US 223898 A
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T. A. EDISON. Electric-Lamp.
No. 223.898. Patented Jan. 27,1880.
UNITED STATES BEST AVAILABLE CUr PATENT OFFICE.
THOMAS A. EDIEOH, 01' mm PARK, HEW
I! all whom it may M:
Bell; known that I, 'IJcm ALVA Enmon, of licnlo Pork in the Stone of New Jersey, United Santos oiAznes-lcm have lnvr-ntoil on 5 Improvement in Electric Lumps, and in the method mnnrnanring the tuna, (Que No. 86,) of which the following in n npccificaalon.
Tho objocl. of this invention in to produce clearlo lunpn giving lirht by lncondcnccnoo,
In which lamps shall have high resistance, 06 on no cllowof the practical subdivision o! the .clcctrio llghh,
Thoinvcntlon co in n llzhtgivlng body olcnrbon who or about: 00' ad or arranged in i and: n manner as no 050: m miownco to the of the electric current, and et the limo time prcnent but o alight carbon from which rndlntion cnn-tnko place.
- l'hlainvcntlon further consists in placing no such nrncr 0! great rcnin'zonoo in a ncerlyw vacuum. to prevent oxidation and innrymo the conductor by the atmosphere. The 2 is conducted into tho vncnnm-bnlb Qhmgh plctlno via-cu sealed into the glam. :5 The invention In rther oonniatnin the method 0! manufacturing carbon conductor: 01' high soon to bc nnitnblo for giving light by lncendwcencc, and in the manner of nccurlag perfect contact between the metallic condoctors or leodingwvim and the when condoctor.
Huntofcro light by inonndnnconoo has been Obtained from rods 0! carbon of one to' four ohms mintance, placed in cloned vcmcln, in
which the atmospheric eir hon been replaced bygone: the: do not combine chemically with carbon. The vcnnel holding the burner tmcomponod oi grim oomontcd to a mo- -"C base. The connmtion Waco the lead- 4 "I n: and the cerbin has wen obtain-d b! p g the carbon to tho mm. Tho 02dlug-vim have always boon largo, no that. their rmlotnnoc shall bo many times loss than tho in general, the nttcmptn of pre- 5 vionn pcrnonn have buen torcdnm U10 olthc mrbon rod. The diaadven tngcn of follow in: this preetioo m that. a lamp ha hm Onctoionr ohms miatnncccannot bevorkcd in Mt numbers in multiple on: without. the em- 5 F ament of main conductors of enormous dim; than, owing to the low rrniatnnoo of mp, Else lmlm mm must be 0! m dimension-no good conductors, and n l.- globc cannot be kept tight. ct the plncn 1r era the wimpin cod no cemented; honon tho urban iuconnnlnod, bccnnno there must ho n1- mont o perfect vacuum to render the mrbon stable, onpccinlly vhencnch carbon inuncll in mnndhi hin electrics! rcslnunon.
Thcnaoo gun in the rconivcrn than:- do monpbcrio prcmure, although M min: the carbon, ncrvcn todcnu-cy it in time by alrwashing," or the nutrition produced by the rapid of tho air over the slightly-o0- hcront. highly-heated nnrlacc of the when. I have reversed this practice. I have dlnoovcrcd that even a cotton thread properly rnrbonlw and plnccd in oneclcd glans bnlb oxhanotod to one-millionth of an atmosphere offer. from one hundred to live hundred ohms renintlnuc to the pun-n50 ofthc torrent. and that. it lnnblolutoly stable at very high temper-stores; thsz ll the thread bo coiled no a spiral nnd cnrbomzcd. or if my fibronn vegetable cnbntnnoc l will learn a carbon ruidnc after heating in 5 cloned chamber be no coiled, so much an tI0 .thonnend ohm: reoinunoc moy be obw fl without presenting n rndinting'nnrlnco grea-tcr than tbrco-lixtecnthn of m inch; tnu. f each fibrous materiel be rubbed with nplut c 00 l poood ol' Imp-black and tar, its resistance :my bo mode high or low. according to amount of lamp-block placed upon it; that en!- bon fllnmcntn mar be made by n oombln of tor and lamp-black. tho lager being 1" vionaly ignited in o closed crucible for loverll l honrn and clherwnrd moistened nnd kneaded until it mnmcn thc consistency of thick pu ty. Smell picou of this material any be rolled out in the form of vire a small on ncven onc-thonnnndthn of n inch in diameter Ind overs foot in length, and the name my 5.
l W with n non-conducting non'cerbonlzln;
nabs-anon and wound on n bobbin, or u n I!- and the tor cnrbonizcd in a cloned chowl her by subjecting it to highland-l m 'P'" nl'ur carbonizntion rculning It. form. be All than forms are l'rngilc nnd cum; "I, clamped to the lending wirm 'dh outlier; loroc to insure good contact and provcnt h ing. 1 have diamond that if latinum: are used and tho plulic lamp-block on matorinl be molded mound it. in the auto. on
mtion there in nu intimnle union bycon- EST AVAILABLE COPY material be molded around it in the act of carbonization there is an intimate union by combiustion and by pressure between the carbon and plntine, and nearly perfect contact is obtained without the necessity of clamps; hence the burner and the lending-wires are connected to the carbon ready to be placed in the vacuum-bulb.
When fibrous material is used the plastic lamp-black and tar are used toseoure itto the plntiua before carbouizlng.
By using the carbon wire of such high resistance l mu enabled to use flnc platinum wires for leiuling'wires, as they will have a small resistance compared to the burner, and hence will not limit and crack the sealed vac uunl-bulb. llatinu can only be used. no its expansion is nearly the same as that of glass.
By using a considerable length of carbon wire and coiling it the exterior, which Is only a small portion of its entire surface, will form the principal rndiuting-surtnce; hence I am able to raise the apccitic heat of the whole of the carbon, and thus prevent the rapid reception and disuppeamncc of the light, which on a plain wire is pn-judicial, as it shows the least. unsteadiness of the current by the flickering of the light; but it the current is steady the defect does not show.
I have carbonized and used cotton and linen thread, wood splints, papers coiled in various ways, also lamp-black, plunibago, and carbon in various forms, mixed with tar and kneaded so that the same may be rolled out into wires of various lengths and diameters. Each wire. however, is to be uniform in size throughout.
It the carbon thread is liable to be distorted during carbonization it is to becoilcd between a helix of copper wire. The ends of the carban or fllsuient are secured to the platinn leading-wires by plastic cnrbonisable material, and the whole placed in thecsrbonizing-chanr bar. The copper, which has served to prevent distortion of the carbon thresd, is nflerward eaten away by nitric aciihand the spiral soaked in water, and then dried and placed on the glass holder, and a glass bulb blown over the whole, with a lcadin -tuhe for exhaustion by s mercury-pump. is tube, when a high vacuum has been reached, is hermetically sesled.
With substances which are not great] (listorted in csrbonislng, they may be cost with a non-conducting noncnrbonisable substance, which allows one coil or turn of the carbon to rest. upon and be suplported by the other.
In the drawings, ignre 1 shows the temp sectionclly. n is the carbon spiral or thread. c c are the thickened ends of the spirahformed of the plastic compound of lamp-block and tar. d rl'are the phttina wires. Ii 5 arethe clamps, which serve to connect the plstina wires, e wanted in the carbon, with the leading-wiles x z, sealed in the glass vncuumbulb. c c are copper wires, connected just outside the bulb to the wires 2: :r. a is the tube (shown by dotted lines) leading to the vacuum-pump, which, after exhaustion, is hermetically sealed and the surplus removed.
Fig. 2 represents the plastic material before being wound into n spiral.
Fig. 3 shows the spiral alter curbtmise'tion, ready to have a bulb blown over it.
1 claim as my invention- I. An electric lamp for giving light by incandescence, consisting of a tilarnentof carbon of high resistance, made as described, and secured to metallic wires, as set forth.
2. The combination of carbon filaments with a receiver made entirely of glass and conductors passing through the glass, and horn which receiver the air is exhausted, for the purposes set forth.
3. A carbon filament or strip coiled and connected to electric conductors so that only a portion of the surface of such carbon couductors shall be exposed for radiating light, as set forth.
4. The method herein described of securing the platius contact-wires to the when filament and cerboniain of the whole in a closed chamber, substantial y as set forth.
Signed by me this 1st day of November,
THOMAS A. EDISON. Witnesses:
B. L. Gun-rm, Jens F. Rmnoum.
Order of Cancellation of Certificate of Correction of Letters Patent No. 223,898.
Correction in Letters Patent No- 223,
It to found tbet the following eeetlfleete ibeen etteobed to letter! Patent rented to Thomee A. Edieon for improvement in M Lenpe, Ho. dated Jenner; 27, 1880:
DEPARTMENT 01' TI!!! INTERIOR,
mm'm new term ornol,
WAIIIIG'IOI, D. 0., Dena-hr 18, me.
In complleuoe with the reqneet of the party In intereet better Petent No. 833,808, greeted Jenner-y 27, i880, to Thornee A. Bdieon, of Ieolo Perk, New Jereey, for en improvement in Bleetrlo Lernpe) In hereby lllnlterl eo no to expire et the eenre the with the patent of the followinmnened, heving the ehorteet time to run, vie: Brltteh eteot, dated November 10,1879, No. L578; Oenedien nt, dated November 17, 1879 0. 10,654; Belgien peteot, deted November 80, 1810, 0. 49.881: Itelieu potent, December 6. 1879, end Freneh potent, deted Jenner, 20, [880, o. 183,756.
It In hereby oer-tiled thet the rope:- entriee end ooneetlone here been mode in the 'fllel end recon!- of the Petent lee.
This amendment In mode thet the United Btetne potent ney conform to the movielone of eeotion 6887 of.the Bevleerl Bhtntee.
pm.) BBHJ. BU'I'IIIBWOBTB, 0am of I M. L. Joann,
Acting Hear-m of the Interior.
How, in eompllenoe with the request of the portion In intereet, eeld eerflleeb it hereby canceled end proper entrleo end oorreotionn' here been nede In the I]. end reoorde of the Petent Once.
In teetlmony whereof I heve hereunto let my beer! enduneell theeeel ofthe Potent on m be efllzed, me me dey me, me.
w. n. amoeme One-lukewd m Approved:
mm: Boarder of the Ieterbr.
DBPAB'I'IBR'I' OI Ill III'IIBIOB,
mm'eo lune nun onroe,
"mums, D. 0., Demeter 18, m
Ieeonlleoeewiththereqneetnfthe binning-tile. ted ennery 21'. 88!, to'l'homee A. of llenlo eI JII),- mprovernent in "Electric-14mm le hereby limited e o eeto e1 et the I- lie with the patent of the talked? hevlng the ehorteet thee to me, vb: Be lini Petentrletedliovember 10, .Ho. 5 8; Cenediee Petentitekd For-bee 1 ll Ho. 10 664; Be] an Petent deted ovember 80 1870, No. alhlien dated fieoember 1870' end Freooh Potent deteri Jerrnery M g 188 7;
It in hereby oertifled V et the mono: ante-lee end eoneetlone here been nude iethe Men end reoorde of the Petent Once.
Thin amendment in mode thee the United Btetee Pezont lee; conforto the M ions of Section 4887 of the ROM mu.
. BB1". BUI'I'IB'OII'IH,
W (Pith. Approved:
3|. L. JOBLYN,
Adi! Meier, e! are Interior.