|Publication number||US2238523 A|
|Publication date||Apr 15, 1941|
|Filing date||Apr 13, 1935|
|Priority date||Apr 13, 1935|
|Publication number||US 2238523 A, US 2238523A, US-A-2238523, US2238523 A, US2238523A|
|Inventors||Holst Svend A|
|Original Assignee||American Steel & Wire Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (6), Classifications (6)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
April 15, 1941. s. A. HOLST 5 5 3 HIGHWAY GUARD Original Filed April 13, 1935 Patented Apr. 15, 1941 HIGHWAY GUARD Svend A. Holst,
New York, N. Y., assignor, by
mesne assignments, to The American Steel and Wire Company of New Jersey, a corporation of New Jersey Application April 13, 1935, Serial No. 16,239
Renewed April 21, 1939 9 Claims. (c1. ass-13.1)
The present invention relates to highway traffic guards, particularly to fence-like guards or barricades of the type erected and maintained along the sides of important highways at curves, em-
bankments and other places where it is deemed likely that a vehicle becoming out of control and running off the highway might be destroyed, and its passengers injured, if not intercepted and halted.
Such highway guards are now in use along all major highways, and have been used for many years past. The guards heretofore employed have been of many types, including for instance the wooden fence or barricade type in which heavy horizontally diposed planks are securely fastened to uprights set in the ground. With this type of barricade, not only is there an ever present danger that a vehicle becoming out of control may pass completely through the same and be destroyed but there is likewise great danger of destruction of the vehicle and injury to the oc-' cupants even in the event that the progress of the vehicle is halted by the barricade, the planks being frequently shattered by the impact of the vehicle and portions of the planks piercing the vehicle body, to its injury and the possible injury or death of its occupants. It also results when. the wooden planks or stringers are destroyed that the uprights or posts to which they are secured are then unprotected or unguarded and the vehicle may have direct contact therewith, to its greater injury.
'A'type of highway guard which is rapidly taking the place of the wooden barricade type includes the usual supporting posts and one or more wire ropes or cables carried by the posts, the ends of the cables being firmly anchored in the ground and each cable being attached to each of the supporting posts by some sort of securing means, for instance, hook bolts. While traffic guards of this last mentioned type have proven superior to previous types, nevertheless it has been found that impact of a vehicle is frequently not so wardzed off by the ropes or cables that it does not strike one or more of the supporting posts or uprights. It is highly desirable to prevent direct impact of the vehicle against any rigid post and much to be preferred that the vehicle shall strike against and be halted bysome yielding portion of the barrier in order that the energy of impact be gradually dissipated.
In accordance with the present invention a highway traffic barrier orguard is provided which is o'f such character .as to present a vehicle contasting means spaced sufficiently remotely from the rigid supporting means to prevent any vehicle striking the same from coming in contact with such supporting means and thus greatly reducing the possibility of extensive damage to the machine or vehicle and injury to its occupants.
In the ordinary case, the impact receiving portions of the barrier or guard will be the only portions with which the vehicle makes contact, the energy of the vehicle being absorbed and the vehicle brought to rest before it has come in contact with any rigid and non-yielding part. The improved guard has all of the strength of those of generally similar type previously utilized, while at the same time is more durable and long lasting, less injurious to vehicles coming in contact with the same and safer to the occupants thereof. It is, however, relatively inexpensive to originally fabricate, and so designed as to be assembled with great ease in the field;
My invention contemplates the utilization with each upright of the barrier, or each point of rigid support, whatever may be the supporting means, of a resilient bracket, one portion of which is rigidly attached to the support, the bracket extending toward the roadway for a substantial distance, and being provided upon that portion thereof which lies next to the roadway with rope or cable receiving and retaining means. The bracket is resilient, being formed of spring metal, at least is resilient so as tobe defiectable horizontally when subjected to horizontally applied forces either due to :direct impact of a vehicle against the same or to pull of the attached cables resulting from impact'of the vehicle against the .cables intermediate two of the cable supports.
Preferably the bracket may not be deflected vertically but provides a rigid support for the cables in a vertical direction. It may be formed in various ways but I preferably form it as a tube and from a single sheet of metal. While in cross section the tube may have various forms, I prefer that it shall have two or more substantially flat sides or faces, advantageously four of such faces, in order that it may be readily flexed by forces applied either directly to the outer end of the bracket by avehicle orby the pull of the attached'cables. Two of the flat faces of the bracket preferably converge outwardly and comprise deflecting members for forwardly projecting vehicle parts. shapes may be resorted to in the production of brackets having the desired springiness' or flexibility .under the action of applied forces.
In the accompanying drawing a highway trafiic guard is illustrated which embodies my improve- Various materials and cross-sectional,
ments and, by way of example, several forms of the improved resilient bracket are disclosed.
In the drawing:
Figure 1 is a perspective view of a relatively short section of a guard constructed in the improved manner;
Figure 2 is a top plan view of one of the supports shown in Figure 1;
Figure 3 is a view similar to Figure 2 but showing a slightly modified form of bracket;
Figures 4 and 5 are front and side elevations respectively of a guard or barrier embodying a type of bracket which is different in several respects from those illustrated in Figures 1, '2 and 3;
Figure 6 is a side elevation, partly broken away, of a further modified form of guard;
Figure '7 is a top plan view of the same;
Figure 8 is a top plan view of a final modification, selected for disclosure by way of example; and
Figure 9 is a section on line 9-9 of Figure 4.
The uprights or posts employed may be of any desired or available type, such as wooden posts or iron posts, the posts in illustrated in the drawing being of wood, either circular or rectangular in cross section, and firmly set in the ground. The cables ll, of which there are preferably at least two, are of steel and, as is wellknown, possess great strength. They are spaced one above the other vertically and are substantially parallel. The cable supporting resilient bracket illustrated in Figures 1 and 2 is indicated at l2 and is seen to comprise a generally tubular member, preferably a rolled steel plate, the mid portion I 3 of which is cylindrically shaped so as to fit closely against the cylindrical outer surface of the post I to which it is secured, as by means of bolts I 4.
The mid portion [3 of the bracket is provided with horizontally extending slots l through which the bolts extend in order to permit slight angular adjustments of the bracket about the post to facilitate proper assembly of the bracket and cables after the posts have been erected. To either side of the curved mid portion l3 of the bracket are the flat faces l6 and H, the outer edges of which terminate in curved sections I 8 and 19, which curved sections in turn merge into flattened sections or faces 20 and 2!. The outer edges of flattened faces 20 and 2| merge with horizontally curved and preferably cylindrical sections 22 and 23 which overlap, as clearly shown in Figures 1 and 2, and lie closely one against the other. The bracket is formed symmetrically about a plane which passes through its longitudinal axis and also the axis of the post I 0.
The overlapping curved sections 22 and 23 of the bracket are provided with registering rope receiving apertures, or slots, indicated at 24, these apertures being elongated in horizontal directions as shown to readily receive the ropes or cables H. The edges of the rope receiving apertures formed in the brackets shown in Figures 1 to 5 inclusive are relatively inclined so that these apertures are in reality V-shaped slots which grow narrower toward the ends, (see Figure 9). A wedge 25 is associated with each rope and slot. being driven downwardly, after the rope is positioned in the slot, intermediate the rope and the adjacent inner face of the curved section 23 of the bracket, against which surface the outer face of the wedge has been shaped to fit closely. Eac Wedge is p v d d on its outer face with a tapering element 26 terminating in a locking shoulder 27, which shoulder engages under the upper edge of the associated slot 24 as it is driven to final position and is thereby retained against upward movement or accidental dislocation. By reason of the tubular form of the bracket, no difficulty is met with in applying the wedges in the manner specified, since they may be readily inserted and easily driven to final position by tools passed downwardly through the bracket from the open upper end.
When so wedged into position, the cables are rigidly and firmly gripped ateach bracket along the traffic guard, and are held against longitudinal movement. Should a vehicle out of control strike the guard intermediate two posts it will be intercepted by the cables and the cables deflected due to the impact. Obviously the flexible brackets associated with posts for some distance on both sides of the point of impact will be deflected due to pull of the cables, the brackets being deflected toward the point of impact and, to a certain extent, compressed between the cables and the supporting posts, the two brackets intermediate which the impact occurs being particularly subject to such compression.
By reason of this resilient support, the vehicle is gradually brought to a standstill without causing breakage of the cables or injury to the rigid supports and, as soon as the vehicle is drawn away from the barrier, the several previously defiected brackets will resume their original shapes, thus drawing the cables taut. Should a vehicle strike directly against a bracket, it will not be brought to a sudden halt, but a large portion of the injury of impact will be absorbed by the bracket before any directed transmission of the bracket toward the supporting post can be had. It will be appreciated that, while an occasional bracket may be so distorted as to be destroyed by direct impact in this manner that the great majority of vehicles out of control strike such guards or barricades at acute angles and, for this reason, the danger of destruction of a bracket is not great since the bracket itself presents a rounded outer surface and will in most cases deflect any vehicle moving obliquely toward and against the barrier.
The barrier as a whole presents a smooth vehicle engaging surface, having no portions projecting which may be readily caught. In the case of injury to one of the brackets, it is of course an easy matter to remove the same and substitute a new and perfect bracket. By reason of the use of resilient brackets just described, it is practically impossible for a vehicle to strike one of the supporting posts I 0, and hence the danger of destruction to the vehicle and injury to its occupants is minimized.
The bracket illustrated in Figure 3 is generally similar to that illustrated in Figure 2 but in Figure 3 it will be seen that the overlapping edges of the bracket are upon the inner side, next to the supporting post, instead of being upon the outer side, as in Figures 1 and 2.
The bracket illustrated in Figures 4 and 5 is generally similar to that shown in, the preceding views but is designed and constructed for use in a barrier employing two Wire cables only. A portion of the outer wall of the bracket, intermediate the cable supporting notches, is cut away as at 30, the bracket being therefore of somewhat lighter character than those previously de-- scribed and somewhat more resilient.
This type of bracket may also be used where it is anticipated that the majority of vehicles striking the guard are motor vehicles having bumpers and tenders. The brackets so formed are positioned at such elevations above the ground level that the .cut away portions provide clearance spaces into which such vehicle portions may :pro-
In Figure 6 the resilient bracket 3| is provided with three rope receiving apertures '32 and the :ropes are retained in these apertures, notches, or elongated slots by means of a single elongated r key 33 which 'is lowered from the top and passes between each rope and the adjacent inside surface of the bracket. The upper end of the key 33 is provided with a curved portion or hook by means of which it is supported upon the upper rope or cable. It will be perceived that in this form of the bracket the notches or slots 32 are not formed as V slots and that the key 33 does not constitute a clamping means. Therefore, the ropes or cables are not rigidly attached or clamped to the bracket against longitudinal movement and, as a matter of fact, are free to move axially through the slots in the bracket. In certain instances it is desired that the ropes be mounted for such longitudinal movement, although in the general case, they are rigidly clamped by means of Wedges 26 previously referred to.
The bracket illustrated in Figure 8 is ofextreme simplicity, comprising a curved, resilient plate one edge of which is attached to the wooden post 35 by bolts 35 and the other edge of which is provided with slots or notches for the reception of one or more ropes or cables. A key 31,
similar to the key 33 referred to in the description of Figure 6, looks the cables in position, although not against longitudinal movement. Nat urally the form of the bracket shown in Figure 8 is more easily flexed in a horizontal direction than those illustrated in the preceding figures.
Obviously other forms of brackets may be devised within the teaching and import of the present invention, but in each instance the bracket should project forwardly a substantial distance from the supporting post being highly desirable that the cables be supported by the brackets at least six inches from the supporting posts. I have found that the forms of brackets just described may be inexpensively made and are suitable for the specified purposes, but without departing from the invention, the design of the brackets may be considerably modified in adapting the invention to varying situations. The resilient brackets may be applied with facility to existing highway guards having other types of rope securing means, by simply removing such means and affixing the brackets.
Having thus described the invention, what is claimed as new and desired to be secured by Letters Patent is:
1. In a traffic guard for highways, in combination, a rigid post or support, a plurality of vertically spaced substantially parallel cables, and a tubular bracket of resilient sheet metal rigidly secured to the post and having cable receiving notches formed therein at points remote from the post, a wedging means being associated with each notch for cooperating with the bracket in looking the cable in such notch, said wedging means having a projection adapted to engage an edge of toward the highway, it P -saidnotch when :said wedging means is in operative position, to prevent accidental displacement of said wedging means. 1
2. In a highway guard, a support, a tubular member of sheet metal, rigid axially and transversely flexible, said member having a portion secured to said support, and a second portion diametrically opposite said first portion which is provided *with V-shaped cable receiving notches, a plurality of :spaced horizontally extending cables, and means for wedging said cables into said notches respectively, said wedging means having a projection adapted to engage an edge of said not chwhen said wedging means is in operative position, to prevent accidental displacement of said wedging means. i
3. In a traffic guard for highways, in combination, a rigid post or support, a plurality of vertically spaced flexible elements, each comprising a plurality of wires acting as a unit, and a tubular bracket of resilient sheet metal rigidly secured to the post and having notches formed therein at points remote from the post for receiving such elements, a wedging means being associated with each notch for cooperating with the bracket in looking each element in such notch, said wedging means having a projection adapted to engage an edge of said notch when said wedging means is in operative position, to prevent accidental displacement of said wedging means.
4. In a 'traffic guard for highways, in combination, a rigid post or support, a plurality of vertically spaced flexible elements, each comprising a plurality of wires twisted together and acting as a unit, and a tubular bracket of resilient sheet metal rigidly secured to the post and having notches formed therein at points remote from the post for receiving such elements, a wedging means being associated with each notch for cooperating with the bracket in looking each element in such notch, said wedging means having a projection adapted to engage an edge of said notch when said wedging means is in operative position, to prevent accidental displacement of said wedging means.
5. In a traffic guard for highways, in combination, a rigid post or support, a plurality of vertically spaced flexible elements, each comprising a plurality of metallic strands acting as a unit, and a tubular bracket of resilient sheet metal rigidly secured to the post and having notches formed therein at points remote from the post for receiving such elements, a wedging means being associated with each notch for cooperating with the bracket in locking each element in such notch, said wedging means having a projection adapted to engage an edge of said notch when said wedging means is in operative position, to prevent accidental displacement of said wedging means.
6. In a traffic guard for highways, in combination, a rigid post or support, a plurality of vertically spaced flexible elements, each comprising a plurality of metallic strands twisted together and acting as a unit, and a tubular bracket of resilient sheet metal rigidly secured to the post and having notches formed therein at points remote from the post for receiving such elements,
a wedging means being associated with each notch for cooperating with the bracket in looking each element in such notch, said wedging means having a projection adapted to engage an edge of said notch when said wedging means is in operative position, to prevent accidental displacement of said wedging means.
7. In a highway guard, a support, a bracket of resilient sheet metal having one portion secured to said support and a second portion spaced therefrom and provided with a notch, a horizontally extending guard rail element, and means for wedging the latter in said notch.
8. In a highway guard, a support, a bracket of resilient sheet metal having one portion secured to said support and a second portion spaced therefrom and provided with a notch, a horizontally extending flexible vehicle deflecting element, and means for Wedging the latter in said notch, said wedging means having a laterally projecting portion adapted to engage an edge of said notch when said wedging means is in operative position, to prevent accidental displacement thereof.
9. In a traffic guard for highways, a rigid post or support, a guard rail element, a bracket of resilient sheet metal having one portion rigidly secured to the post or support and a portion remote therefrom having a notch for positioning the guard rail element and a retaining member for wedgingly holding said element in operative relation with the notched portion of the bracket, said retaining member having a laterally extending portion for engagement with the edge of said notch whereby it resists accidental dislocation or removal from the bracket.
SVEND A. HOLST.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US3908964 *||Oct 19, 1973||Sep 30, 1975||Leiblich Gordon Francis||Electric fence|
|US4643400 *||Jan 11, 1980||Feb 17, 1987||Beta Engineering And Development Ltd.||Trip-wire guiding device and protective fence including same|
|US5195727 *||Mar 18, 1992||Mar 23, 1993||Liao Wan Ming||Tubular shock-absorbing device for a rail|
|US5350155 *||Aug 17, 1992||Sep 27, 1994||Burk Lowell E||Wire holding fence post attachment assembly|
|US6502805 *||Jan 5, 2001||Jan 7, 2003||David R. Lewis||Sheet-metal highway guardrail system|
|US6637971 *||Nov 1, 2001||Oct 28, 2003||Worcester Polytechnic Institute||Reusable high molecular weight/high density polyethylene guardrail|
|U.S. Classification||256/13.1, 256/56|
|International Classification||E01F15/02, E01F15/06|