US 2236575 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 1, 1941. 'w. GKCGEL 2,236,575
REFRIGERATION Filed Sept. 12, 19:59
Wm zwi agiz $947M ATTORNEY.
solid absorbent each generator-absorberis heat- Patented Apr. 1, 1941v UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE REFRIGERATION V Wilhelm Georg Kiigel, Evansville, Ind assignor,
by mesne assignments, to Serve], Inc., New
N. Y., a corporation of Delaware Application September 12, 1939, Serial No. 294,424
My invention relates to refrigeration and more particularly to operation of intermittent absorption refrigeration systems in alternation.
It is an object of the invention to provide a single continuous heat source for a plurality of intermittent absorption refrigeration systems and transfer heat to one of the systems while at the same time cooling another of the systems and automatically reversing the heating and cooling with respect to these systems without the use of valves, electric switches, or the like.
This is accomplished by providing a heat 7 transfer system containing two fluids and arranged so that one fluid transfers heat to one intermittent refrigeration system while the other fluid transfers heat away from another intermittent refrigeration system, the heat transfer effects of the fluids being automatically reversed with respect to the refrigeration systems at desired intervals.
The invention, together with further objects and advantages thereof, will be more fully understood upon reference to the. following description and the accompanying drawing forming part of this specification, and of which Fig. 1
shows more or less diagrammatically a refrigerv ation system assembly ,embodying'the invention, and Fig. 2 is a detail view on line 2-2 in Fig; 1.
Evaporators In and II are disposed within a refrigerator compartment 9. The evaporators' I0 and Il may form the cooling elements of airconditioning apparatus. The evaporators l8 and II are respectively connected through condensers I2 and I3 with generator-absorbers l4 and IS. The innerportions Ma and l5a of each generator-absorber contain a suitable solid absorbent. To retain the solid absorbent in place, a. plurality of perforated partitions I 4b and I5b are provided. To liberate refrigerant from the ed by means of a fluid such as, for example,
steam, which may traverse heating jackets I of the generator-absorber I4 is now discontinued and it is cooled instead, the liquid refrigerant in ev'aporator I0 evaporates, producing cold, and the vaporized refrigerant returns through-the condenser I2 to the inner portion of the generator-abs'orber where it is absorbed. The system comprising the boiler-absorber I5, the condenser I3, and the evaporator operates in the same manner. I Selectivelyand automatically to control the heating and cooling of the generator-absorbers 'ingfluid. Pentaneis lighter than'water and is.
I4 and I5, I provide a pair of interconnected steam boilers or a single steam boiler l'l having compartments l8 and 18 disposed in heat exchange with a central heating flue 28. The compartments I8 and I9 are heated by a burner 2| arranged to project a flame into the lower end of flue 28. The flame and combustion gases heat the fluid, preferably water, in the boiler-to produce a heating medium such as steam.
A steam outlet conduit 23 extends from compartment I Q to the jacket I 5a, a similar'conduit 24 connecting compartment I8 to jacket I 40. Steam when introduced into the jackets I40 and I5c condenses and flows from the lower ends thereof into conduits 25 and 28, respectively provided with liquid seals or traps 25a and 26a. Both of conduits 25 and 26 are connected to a vessel 2lfrom which condensate flows through a pipe 28 into one or the other of compartments 29a. and 29b of avessel 29 pivoted at its midportion at 38 for tilting movement between stops 3| and 32. The vessel 29is disposed within a container 33 from opposite sides of which extend conduits35 and 36 to the'boiler compartments I8 and IS, the conduits including liquid traps 35a and 36a. The two compartments I8 and I9 are interconnected by conduits 31 and 38, the latter entering each compartment adjacent and below baflles 39 and 40 provided to prevent transfer of boiling water from oneto the other of com- 'From jackets l4c'and [5c there extend conduits 4| and 42, respectively connected to condensers 43 and 44, themselves interconnected at 45. From the mid-portion 45 an equalizing conduit 46 is connected-to vessel 21. The cooling circuit includes a conduit 41 communicating with condenser 44, a vessel 48, and a conduit 49 connected to a leg of trap 26a at a point which is slightly lower than the upper end of overflow conduit 28 in vessel 21. The cooling circuit also includes a conduit 50, communicating with condenser 43, a vessel 5|, and a conduit 52 connected to a leg .of trap 2511 at a. level corresponding with that of the connection of conduit 49 to trap 2611. Within condenser 43 is a baflle 54 forming a dam in the lower end. Other bailies 55 are spaced above the bottom of the condenser 43. Similarly, baille 58 forms a dam for conas refrigerant. The auxiliary circuit may contain water as heating fluid and pentane as coolciently high for the steam Ilc and Ic to liberate and drive from the ablo' and is above the vessel 21. The level heat transfer circuit will correspond approx i imately to the condensing temperature of pentane, which temperature is determined by the room temperature. For a condensing temperature of 57 0., the pressure is two kilograms. per square centimeter. Atthis pressure the boiling point of water is 120 C., which is sufii- I delivered to jackets sorbent the absorbed ammonia.
The traps 25a and 260 are filled with water. The pentane floats on the water in trap 25a, with the surface level of the pentane within the jacket Ilc. The level vessel 5I depends on the height of the trap 25a of water in It is at A and the level in comcompartment The flame and combustion partment l9 at B. gases from burner compartments I8 and IS. The steam produced in compartment I8 flows by way of conduit 31 into compartment I9, and-joins with the steam from the latter for flow through conduit 23 to jacket I5c.
- Upon the initial flow of steam, the pentane is vaporized and flows through conduit 50, and
through connection 45 into condenser 43 which is air-cooled, and in which the pentane is condensed into liquid. way of conduit II and 26a, where it floats on level in the vessel 48.
The heat from the steam expelsammonia vapor from the absorbent sorber I5. The vapor flows into condenser I3 where it condenses into a liquid. The liquid ammonia accumulates in the evaporator II. As the heating proceeds, the levels within the boiler comjacket Ilc into liquid trap the water and reaches a immiscible therewith. The pressure within the of the pentane in jacket I5c and in 2| heat the .water in boiler 2 The liquid pentane flows by 30 within the generator-abpartments I8 and I! fall. The steam entering 40 jacket lie is condensed into a liquid which flows from jacket 15c by way of trap 23a into vessel 21. Throughthe' outlet 23, the condensate is delivered to compartment 290 of the pivoted container 29. As compartment 291: is filled, the center of gravity of the stored condensate is progressively moved to the right and away from pivot 30 until the weight of the stored condensate becomes effective to tilt the vessel or container 29 in a clockwise direction and to dump or spill the stored condensate into container 33. The vessel 29 comes to rest against stop 3|, while the condensate drains directly through conduit 35 into bo ler compartment I3.
When the vessel 29 is tilted the levels within the boiler compartments I3 and I9 have dropped respectively to B and C. The capacity of compartment 29a is such that the condensate returned to boiler compartment I9 raises the liquid level therein to A.
flows over baflie 58 and into the jacket lic. Cessationin the heating of generator-absorber Ii initiates the evaporation of the liquid ammonia from evaporator II with consequent production of refrigeration. vaporized ammonia flows by way of condenser I3 to the stored absorbent within generator-absorber l5 where it is absorbed.
Theheat of absorption produces vaporization of the pentane in jacket I5c; or conversely the inner portion lie is cooled by the evaporation of pentane, the vapors thereof flowing into condenser by way of conduit 42, where they again condense into a liquid, which returns through conduit 42 to the jacket Iic.
During the production of refrigeration by evaporator II, the steam delivered to jacket Ilc continuously beats, and liberates from, the absorbent in Ila, ammonia vapors which in com I denser I2 condense into a liquid. As evaporator II produces cold, liquid ammonia'is stored in evaporator III, preparatory to its ownevaporation to produce cold.
Since the vessel 23 has been operated to its right-hand positionas viewed in Fig. 1, the condensate returning from jacket Ilc by way of liquid trap 23a is discharged through outlet 23 into the left-hand compartment 23b. As it fills, the center of gravity of the stored condensate moves to the left away from pivot 36 until, as it is entirely filled, the weight of the condensate tilts and rotates the vessel 29 to its original position, as shown in Fig. 1. As this occurs, the liquid level in compartment I3 has fallen to C and in compartment I! to B. The return of the condensate through conduit 38 to compartment I8 again raises the level therein to A, liquid-sealing steam outlet 24 and transferring flow of steam from boiler I1 to the jacket Iic.
As described above. the pentane in vessel BI and in jacket lie is vaporized and in condenser 43 condensed into a liquid which by evaporation in jacket Ilc cools the refrigerant absorption zone Ila. The liquid ammonia within evaporator III evaporates to produce cold, taking up the refrigeration load previously carried by the evaporator II.
The conduit 33 is for the purpose of automatically adjusting the levels within the boiler I1. For example, upon starting the system the charge may be unevenly distributed, and with respectto the existing liquid levels the vessel 29 may be in the wrong position. In such a case if compartment 29a should be discharged into compartment I9 at a time when the level thereof was at B, the liquid would rise to level A and all additional liquid would then flow by conduit 38 into compartment I8, to produce the required levels of The steam outlet conduit 23 is thereby liquid sealed and the inlet of steam automatic transfer of the heating 5 liquid in compartments I8 and I9 for best operation of my invention.
While I have shown a particular embodiment of my invention, it will be understood that I do not limit myself thereto, since many modifications may be made, and I therefore contemplate by the appended claims to cover any such modiflcations as fall within the spirit and scope of my invention.
What is claimed is:
1. In an absorption refrigeration system, a
boiler, a plurality of generator-absorbers, a condenser and an evaporator connected to each of said generator-absorbers, means for causing expulsion of refrigerant first in one and then in another of said generator-absorbers comprising liquid pentane then a conduit from said boiler to each of said generator-absorbers for flow of a heating medium,
1 2,236,575 said boiler having compartments individual to said conduits, and means operable by change in the level of liquid within said compartments for heating one and then another of said generatorabsorbers.
2. In an absorption refrigeration system, a
double-compartment boiler, two generator-absorbers, a condenser and an evaporator connected to each of said generator-absorbers, means for causing expulsion of refrigerant first in one and then in the other of said generator-absorbers comprising outlet conduits respectively interconnecting each of said generator-absorbers with one of the compartments of said boiler for flow of a heating medium from the boiler inheat exchange with said generator-absorbers, means individual to said generator-absorbers for returning heating medium to said boiler, and means for storing a predetermined quantity of returning heating medium and for delivering said stored quantity alternately into the compartments of said boiler to change the level of liquid therein, and means operable by change in the level of liquid for supplying the heating medium first to one and then to the other of said generator-absorbers.
3. A refrigeration system as set forth in claim 2, in which the storing means comprise a pivoted double-compartment vessel operable by a predetermined accumulation of liquid in one compartment to discharge liquid therefrom and to move the other compartment into liquid receiving position.
4. A refrigeration system as set forth in claim 2, in which the outlet conduits from the compartments of said generator are disposed at approximately the same level, and an equalizing connection between said compartments at a level above that of said conduit,
5. A refrigeration system as set forth in claim 2, in which the storing means comprises a pivoted double-compartment vessel operable by a predetermined accumulation of liquid in one compartment to discharge liquid therefrom and to move the other compartment into liquid receiving position, and in which the outlet conduits from the compartments of said generator are disposed at approximately- ..the same level, and an equalizing connection between said compartments at a level above that of said conduits.
6. In an absorption refrigeration system, a double-compartment boiler, two generator-absorbers, a condenser and an evaporator connected to each of said generator-absorbers, means for producing evaporation of refrigerant first in one and then in the other of said evaporators comprising conduits respectively interconnecting each of said generator-absorbers with one of the compartments of the boiler for flow of a heating medium from the boiler in heat exchange with said generator-absorbers, and means including a pair of condensers and conduit connections for transfer of a volatile cooling fluid from one to the other of said generator-absorbers for cooling one of them while the other is being heated.
'7. A refrigeration system comprising two vessels for holding absorbent for a refrigerant, a jacket for each of said vessels, a condenser connected to each of said jackets and in communication with each other, liquid traps connected to each of said jackets, means for heating and supplying vaporized liquid, first to one and then to the other of said Jackets,'means interconnecting the liquid trap connected to one Jacket to the condenser connected with the opposite jacket for transfer of a cooling fluid immiscible with said liquid, from one to the other of said jackets, initial flow of said heated, vaporized, liquid into one or the other of said jackets vaporizing the cooling fluid and producing flow thereof into the condenser connected with the other of said jackets for cooling the vessel in which the refrigerant is being absorbed.
8. In combination with a plurality of intermittent absorption refrigeration systems, a heat transfer system containing a plurality of heat transfer fluids in heat transfer relation with said refrigeration systems, means to direct flow of fluids in said heat transfer systems so that one of said fluids circulates in heat exchange relation with one of said refrigeration systems while another of said fluids circulates in heat exchange relation with another of said refrigeration systems, means to heat one of said fluids, means to cool the other of said fluids, said fluid directing means being operative to change the flow of fluids in said heat transfer circuit so that the fluid being cooled and the fluid being heated alternately flow in thermal exchange relation with each of said refrigeration systems.
9. A combination as set forth in claim 8 in which said fluids in the heat transfer system are immiscible. I
10. A combination as set forth in claim 8, in which said fluids in the heat transfer system are volatile and undergo vaporization and condensation in transferring of heat.
1l..'A combination as set forth in claim 8, in which the fluid which is cooled is pentane and the fluid which is heated is water, both fluids undergoing vaporization and condensation in transfer of heat.
12. A combination as set forth in claim 8, in which said fluid flow directing means is operative responsive to rate of flow of one of said heat transfer fluids.
13. A method of refrigeration with the aid of a plurality of intermittent absorption refrigeration systemswhich includes flowing a heated fluid in thermal exchange relation with one of said systems, flowing a cooled fluid in thennal exchange relation with another of said systems, accumulating one of said fluids at a place in its path of flow, and reversing the refrigeration systems with which said fluids flow in thermal exchange relation responsive to said accumulation.
14. A method as set forth in claim 13, in which said reversal includes release of the accumulated fluid.
15. A method of refrigeration with the aid of a plurality. of intermittent absorption refrigeration systems which includes maintaining a plurality of immiscible fluids in the presence of each other, and causing one of said fluids to vapor"% in thermal exchange relation with first one and then another of said refrigerating systems to cause alternate cooling thereof, and causing another of said fluids to condense in thermal exchange relation with flrst one and then another of said refrigeration systems in alternation with the cooling thereof.
16. The method of alternately heating two intermittent absorption refrigeration systems which includes vaporizing a heat transfer fluid, condensing the vapor in heat transfer relation with one or the other of said refrigeration systerns, and causing said alternation by blocking flow of vapor to first one and then the other of said systems by means of trapped liquid.
wmlmLM GEORG KoGEL.