTION Filed July 29, 193B 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 Patented Mar. 11, 1941 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 4 Claims.
rlhis invention relates to slab constructions and more particularly pertains to a molded slab formed of a cernentitious material and to a mode of assembling such slabs in the formation of :l walls, lfloors, ceilings, roofs and the like.
An object of the invention is to provide a molded slab which is so formed and reinforced as to permit the construction of panels of sufficient length to entend continuously from the lll foundation upwardly to at least the plate of a conventional one story building and whereby the side walls and partition walls of such a building may be readily formed of a series of upstanding slabs arranged edge to edge.
Another object is to provide a means whereby contiguous edges of assembled slabs may be substantially united.
lino/ther object is to provide a means for interconnecting adjacent edges oi assembled slabs such as to facilitate the formation of a hollow wall structure by assembling the slabs in a pair of spaced parallel rows with the slabs in one row connected to the slabs in the other row.
Another object is to provide a slab with a sur face construction such that on placing the slabs face to face or in contact with each other ade quate air space will be formed therebetween to serve as insulation against the passage of heat im and moisture from the face of one slab to the :tace of the other.
A further object is to provide means for uniting the edges of the slabs to molded supporting columns in a fashion to effect secure anchorage between the slabs and columns.
With the foregoing objects in view, together with such other objects and advantages as may subsequently appear, the invention is carried into effect as illustrated by way of example in the accompanying drawings, in which:
Fig. l is a perspective view of the slab showing it as disposed in an upright position;
Fig. 2 is a perspective View showing a pair of the slabs as arranged face to face in a horizontal position as in forming a floor thereof;
Fig. 3 is a detail in horizontal section illustrating the manner of uniting a pair of slabs arranged edge to edge as informing a Wall, floor or rool:` of a single slab thickness;
Fig. Ll is a view in horizontal section depicting the manner of forming a hollow wall structure by spaced rows of the slabs and showing the manner of uniting the adjacent edges of each row of the slabs in a supporting column;
Fig. 5 is a view in perspective of the upper p0rltd Htl
tion of a double wall structure erected as shown in Fig. e;
Fig. 6 is a View in section and perspective of a fragmentary portion of a double wall and floor structure as formed in accordance with the in- 5 vention;
Fig. 7 is a view in horizontal section showing a modified form of the construction shown in Fig. 4 and particularly as to a demountable fermemployed in molding an interconnecting column; w
Fig. il is a detail in horizontal section of the wall structure shown in Fig. l with the forms re moved;
Fig. 9 is an enlarged detail in horizontal section illustrating a modied form of the demountim able mold used in elfecting interconnection of adjacent edges of' a slab in forming a hollow wal1,` hoor or roof structure of double slab thickness;
Fig. lil is a view in section and elevation on a n :reduced scale taken on the line lt--lt of Fig. 9;
Fig. ll is a perspective view in section depicting the manner of forming a wall or partition by assembling rows of the slabs face to face in contactwith each other;
lilig. l2 is a detail in perspective depicting the 25 manner of forming a wall or partition by assembling a single row of the slabs edge to edge;
Fig. 13 (Sheet l) is a view showing an anchor adapted to be applied to a slab for engagement 30 with tie wires.
Referring to the drawings more specifically A indicates generally a slab which is formed of a molded cementitious material such as concrete and is preferably formed of Portland cement, sand, and an aggregate consisting of particles oi volcanic ash or diatomaceous earth or the like, which matenials are intermixed with water and poured into a suitable mold and allowed to harden as is common in forming concrete structures.
The slab A is preferably rectangular in outline and dimensioned according to structural requirements to span a given space; the slab being subject to being formed of a length such as to extend continuously from a foundation or sill to the plate in the usual one-story building structure, when used to form the exterior walls of the latter, and being formed of a length to extend between the floor and ceiling of rooms when employed in forming interior walls or partitions. It is manifest, however, that the slabs may be formed of lengths greater than required for wall constructions as where used in the formation of IOGfS, ODTS, and the like, and may be formed in short engins for mung in spaces beneath wmdows, and above windows and doors, and the like.
' Likewise the slabs may be formed of any suitable width convenient for handling and are formed of such thickness as to afford requisite strength.
In carrying out the invention the slab is formed with one face ,thereof flat as indicated at c and with the other face thereof ribbed or corrugated; the corrugated face comprising a series of parallel ribs b and channels c of arcuate cross section such as to impart a transverse serpentine contour on one side of the slab and leading from one longitudinal edge of the slab to the other with each longitudinal margin thereof terminating on the corrugated face of the slabs in ribs I4 anked by channels i5 as particularly shown in Fig. e.
By thus forming the slab it may be made quite thin so as to render it comparatively light in weight without sacrificing strength; it having been found in practice that a slab formed with the corrugated face is comparable in strength for the purpose for which it is intended to a slab having parallel faces throughout having a thickness equal to the thickness of the ribbed slab through the thickest portion of the ribs b thereof.
' However, in order to strengthen the slab and minimize cracking thereof along its thinner portions located at the bottoms of the grooves c, reinforcing wires I6 are imbedded in the slab, which reinforcing wire may be made in the form of electric welded wire mesh, preferably composed of crossed lengths of wire of requisite strength extending diagonally across the slab with their end portions protruding at least from the longitudinal edges of the slab to form ties which are adapted to be twisted into engagement with reinforcing wires projecting from the contiguous margin of an adjacent slab, or to be wrapped into engagement with reinforcing rods as will presently be described.
In some instances the ribs b extend throughout the length of the slab as shown in Fig. 2, as where the slabs are employed in forming floors and roofs, but where the slabs are utilized in the erection of hollow walls and partitions it is desirable to terminate the ribs in spaced relation to the edge margins of the slab as shown in Fig. 1 and whereby the ends of the slab are formed with marginal flanges I1 having opposed parallel faces.
By forming the slabs as above described they constitute structural units which are applicable for use in various formations of walls, roofs, floors and the like and are subject to being made proximate the structure being erected since they may be readily formed in simple horizontal molds thus simplifying transportation and minimizing the costs of handling. Furthermore, by the provision of the marginal ribs I4 and flanking channels I5, the assembly of the slabs in a wall structure and the interconnection of the side portions of adjacent slabs is greatly facilitated, since the channels I! may be utilized as a means for effecting detachable engagement with a form structure B, as shown for example in Figs. 3, 4, 7 and 9; the form structure being varied as to form and material thereof as occasion may require according to the character of the structure to be erected and also according to expediency, but which form structure essentially includes a pair of side members I8 and I9 having edge portions engageable in the channels I5 of adjacentslabs A arranged in a row, and with the side members I8 and I9 spaced apart in a fashion to form a mold into which a cementitious material may be poured to form a supporting column or beam C.
In forming a wall of a single row of slabs the latter are arranged and suitably supported in an upright position edge to edge with the adjacent slabs slightly spaced apart and with the corrugated faces of the slabs projecting in a. corresponding direction. The reinforcing wires I6 of the adjacent .slabs are twisted. into engagement with each other and are engaged at least in part with reinforcing rods d extending lengthwise of the slabs adjacent the spaced margins thereof. A form B is erected at the gap between 'adjacent slabs A as illustrated in Fig. 3; the form in this instance being shown as comprising the side panels I8 and I9 arranged. in parallel relation to each other and seating at their inner ends in the channels I6 of the adjacent slabsAand as bearing at their outer marginal portions adjacent a mold panel "2liy so as to form a box like mold extending across the gap andbea'ring against the corrugated faces of the slabs with the marginal ribs I4 of the slabs projecting in inward spaced relation to the inner faces of the mold side panels I8 and I9. An end mold panel 2i is arranged over the gap between adjacent slabs A and seats on the outer faces of the latter. Any suitable means may be employed for retaining the mold members in place against the slabs, but which means is here shown in Fig. 3. as comprising a length of Wire 22 passed around the mold members I 8, I9 and 20 and having its ends passed through openings 23 formed in the slabs A with the ends of the wire twisted together as indicated at 24 in such fashion as to clamp the mold members substantially in place. Any suitable number of the wire fastenings may be employed throughout the length of the mold, and any suitable arrangement of reinforcing members may be placed in the mold B.
Where desired, anchors 23 may be engaged in the openings 23 to which the wire fastenings may be engaged as shown in Fig. 13.
'I'he mold B is filled with concrete which on hardening forms the column C in which the marginal flanges I4 of the adjacent slabs are imbedded so as to anchor the slabs into the column and effect a substantial connection between adjacent slabs. On hardening of the concrete column the mold B may be removed.
In forming a hollow wall construction a pair of spaced rows of the slabs A are assembled edge to edge with the corrugated faces of the slabs of each row presented inwardly toward the slabs of the other row as particularly shown in Fig. 4, and with the edges of adjacent slabs slightly spaced apart and with the gaps between the slabs of one row arranged directly opposite the gaps between the slabs of the other row. The reinforcingfwires I6 of the adjacent slabs are twisted into engagement with each other or are engaged at least in part with reinforcing rods d extending lengthwise of the slabs adjacent the spaced margins thereof. The mold side panels I8 and I9 are arranged with their edges seating in opposed marginal channels I5 of opposing slabs A, and mold end members 25 and 26 are positioned over the gaps to bear against the flat outer faces of the slabs.
As shown in Fig. 4 a wire 2'I is passed around the mold members I8,I I9, 25 and 26 and is extended through openings 23 in the slabs and has its end portions twisted together as indicated at 28 so as to bind the mold assembly together with the marginal portions of the slabs incorporated therein.
On pouring concrete into the mold B a column is formed in which the contiguous margins lil of the slabs in each row are imbedded. On severing the wire 21 the mold panels 25 and 2B may be removed from the exterior face of the wall. |The mold side panels I8 and I9 may be left in place interiorly of the wall or they may be withdrawn lengthwise therefrom.
Where it is found desirable to remove the panels i8 and IB from the interior of a double wall structure the panels may be formed in sections as illustrated for example in Fig. '7, each of the panels being here shown as embodying a pair of marginal strips e and j the inner edges oi' which abut a pair of strips g and the outer edges of which seat in the channels l of the 'wall slabs. By this arrangement when it is desired to remove the panels the intermediate strips y are pulled outwardly away from the molded column free of the marginal strips e and f whereupon the latter may be moved inwardly toward each other and withdrawn clear of the channels i5 so that the panel elements may then be readily withdrawn from between the interconnected slabs.
Another construction of the removable sectional mold side panels is shown in Fig. 9 wherein each of the panels is shown as embodying a pair of marginal strips h and i of triangular cross section arranged on opposite sides of an intermediate strip 7' of rectangular cross section with the apex portion of the strips h and i seatlng in the channels I5 of the slabs and with their base portions abutting the strip 7' and temporarily secured thereto as by nails k in a fashion which will permit ready withdrawal of the strip y' from between the strips h and i.
Another mode of holding the mold assembly in place is shown in Fig. 9 which consists in passing a tie wire l through end panels 29 and 3B arranged over the gaps between adjacent slabs and seating on the outer faces of the slabs; the wire l having its ends twisted together as indicated at 3| in such fashion as to draw the mold panels 29 and 3|! towardeach other and clamp the opposed slabs A of the rows thereof against the movable panels I8 and I9 so as to hold the latter in place.
By seating the edges of the mold panels I8 and I9 in the channels I5 of the slabs A they are securely held in place against outward thrusts imposed thereon on filling the molds with concrete and yet are subject to being withdrawn lengthwise from the channels I5 on hardening of the concrete to effect their removal from the wall structure.
In erecting a hollow wall or partition with the spaced rows of slabs, the slabs are initially disposed in an upright position and arranged edge to edge on a foundation or sill D as shown in Fig. 6 with the flanges I1 on the lower ends of the slabs seating on ledges m formed on the foundation or sill, and with the flat inner faces of the flanges I1 abutting against upstanding walls n projecting from the ledges m whereby the lower ends of the slabs are securely supported with the lower end portions of the slabs of each row spaced apart. The slabs are securely held in an upright position in any suitable fashion. The mold boxes B are erected at the joint between adjacent slabs as before described. Manifestly the slabs may be arranged with their lower ends seating on any desired form of foundation.
On erection of a desired length of the wall structure and removal of the forms therefrom, a form panel 32 is seated on the ledge formed at the upper ends of the corrugations b of the slabs A to close the upper end of the space between opposed slabs, whereupon a molded beam E is formed in conventional fashion to cap the upper4 end of the wall.
By forming the slabs A with the corrugated face cgmprising the alternate ribs l1 and channels c, the side panels Il--IS of the mold B may be readily positioned at differently spaced distances apart according to the width of column or beam C desired. since each channel c aifords a seat for the margin of a mold panel. For example the mold panels may be arranged in the second channels c from the margins of the slabs as indicated in dotted lines F in Fig. 9, instead of in the channels I5 adjacent the edge ribs b as shown in full lines in Fig. 9.
As before stated the slabs A are also applicable for use in the construction of roofs, ceilings, and floors which use is carried into effect by laying the slabs on a suitable supporting structure which may comprise supporting beams and which in the case of floors may consist of ground surface.
Where it is desired to form a hollow floor structure, a course of the slabs A is initially laid with the corrugated faces thereof extended uppermost whereupon a second course of the slabs is laid on the first course with the corrugated faces of the slabs thereof seating upon the corrugated face of the slabs of the lower course and with the ribs of the slabs of one course crossing the ribs of the slabs of the other course preferably at right angles, as shown in Figs. 2 and 6. By this arrangement an air space is formed between the layers of the slabs which may be sealed to constitute a dead air space or may be arranged to afford a circulation or flow of air between the adjacent slabs.
In some instances a wall or partition may be formed of rows of the slabs A positioned face to face to produce a wall of double slab thickness; the adjacent slabs of each row being slightly spaced apart with the reinforcing wires thereof interconnected and the gap between adjacent slabs filled with plaster or mortar which may be applied as by a trowel or cement gun, or by pouring cement into the gap, in which latter instance a mold panel 33 may be positioned over the gap as shown in Fig. 11 with the mold panel held in place by ends of the reinforcing wires I6 passed therethrough. In thus forming the wall with double rows of the slabs they may obviously be arranged with the corrugated faces thereof abutting each other so as to provide air spaces 34 between the adjacent slabs for insulating purposes.
`A wall or partition may be formed of a' single row of the slabs placed edge to edge as depicted in Fig. 12, in which instance the opposite faces of the slabs may be coated with plaster as indicated at 45 and 4E. While this arrangement forms a substantially solid wall, the porous character of the slab afforded by the use of an ag gregate of volcanic ash or diatomaceous earth will render the wall resistant to penetration of sound and heat.
It will be seen from the dforegoing that I have Yprovided a molded structural slab which is ap- While I have shown and described several applications of the invention I do not linut 'myself to the exact details o1' construction and arrangement shown, and accordingly the invention embraces such modiiications and changes in the parts and in the construction and arrangements thereof as come within the purview of the appended claims.
l. In a combined slab and mold structure, a pair of spaced rows of slab units arranged edge to edge with the slabs of each row spaced apart at their contiguous edges, said slabs being formed with marginal 'ribs on their contiguous edges and having longitudinally extending channels ilanking said ribs, a pair of spaced mold panels extending between the rows of slabs on opposite sides of the gap between adjacent slabs having their longitudinal edges seating in said channels, means for fastening opposed slabs against opposed edges of said panels, and mold panels spanning the gap between adjacent slabs and overlying the outer faces of said slabs.
2. In a slab wall construction, a pair o! spaced rows of slab units arranged edge to edge with the slabs of each row spaced apart at their contiguous edges, said slabs being formed with mar.- ginal ribs and being formed with longitudinally extending parallel channels, a pair of spaced mold panels extending between the rows oi.' slabs on opposite sides of the gap between adjacent slabs and having their longitudinal edges seated in certain of said channels. and means -for fastening opposed slabs against the edges o! said panels, said panels being formed of a plurality oi' strips arranged side by side.
3. In a slab wall construction, a pair of spaced rows of slab units arranged edge to edge with the slabs of each row spaced apart at their contiguous edges, said slabs being formed with marginal ribs and being formed with longitudinally extending parallel channels, a pair of spaced mold panels extending between the rows of slabs on opposite sides of the gap between adjacent slabs and having their longitudinal edges seated in certain of said channels, and means for fastening opposed slabs against the edges of said panels, said panels being formed of a plurality of strips arranged side by side and including a pair of marginal strips and an intermediate strip held in separable relation to said marginal strip.
4. In a slab wall construction, a row of spaced slab units arranged edge to edge with adjacent slabs spaced apart at their contiguous edges to form a gap therebetween, said slabs being formed with longitudinally extending channels spaced inwardly from but adjacent to the edge margins thereof and on the inner faces thereof forming ribs along the inner marginal edges of the slabs, and a molded column or beamextending over and into the gap between adjacent slabs and overlying said ribs and extending into said channels.
CLARENCE M. BURNER.