US 2237523 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 1941- i P. E.- DAMON 2,237,523
WICK FUSEE Filed Aug. 1'7, 1938 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 I N VENTOR.
ATTORNEYS P. E. DAMON April 8, 1941.
WICK FUSEE Filed Aug. 17, 1958 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 ATTORNEYS Patented Apr. 8, 1941 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE WICK FUSEE Philip E. Damon, Ames, Iowa Application August 17, 1938, SerialNo. 225,309
My invention relates to devices in the nature.
of fusees or flares which are designated for use as signals or warning devices. These devices are commonly termed flares or fusees depending primarily upon whether they burn liquid or solid fuel, and whether they are self-igniting or must out the use of matches and which is constructedof relatively cheap materials so that once used it. can be discarded.
Another object is the provision of a new and improved refillable wick fusee for burning a fuel which is solid at normal temperatures and which can be carried for use by trucks and vehicles used in the transportation of meat, butter, cream and foodstuffs so that there may be no spilling of fuel of a character which might taint the cargo, as, for example, the coal oils and petrole-.
um derivatives used ordinarily in flares.
Still another object is the provision of .a wick fusee formed in separable parts which when opened can be filled, one with a fuel solid at. ordinary temperatures, and the other with. an ignitable priming compound so positioned that when the two parts are placed together to form the assembled wick fusee the priming compound will lie adjacent the solid fuel in a position where it can readily melt it and ignite it when the iusee is fired.
A further object is the provision of a wick fusee or flare made up of a separable body and cover which can be opened and filled, one part with a fuel solid at normal temperatures'over which can be spread a priming compound, and the other with a firing material so positioned that when the cover is placed upon the bottom portion the firing material will lie adjacent the priming compound so as to ignite it when the fusee is fired.
A still further object is the provision of a wick iusee or flare wherein all of the burning substances including the fuel, the firing compounds and wick are confined within the walls of a container.
A further object still is the provision of a wick fusee or flare comprising a container which has a perforated cover portion around a wick adapted to the provision of a space within which normally solid fuel may be melted and vaporized in order to furnish a continuous supply of readily ignitable fuel which will permit the fusee to burnuninterruptedly regardless of how strong a wind might be blowing.
Another object is the provision of a wick fusee or. fiare comprising a container filled with solid fuel and a wick for burning said fuel which is ignited by means of a highly combustible liquid containedtemporarily in a capsule adapted to be melted by a type of quickly. ignitable material of the character used on matches, the capsule whenmeltingbeing adapted to release the combustible liquid which flows over the solidfuel to melt it when ignited.
Another object is the provision of a wick fusee or flare comprising a. container supplied with a wick and a quantity of solid fuel and a readily combustible firing material which in turn is kindled by a frictionally ignitable material positionedabove the firing material in such a manner that when the frictionally ignitable material is, lit, portions of it will melt and fall upon the firing material so as to ignite it and subsequently melt the solid material and ignite the wick.
With these and other objects in view my invention consists in the construction, arrangement and combination of the various parts of my device, whereby the objects contemplated are attained, as hereinafter more fully set forth, pointed out in my. claims, and illustrated in the accompanying drawings, in which:
Figure 1 is a longitudinal section of a form of my device carrying a lid.
Figure 2 is a top plan view taken on the line 2-2 of Figure 1.
Figure 3 is a longitudinal section of a device similar to Figure 1 without the 11d.
Figure 4 is a longitudinal elevation of a device similar to that shown in Figure 3 supplied with an'alternative style of firing member.
Figure 5 is a top view of the structure shown in Figure 4.
Figure 6 is a longitudinal section of another form of my device.
Figure '7 is a top view taken on the line l-l of Figure 6.
Figure 8 is a longitudinal section showing a refillable type of wick fusee.
Figure 9 is a top view taken on the line 8-4) of Figure 8.
While it is among the purposes of my invention to supply a flare or fusee which consumes fuel solid at normal temperatures it is in addition desirable to construct such a device relatively cheaply so that the entire apparatus may be considered as a consumable particle. Owing to the fact that these devices are ordinarily used under conditions which makes care of them inconvenient, they must moreover be ruggedly d signed and constructed so as to be self igniting and, in effect, foolproof in their operation. A
construction of this sort is especially valuable where fusees of this kind are knocked about in a truck, sometimes for years, before they are actually used, and again when use is required under unusual conditions such as a rain storm accompanied by violent wind, they must be certain of operation and must be able to be fired quickly and positively without the use of matches or some auxiliary firing device.
In the wick fusee in Figures 1 and 2 a container is shown made up of a bottom portion ii] which forms a reservoir for solid fuel l2 which may be a paraffin or some similar type of fuel solid at ordinary temperatures but which melts at temperatures slightly above normal.
In the bottom portion Ill there is provided a wick I 4 of relatively large diameter flared outward at the top which if preferred may be secured to the bottom surface of the portion ID by means of some adhesive l6 before the solid fuel is inserted.
Fitted to the top of the bottom portion II] is a cap or cover member H! which has downwardly turned edges 29 fitting inside of the upper edge of the bottom portion and may be secured there by friction. The cover member I8 is provided ith a large central opening 22 immediately above the flared and exposed end of the wick and is additionally provided With a series of lateral openings 24 which may be varied in size in order to control the burning of the fuel.
There is provided in addition a lid 25 which is designed to fit snugly over the upper part of the bottom portion l so as to enclose completely the cover member [8. The lid in turn is secured to the bottom portion by means of a ductile member, in this case shown as a wire 28 brazed or spot welded at one end 30 to the lid and at the other end 32 to the bottom portion. While the fusee is unused the lid is designed to be frictionally retained upon the bottom portion in order to close the entire device and is adapted when the device is ready for lighting to be removed and adjusted at any convenient position above the bottom portion by means of bending or stretching the ductile wire 23, thereby serving as a guard or shield against wind or rain.
For igniting the wick fusee there is provided a firing member in this case comprising a smear of material 3 which is in the nature of a readily combustible compound spread over the upper surface of the solid fuel. A compound of this sort is selected which will not ignite at too low a temperature but which when once ignited burns quickly and with a hot flame. For igniting the firing member there is provided a. plug or spot 36 of frictionally ignitable material serving the purpose of a priming compound positioned adjacent to or above the firing member. The frictionally ignitable material can be made of substances similar to those used for safety matches and is designed to be scratched by a friction pad, such as the pad 38 for example. which for convenience is shown secured to the side of the lower portion ID by means of a strip of tape 39.
When it is desired to light the wick fusee the friction pad is removed and scratched upon the plug 38. The plug kindles instantaneously and the flame in turn spreads to the compound comprising the firing member 34 which is thereby ignited. The compound, burning as it does with considerable heat, melts a large portion of the solid fuel lying adjacent thereto and at the same time ignites. the wick M which then continues to burn fed by gases arising from the heated and liquefied solid fuel. Once ignited the flame which is spread over a considerable area by means of the flared end of the wick proceeds to radiate heat down against the body of solid fuel until it is entirely melted. This action coni tinues regardless of the cooling effect of outside temperature or wind upon the metallic container. The flame under such circumstances is sufficiently hot to vaporize the now liquefied fuel at its top surface and so maintain a space 40 around the end of the wick filled with a volatilized fuel which continues to feed the wick regardless of a wind which might under ordinary circumstances blow out the flame.
In order to produce a wick fusee which will not immediately consume the reservoir of fuel, but which will burn continuously over a considerable period of time with a flame sufliciently high for ordinary purposes, the cap or cover member I8 is used. Control over the flame size can be exercised to a very nice degree by suitably proportioning the central opening 22 and the lateral openings 24 communicating with the space 30. These lateral openings are adapted to supply oxygen to support combustion of fuel at the wick and the upper opening 22 acts as a stack through which the burned gases pass upward. By controlling the size of the lateral openings 24 the quantity of oxygen consumable by a selected style of wick fusee can be set for a greater or lesser amount when the fusee is manufactured. It is significant however that the bottom portion It! may be of standard construction and different cover members It! each provided with fixed openings of a predetermined size may be affixed to the standard bottom portions in orderto assemble the type of fusee desired for any given purpose.
In Figure 3 there is shown a type of fusee similar to that illustrated in Figure l except that thelid is removed and a cover member l8 adapted to supply the only covering for the bottom portion Hi. In this embodiment there is provided the customary quantity of solid fuel i2 and a wick M which may be embedded therein when the solid fuel is inserted without the necessity of securing the wick to the inside surface of the bottom element. In this instance a firing compound 34' is shown positioned in the space 40 at the top of the solid fuel some distance below the top of the container. A frictionally ignitable plug 36' is shown with a flange portion 31 extending over the cover element i8 adjacent the hole in which it is positioned. This is to hold the frictionally ignitable plug in position in the cover element. When the plug is scratched by means of a pad the plug ignites and burns off the flange portion 31 first and the remaining portion of the plug is permitted to drop into the container upon the upper surfacev of the firing compound thereby readily igniting the latterand so firing the fusee.
A device illustrating another means of igniting the solid fuel is shown in Figures 4 and 5. Here also a container is shown comprising a bottom portion Ill" supplied with a quantity of solid fuel 12" and a wick M". The customary cover 'member I8" is supplied with a central hole 22" and lateral holes 24". Affixed to the cover member is a plug of frictionally ignitable material which is designed to be scratched by a friction pad 33" in the same manner as previously described. In this case for spreading a flameover the, solid fuel in order to meltitg and ignite the wick there is provided a capsule be quickly fused or melted, which is filled with a liquid 45 consisting of some highly combustible hydrocarbon such as gasoline, naphtha or the like. The capsule if preferred may be embedded in the solid fuel near the surface or may be loosely positioned and stuck to the lower edge of the plug 36" so that it willbe adjacent th plug when the latter is ignited.
When it is desired to ignite a wick fusee having this type of firing means the plug is scratched in the manner described and upon igniting melts the capsule allowing the gasoline or similar fluid to spread over the upper surface of. the solid fuel. While spreading, the gasoline is ignited by the frictionally ignitable material and the burning gasoline in turn melts solid fuelat th upper surface and ignites the wick.
In an embodiment illustrated by Figures 6 and 7 there is shown a wick fusee which consistsof a container comprising a bottom portion 46 construct-ed with a bead ll running around the side and surmounted by a'cover element 48, which is designed to fit snugly over th bottom portion andto be held frictionally thereon. The cover element is shownbowed upwards forming a center portion 5b in the center of which is an opening 52 and at the sides of which are a series of lateral openings 54. It should be noted that the upward extending portion 50 forms a hollow space Eli of considerable size above the bottom portion overlying the cover element 48 is a lid 58 dished-in shape to fit over the upward extending portions of the cover element and secured to the container by means of a ductile strap 60 welded integrally at one end to the lid and at the other end to the container. The ductile strap may be of ferrous orcuprous material, for example,
which can be readily bent into the dotted line position till shown in Figure 6, at which point the lid is clamped tightly over the container, or which may be extended to the solid line position es there shown and there bent in any man ner desired in order to adjust the lid over the top of the container.
The bottom portion 46 is provided with a wick- 32 of relatively large diameter secured in an upright position by a wick support 64 which may be a wire orsorne similar structure soldered or otherwise secured to the inside bottom of said.
bottom portion. The wick is flared outward at the top so as to provide a large exposed area making it easy to ignite and also so that when lit it will spread the flame well over the top of the container to prevent it being blown out when the wind is strong. In the bottom portion is provided a quantity of fuel 68 of the typewhich is solid at normal temperatures and which can either be poured into the bottom portion in a melted condition and there allowed to solidify around the wick 62 or placed there in substantially a solid form and then melted a relatively closed container.
12 which may be a compound of the sort previously described so that it will'quickly and readily ignite with a flame suiliciently hot to melt a con siderable portion of the solid fuel. At one point in the annular flange there is provided a perforation M in which is set a plug of friction ignitable material 16 more readily ignited than the firing compound. A friction pad 18 may for convenience be secured to the bottom of the container or to the side wall if desired by some means such as a strip of tape 89, or if preferred the pad may be supplied as part of a container for the fusees, which can be torn oif and used when needed.
When it is desired to ignite the Wick fusee the lidttl is raised. and adjusted to a desired height and angle. The friction pad 18 is then scratched upon the friction ignitable material it in the manner previously described. The friction ignitable material immediately ignites the firing compound which burns customarily in a rather rapid progression around its annular groove melting the solid fuel 68' as it progresses and eventually lighting the wick 52. By the time the firing compound has been completely ignited there will have been a considerable quantity of the solid fuel melted, which is then readily burned by the flame at the wick. As the flame continues to burn a considerable amount of heat will be deflected against the body of solid fuel the wick, and to a large extent by the positioning" and. size of the openings 52 and 54.
By reason of the relatively large space 56 adjacent the wickand above the body of fuel,
which is kept in a heated condition by the flame burning at the wick, there is maintained a substantial quantity of vaporized fuel which is readily combustible in order to maintain a flame at the wick even under conditions where there is considerable wind such as would ordinarily blow out a flare constructed in accordance with designs now available.
Since it may not be desirable or necessary in all instances to provide wick fusee which is self igniting I have chosen to illustrate a modified form of the device which embodies the general principles of combustioi'i incorporated in the selfcontained forms but which is not supplied with the self-igniting mea. s.
In the embodiment illustrated in Figures 8 and 9 there is shown a container comprising'a bottom 82 and'side walls ti l joined together forming a cup which is covered over by a top portion forming with the bottom and side walls The top portion 35 has a large central opening 88 formed with an upward extending ri q around it to which is secured a can provided with a large central opening 952 for the of the elements of combustion and smaller side openings M to sup ply air for combustion. 1
In this embodiment a wick Qt somewhat longer than the height of the container is provided and suspended in place by a collar 33 which is positioned centrally in the device by a series of arms mil attached to the top portion 86.
upward within it as it becomes shorter due to burning down. of fuel Hi2 solid at ordinary temperatures which The Wick 96 is suspended in the collar and can. be pulled' In the container is a quantity can be fed into the device through an aperture Hi4 at the side of the top portion.
In this embodiment also there is provided a relatively large space [86 above and surrounding the wick and also a space I88 surrounding the top surface of the solid fuel designed for the accumulation of vapors given off by the body of fuel which are readily ignited by a flame at the wick. There is also provided a lid ill] of a somewhat dished shape attached to the top portion by means of a pair of arms H2 and H4 hinged together at the point H6 and secured pivotally to the top portion of the container at the point H3 and to the lid at the point I20.
This device is designed to be burned and refilled repeatedly by solid fuel inserted through the aperture I04 in either solid pieces or if convenient in a melted condition and subsequently allowed to solidify. Moreover, after the fusee has been fired it can readily be extinguished until a subsequent firing by lowering the lid Ill] over the cap portion 90, thereby shutting out the necessary supply of air. The fusee in this modification is designed to be lit by a match and to facilitate this the wick 96 is saturated with parafiin. To facilitate igniting a wick of this sort it is frequently convenient to pour into the fusee a small quantity of alcohol or gasoline which will ignite when the burning head of a match is thrust into it, even when a high wind might be blowing.
It is significant that when the wick fusee is fired the heat of ignition melts substantially all of the solid fuel, so that while it is operating the device in effect burns a liquid fuel which is converted to a vapor immediately adjacent the wick. Due to the fact that the entire container is non-combustible and gets exceedingly hot during .the burning, a strong wind will be ineffectual in extinguishing the flame since there is always supplied a continuous quantity of vapor around the Wick sufficient to support combustion. Due also to the fact that means is provided for melting the solid fuel while the wick is being lit the fusee is rendered readily operable even when the entire device has been subjected to exceedingly low temperatures and is ignited in the presence of considerable wind.
Some changes may be made in the construction and arrangement of the parts of my device without departing from the real spirit and purpose of'my invention, and it is my intention to cover by my claims, any modified forms of structure or use of mechanical equivalents, which may be reasonably included within their scope.
I claim as my invention:
1. A safety wick fusee adapted to be struck with a friction pad for burning a fuel in liquid form which is initially solid at normal temperatures including a liquid tight container, a wick, a mass of fuel in the container initially solidified around the wick, a mass of firing material adjacent the fuel adapted when ignited to burn quickly with a relatively hot flame so as to melt the fuel and light the wick, a deflecting element for reflecting heat of combustion directly upon the adjacent surface of the fuel and a quantity of priming compound adjacent the firing material adapted to ignite when subjected to abrasion by said pad of friction material for lighting the firing material thereby to initiate the firing of said fusee.
2. A wick fusee for burning a fuel in liquid form which is initially solid at normal temperatures including a liquid tight container, a combustible wick, a mass of fuel in the container initially solidified around the wick, a mass of firing material adjacent the fuel adapted when ignited to burn quickly with a relatively hot flame so as to melt the fuel and light the wick, a quantity of priming compound mounted in the top of the container adjacent the firing material adapted to ignite when subjected to abrasion, a sloping deflecting wall extending from the side of the container partway toward the center forming a substantially closed space above the fuel enclosing the firing material When initially ignited and forming a reflector for the heat of combustion directly onto the fuel, and a pad of friction material of particular character for rubbing said priming compound to cause ignition thereof, said friction material being temporarily secured to the container and adapted to be removed therefrom for rubbing upon the firing compound to initiate the firing of said fusee.
3. A wick fusee for burning solid fuel including a container of non-combustible material comprising a bottom portion adapted to contain a quantity of solid fuel, a wick positioned in the bottom portion, a cap secured at its edges to the bottom portion having an intermediate portion thereof including side apertures to admit air to the flame extended upward away from the surface of the solid fuel forming an unobstructed space between said surface and the cap adjacent the wick operable when the wick is fired to enclose a flame at the wick so that radiant heat therefrom is directed in an uninterrupted path against the solid fuel to maintain said fuel in a liquid condition when the fusee is burning.
4. A Wick fusee for burning solid fuel including a container of non-combustible heat conducting material comprising a bottom portion adapted to contain a quantity of solid fuel, a wick positioned in the. bottom portion, a cap portion of heat conducting material including a plurality of apertures near the edges and secured at its edges to the bottom portion forming an uninterrupted space above the fuel adjacent the wick for fuel vapor when the fusee is ignited and adapted to enclose a portion of the flame so that heat is directed in an uninterrupted path against the normally solid fuel to maintain it in a liquid condition while the fusee is burning, said cap portion having a part thereof open to the atmosphere above and adjacent the wick to admit additional air thereto for the combustion of fuel.
5. A wick fusee for burning solid fuel including a container of non-combustible material comprisin a bottom portion adapted to be filled with solidified fuel and a hollow cap permanently positioned thereon, a wick supported in the bottom portion and extending above the surface of said fuel. said hollow cap being provided with a port on having an opening above the wick and a plurality of side a ertur s around the wick and f rming a space for vapor around said wick in he up er portion of the container a firing member comprising a ouick i niting material retained in the s ace around the wick in a position adjacent he solid fuel when the container is assembled to initially melt the solid fuel when the flare is fired. and a. relati ely small mass of priming compound positioned in the cap adjacent and above the firing member, and means for igniting the priming compound. t
6. A wick fusee for burning solid fuel including a container of non-combustible material comprising a bottom portion adapted to be filled with solidified fuel and a hollow cap therefor, a wick supported in the bottom portion and extending above the surface of said fuel, said hollow cap being provided with a portion having an opening above the Wick and forming a space for vapor around said wick in the upper portion of the container, a firing member comprising a quick igniting material retained in the space around the wick in a position adjacent the solid fuel when the container is assembled there to initially melt the solid fuel when the flare is fired, and a relatively small mass of priming compound adapted to disintegrate when ignited secured in the cap above the firing member so that when ignited the priming compound will be released from the cap and fall by gravity upon the firing member there to ignite said firing member and thereby light the fusee.
7. A wick fusee for burning solid fuel including a container of non-combustible material comprising a bottom portion adapted to be filled with solidified fuel and a cap therefor, a wick supported in the bottom portion independently of thesolidified fuel and extending above the surface of said fuel, said hollow cap being provided with a perforated portion providing access for air and flame and forming a space for vapor around the Wick in the upper portion of the container, a recessed portion in the cap and a quick igniting firing material solidified therein so that when the container is assembled ignition of the firing material will initially melt the solid fuel and light the wick thereby to fire the fusee.
8. A wick fusee for burning solid fuel includ-- ing a separable container of non-combustible material comprising a bottom portion adapted to be filled with solidified fuel and a. cap therefor, a wick supported centrally of the bottom portion and extending above the surface of said fuel, said hollow cap being provided with a perforated portion having an opening at the center and being adapted to form a space for vapor around the wick in the upper portion of the container, an annular groove in the cap and a quick igniting firing material solidified in the groove in a position adjacent the solid fuel when the container is assembled there to initially melt the solid fuel when the flare is fired by burning with a flame hotter than that normally required.
9. A wick fusee for burning solid fuel including a separable container of non-combustible material comprising a bottom portion adapted to be filled with solidified fuel and a cap therefor, a wick supported centrally of the bottom portion independently of the fuel and extending above the surface of said fuel, said hollow cap being provided with an annular portion forming a space for vapor around the wick in the upper portion of the container and having an opening at the center and a series of openings therearound adapted to admit the requisite amount of air, an annular groove in the cap and a quick igniting firing material solidified therein in a position adjacent the solid fuel when the container is assembled there to initially melt the solid fuel when the flare is fired by igniting with an extra hot flame in the space adjacent the wick, a mass of frictionally ignitable material positioned in the cap adjacent the priming compound and a scratch pad adapted to be struck upon the frictionally ignitable material.
with solidified fuel and a cap therefor, a wick supported centrally of the bottom portion independently of the fuel and extending above the surface of said fuel, said hollow cap being provided with an upward extending annular portion having an opening at the center and a series of openings therearound forming a space for vapor around the wick in the upper portion of the container supplied by the requisite amount of air, an annular groove in the cap and a quick igniting firing material solidified therein in a sition adjacent the solid fuel when the container is assembled there to initially melt the solid fuel when the flare is fired by burning with a hot flame progressively around the space adjacent the wick, a mass of frictionally ignitable material positioned in the cap adjacent the priming compound, a scratch pad secured to the outside of the container for striking the frictionally ignitable material and a lid adapted to overlie the holes in the cap when closed and secured integrallyto the container by a strap of ductile material for extending and adjusting the lid over the container to serve as a rain and wind guard and as a flame extinguisher when closed.
11. A wick fusee for burning solid fuel including a container of non-combustible material comprising a bottom portion adapted to be filled with solidified fuel and a cap therefor, a wick supported in the bottom portion and extending above the surface of said fuel, said hollow cap being provided with a portion having an opening above the wick forming a space for vapor around the wick in the upper portion of the container, a quick igniting firing material solidified therein on the upper surface of the solid fuel when the container is assembled there to initially melt the solid fuel when the flare is fired, and a mass of priming compound positioned'in the cap so as to lie adjacent the firing material in order to ignite said material and the Wick.
12. A wick fusee for burning fuel including a container of metallic material comprising a bot tom portion containing fuel and a wick, a top portion having an open part above the wick, a
lid overlying the open part of the top portion and a ductile extensible member integrally securing said lid to the top portion foldable snugly against the container in closed position and extendable to elevate and adjust said top in any desired position by exercise of an inherent stiffness in said member.
13. A wick fusee for burning a fuel which is solid at normal temperatures including a container having a mass of fuel therein solidified around a wick, a priming compound adjacent the fuel having a portion exposed for ignition and adapted to kindle instantaneously, and a firing member positioned between the surface of said mass of fuel and the priming compound comprising a closed gastight container fusible at a relatively low temperature and a quantity of volatile liquid having a low kindling point confined therein, the walls of said container being of a substance fusible at a temperature below the kindling temperature of the priming compound and adapted when fused by heat arising by the burning of said compound to release the liquid contents for ignition by the priming compound, said contents being in turn adapted when burning to flow over the fuel to melt and ignite said fuel.
PHILIP E. DAMON.