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Publication numberUS223901 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJan 27, 1880
Filing dateJun 11, 1870
Publication numberUS 223901 A, US 223901A, US-A-223901, US223901 A, US223901A
InventorsOhables E. Fritz
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Magnetic qrain-separatok
US 223901 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

a. E; MHZ. Magnetic Grain-Separator No. 223,901. 1 Pai emed 5am. 2?,1880.

ia/aw iwi was/ef I longitudinal iron is mingled.



SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 223,901, dated January 2?, 1880. Application filed June 11, 1879.

To all whom it may concern Be it known that I, CHARLES E. Farrz, o1' Onecnta, in the county of Otsego, and in the Slate of New York, have invented a new and useful Method of Separating Iron or other Magnetic Metals from Grain or other Substances, which method is fully set forth in the following specification.

The invention relates, principally, to the method andmearis of removing fragments of iron, whether in the form of wire or other wise, from wheat or other grain before grinding, or from other substances with which the It consists in first passing the g: hill or other substance through screens, sieves, or other suitable mechanical means for separating the larger pieces of iron, if there are anysueh inthe mixture, then passing itthrough my electric or magnetic separator, by which the remainder of the iron is removed;

Heretofore grain has been passed through tr nghs cohtaining' permanent magnets, to which the iron would adhere,while the grain passed on. This process is objectionable bepieces of iron require to be removed by hand by an extra operationor process, and also because the magnets gradually lose their strength by the jarring, &c., incident to use; There are also other objections. To avoid r all these I employ temporary or induced mag nets, which I can charge to any required strength, and can magnetize and demagnetize, as desired. The particular form of apparatus which I consider preferable for employing them in is a revolvlvg cylinder made of wood or other nonmagnetic material, having strips or lengths of soft iron at tached to the interior surface. These strips are magnetizedduring one portion of the rev- .olntinn and de'nmg'netized during another portion, whereby the iron adheres to the strips while magnetized, and is carried to theupper part of the cylinder. The strips are then demagnetized and the iron drops, falling upon a trough, apron, or receptacle, down the inclined surface of which it passes to the outlet, while the cleaned grain passes out through the open end of the cylinder, and is caughtin any suitable apparatus, the nature of which will depend on the disposition which is to be touch. in their hubs atall, but through and be supported by madeof the grain. Other substances are sep; arated from the iron mixed with them inaf similar, way.

In the drawings, Figure]. represents a vet tical section of the separator in the line at .r, Fig: 2. Fig. 2 is a transverse section through the center. Fig. 3 is an end .view. Fig. '4 shows the means for properly connecting the electric wires with the magnets, the. Fig, 5 is a view of the upper hub of the separator, with commutator, brushes, Fig. 6 is a top view of an electro-magnet, a a, with two strips, B B, connected with its cores. Fig. 7 illustrates one method of connecting and driv} 6 ing-the separator E and generator G from the drivingshaft H, with its pulley. Similar letters of' reference indicate corre sponding part-s.

The mechanical means for removing the largest fragments of iron need not be described, as any apparatus may he used which maybe found most convenient; and in some cases the grain maybe free from large pieces, and can be passed directly through the separator. V

A in Fig. 1 represents the shell of the eylinder, which can revolve on hollowjonrnals at the ends, in the usual manner; but I prefer that hollow hubs-h I). turn on friction-roll- 3o ers w r, Fig. 5. The rollers not only obviatethe friction consequent upon the large size of the huh,'but the use of the. hollow hubs also obviates the following defect: ()wing to the inclined position of the cylinder, if the usual journals were used. the'oil w'oulddrip from. the upperbearing into the interior, or run down the outside and intothe spout Rand not onlyinjure the .graih, but interfere with:- the proper working of the apparatus. At the lower bearing there maybe, besides ,the up right rollers, one or more rollers hearing against theend or ehonlden of hub, in keep the separator up to its place and resist its longitudinal downward thrust. flhesemay. 5 be advantageously placed at the top or sides of the hollow journal. When the hubs are properly supported the feed-pipe P and the ontletpipo 1 need not.

pass "loosely too the connecting parts, or by the standards S ofthe separator 3O the bottom of the outlet-pipe p. The.

. ply can be regulated lower end into the The inlet-pipe P is connected, with a hopper cleanvor the magnets are strongly charged,

the grain eaube cleaned in one revolution.v

The. apparatus can therefore beco'nstructed to operate on the material as rapidly as desired by increasin g the inclination of the cyliln der, and also the-strength of themagnets.

The axis of the separator may be horizontal and tho'outlet end made largerthan the however, may

anther, to give the necessary carrying out. the. grain. v I T is a trough, apron, or receptacle for catcln inclination for ing the iron, reaching across nearly the entire width of the separator from one end thereof .to the other, properly supported on the stationary pipes P andp. The middle of this trough inclines,'as shown, from abonttwothirds the diameter of the cylinder down to edges be nearly at the same from end to end. v i

B B are strips of soft iron attached to the interior of the shell A. of the cylinder, Figs. 1, 2, and 6, longitudinally,.being best arranged around the cylinder, so as to be magnetized alternatelymositimly and negatively. These strips are of any suitable number, depending .on the diameter of the cylinder andthe power of the magnets.

A. The

The drawings show sixteen strips connected to eight magnet-s. They may have a smooth surface; but are better to be corrugated, the nedges slightly turned upward, or to have their surface formed in' projections of any kind for stirring the grain and insuring contact with the fragments of wire. To these strips are firmly attached the ends of the cores of a series of electro-magnets,of. suitable construction and of equal strength, secured to the shell ends of the wires of the two coils do are led to and connected with the contactpieces'b b, Figs. 1 and 3, one for each coil.

' When the current is sent through the two contact-pieces b b and the two coils a a of magnet 1 the two strips B B in contact with its cores are magnetized by induction, one positively, the other negatively.

For convenience in showing the connections, Figs. 2, 3, and 4 are divided into eight imaginary sections, each one having a magnet, two coils, a a, two strips, 13 13, two contact-pieces, b 1), corresponding to the coils.

The current is sent through the magnets in sections 5, 6, 7, and 8, and is shut ofi from those in sections 1, 2, 3, and 4. The cylinder and also assist in spread.

discharged from the open other source of electricity;

height with I), thus sending 'inder or commutator,

season revolves in the direction of the arrow, and as each magnet comes into the position of section 5 the current is sentthrough it, and it con tinuescharged till it reachesthe position of section i,wheu its edge of the troughT. The current is then shut off, the strips B B are demagnetized, and any iron adhering to the strips drops into the inclined trough and passes out through the pipe 1;.

In order to insure the dropping of the iron at the instant that the current is shut oil from magriet 1 it is reversed momentarily, giving the strips opposite polarity, and having the client to repel the iron. T

The current is sent through the proper magnets by means of two curved brushes, 0 0', ar-

ranged in contact with the contactpieces of The brush 0 is connected with the positive wire, 0 with the negative. The current divides in the brushes, going equally through the did'ereut magnets whose contact-- pieces are touched by the brushes. In magnet i. it passes from 0 to b, to a, to a, thence back to b, and out through cto the battery or and the same with magnets 6, 7, and h. Consequently it passes successively through all the ma'gnetcoils as they come into section 5, and continues to fiow. through them till they reachsection 1, when contact withthehrushes ends. and. the current is shut off from them;

The. currentis reversed by the means shown iuFigs. 3 and a. At the forward-ends of the contact-pieces the two series are prolonged toward each other. The forward end of the brush 0 is similarly widened. There is a corresponding widening at c" for the brush 0, and electrithe magnets.

caliy connected therewith, but not continuous with it. These wid' nings are not prolonged far enough to reach the other circle, either of brushes or contact-pieces, but so that the projection of one can reach over and make good contact with the other, as shown.

The contactpieces b b of magnet 1, Fig. 3, have just gone out of con tact with the brushes, and in the position shown the brush 0"is in contact with the side projection oi b, and a the current through magnot 1 in the opposite direction to that in which it had up to that instant been flowing.

By lengthening the lower ends of the brushes they will connect eooner'with the magnets,

and by shortening the upper ends they will disconnect sooner; but the proportions shown will generally be found sutficient.

In practice, howerer,'it will be found better to have the contact-pieces on instead of on the end. The

of the separator a smaller 0571- 0, arranged on the hubstrip B is well over the cylinder is oi ebonite or other suitable n'on-conducting material, and the contact-pieces properly fixed in its surface in two circles, as before.

The wires from the rated, run to the and inward to cease-o their correspondmagnets, properly insuend of the separator-cylinder,

' to is attached to some ad I iorznity with the ing cohtact-pieces. These are not placed in the same sections of the commutator as their magnets, but so that the brushes can occupy the upper half of the circle, as shown in Figs. 5 5 and 1', where Dis a segment of non-conducting material, carrying the two brushes insulated from, each other, and arranged to-rest in contact with their respective circles of contactpieces, as before descri ed. This segment D ining stationary part, so that it can be adjusted in position and brought up to the commutator as the brushes wear, or readily'removed for repairs or for the substitution ct neyabrnshes', lite. Fig. 1 shows theontachpiecesb b .both in the position of Fight; and on the commutator G, as in Fig. 5. i The magnets and their wires are entirely covered by the outer casing of the cylinder, so that they cannot be disturbed or injured while the machine is in use.

In order to test Whether the separator is toomuch inclined for the strength oi the magnets, or if the; grain is led in too rapidly, I at-i tach a fiat- ,late or su i ilementa'rv trou h t,

P ll o 7 to the lower end of the trough T, and above the latter. Should anyconsiderable quantity of iron drop on this plate, the strength of the current should be increased or the feed of the grain be/liniinished by the gate or valve at the 30, inlet Pybut it itcatches little or none the working is correct. This plate can be seen through the open lower end of the separator.

It is attached by its lower edge to the sides of/the trough T, and held up to its place by-a 5 s wing or counterpoise, so that it can be caused ta discharge whatever it has caught by pushlg down its upper edge; or it may ,m any other suitable manner. I

,1 The contact-pieces must, of course, be kept o clean, the connections of the different wires to them and to the magnets unbroken and'prop erly insuliited,"and the brushes in condition to make good contacts with all the contactpieces as they come under them. To test 4 5 whether these points are correct reach apiece of softiron wire in through theopen end of the separator, and by touching the strips which are magnetized it can is held or not;

he arrau ged or a handful of iron fragments 5c! can be thrown in while the separator is whil J inga'nd before opening t-he'i'ced for the grain,

to see it they are promptly gathered up'and caught in the trough T. liany particular strips B need tobe more 5J5 strongly magnetized than others, or for any reason it is desirahletodividethe currents diti'erehtly, each strip or each set can have its own circle of contact-pieces on the commute tor, and the brushes and wires be arranged to produce the particular effect desired, in congeneral system before described.

I do not confine myself to the precise forms and arrangements shown; but any equivalent 6 5 construction which will accomplish the same results may be used. For example, instead of the magnets being connected with the strips method is. preferable, unless he felt whether the wire.

B at or near the middle, as shown, they-may be attached at their ends; but the former the strips are quite short. The strips can also be arranged around the cylinder instead oflongitudinally; but in that case they should not be longer than can discharge at onetime into the trough. The commutator can then be arranged to r verse the current as each set of strips comes exactly over the trough.-

instead of employing eleetro-magnetsdoinduce magnetism in-the strips, as described, the thin shell Aof the separator can bewonnd with insulated wire, making it a large hollow coil, inducing magnetism in the strips when the current passes through the wire. In this. case the commutator should be arranged to reverse the direction of the'current about three timesto each revolution of the separator, so

' that as each sectional one-third of the surface.

came over the trough, it would be caused to discharge the iron it had carried up. i

Instead of electromiagnets or a wire 'coilfor magnetizing t-hestrips, permanent magnets may be used, the poles of which set on contact pieces connected directly to the strips, substantially as shown in Fig.6. These magnets should either he oi the horseshoe form, or at least have their ends or poles bent a little out of straight line. The coils a. ataronnd the contact or polepieces are then used to-neutralize or reverse the inductive action of the magnets on the st'ripsB Bby sending a current through then' 'iu the proper direction when they arrivoixnlhe position shown in Fig. 2, and thereby cause the discharge of the iron fragments,- as already described; v

The coils can be dispensed with, if desired, and any suitable means used for neutralizing, preventing, or reversing the inductionaction of the magnets on the soft-iron strips at the proper times by removing their poles from the contact pieces or strips or otherwise.

As the difi'erent magnets come over the trough a projecting arm or lever connected with any convenient adjacent stationery fixture wouldcause the magnets to slide oft those contact-pieces-and' onto others, and so reverse the polarity of the strips, or merely demagnetize them, as preferred. In the latter case another arm or incline would replace the mag note as they were lowered on the side by thh turning of the cylinder. The magnets can be arranged inside and the strips for attaching the wire be placed on the outside oi the separates-and operate. in. substantially the same way; but I-regard the construction described as better, as an internal surface is more coir venient, better adapted tn jsccm-e a thorough cleaning, and the action is more under control in every way than an external one, whether the latter is cylindrical, curved, or plane.

The same effect can be produced in substantially the same way by using permanent magnets directly for attracting and seizing the iron, and at the proper time causing them to face or pass the similar poles at other mag- 4 v masses nets of equal or greater strength near their other ends, thus practically neutralizing or re-- will be to more or less rapidly destroyer .re

Verse their permanent magnetism.

. the iron will drop.


- the same as the iron strips. V netism v0t the wire is reversed by reversing the permanent magnets are used It is an improvement to add another series of stationary permanent magnets with oppo site poles facing theouter. ends of the morable magnets, so placed as to add to their power during the time they are holding the fragments'ot' wirer They will also tend to preserve or increase the strength of the movable magnets. This arra ngcment can be a 'iplied to the trough-separator described further on.

Still another method of applying the principleof my invention is,

manent magnets or magnetized strips to seize 'Lllfl'lIOI], to distribute a naked conducting-wire over the surface of the cylinder, the difi'erent coils or lengths being insulated from each other and from the cylinder. 'VV hen the current is'sent-throngh this wire it becomes. in ctfect, one longmagnet, and will attract andhold the fragments of iron, as described before, till the current is broken at the proper time, when The wire may be laid either to and fro, from one end ot'the cylinder to the the diti'erent lengths being nearly parbe wound around the cylinder The quasi-magallel, or it may direction ot'thecurrent pnssimg through it. The commutator described and she mo in the drawings, although very'convc'nient, is by n0 7 means the only-available construction; but an y suifableimenns ing the connections may be employedt'or 0pfor properly making and breakerating thc'separator. 1 v

The separator maybe revolved by belting or gearing; but thehuter ispreterable is the slight jarring produced by it assists the iron fragments to slide. down the trough T; but it better, as the jarring would weaken the mag nets. The pulley or gearing can be applied to either end of the separator, or the belt can run around the sepurator-cylinder itself us at pulley, as shown, at. E in Fig. .l.

The connection between the separator and thedynamo-electric machine may be direct -by bolting or gearing, or be made indirectly through intermediate shutting, &c. The latter is preferableon account of the dittereuce betwcen'thc speeds of the two. 1 As the generator G, Fig. 7, makes about seven; hundred revolutions per minute, while the separator E will make, say, five to ten, it. would be diiiicult to connect them directly, but is easily done by intermediate shutting, shown in the ure. This connection, before observed, may be made by belting, gearing, or any suitable means. It the speeds of the generator and separator are notto'be varied in the some proportion, the pulleys, &c., are arranged instead of using per-- belting would be d uce the desired diiiereuoerto pro- The electric "current tor. charging, the elec-f bro-magnets may be supplied bya battery or by a'dynamoelectric machine of any construction.

suitable The machine is preferable, as

it'i's less troublesome and can-be better taken care of by unskilled persons, and its speed can be so arranged in proportion to that. of the separator as to furnish acnrrentot'any stren gth' required. When so arranged, it thesepara tor shouldbe turned faster the machine will also turn proportionately faster, furnishing the same quan ty of current to eachrevolution of the former, by which means the separz'ttor'may be caused to clean amuch iii-eater quantityot grain per hour ranged-to furnish a constantand not an alternating current, so that the strips 13 on the The inachiueiunist be an rising side, when magnetized, shallre'main so .till they come over the trout h T as a break.

in the current before that time would d cop the iron back into the grain.

There are many other ways, unnecessary to describe, of applying this principle of my invention, which consists in separating and hold; ingthe-fragmeuts of iron by-ineans of magnets in the form -ot'.strips, wires, o1- bars,

whether permanent, temporary, or'indnced, whosefmagnet-i-sm isthe-n anto naticaglly overs come, neutralized, discharged, or reversed a t 'sucli timesthat the iron they have seized will he dropped 'into a suitable receptacle separated from the gi'ainor other substance with which it had been mixed. It therefore does not-include the use of'inagnets for gathering" the iromas that, is old; but only the magnets in.

separator be internal, external, shape v I The difi'crent variation s of form' anderr 1| geconnection with the, means for utilizing them, substantially as i have described, whether the;

or of anyoth or ment in thesevera-l parts' suggested, in this specification can, of course, be combined with each ot-herin ail-operative separator in any particular manner preferred, so long as principle of my invention is @not departed from.

Having thus described my hereby reserve, as subject of future appiica tiou, all matters not expressly claimed herein. What I claim as new, and desire to secure "by Letters .Patent, is I y 1. In apparatnsfor separating iron orothor magnetic metals from grain or other non-magnctic substances,tho combination of a. grai ity-t'eed produced by rotarymotiOmttSeries oi magnets, and menus for discharging, over coming, neutralizing, or reversing their magnet-ism at the proper times.

2. Ail-internalmagnetic separator consisting of a longitudwally-inclined revolving" inder having soft-metal strips or pieces arranged omits inner suri'ace,menns for magnetiziugand dema-guetizing them at the proper times, and a trough within the cylindert'or catching the iron fragments and discharging invention, .1

for catching the them separately from the grain, all being so constructed and arranged that the strips or pieces seize the iron while in the grain, carry it-upover the trough, and discharge it there in, whileithe cleaned grain passes on and out at the lower end of the cylinder.

3. A self-feeding magnetic separator consisting of a longitudinally-inclined revolving cylinder, provided with temporary or induced magnets, means for magnetizing and demagnetizin g them at the proper times, ands trough iron fragments, and having 1 the discharge end lower than the other by an amount that will ca-u'sethe feeding to proceed at the desired rate without requiring mechanicalmesns for forcingthe material along.

4. The combination of u, magnetic separator or apparatus for separating iron from grain or other substences a magneto elect ric or dy-' nauioelectric machine furnishing a current of proper strength, and belting, gearing, or other suitable connection between them, for automatically regulating the speed of the electric generator by thatof the separator.

5. The comhinationof a longitudinally-inclin'ed self-feeding internal magnetic separator with a series of soft-metal strips or pieces. for seizing the iron, arranged on its inner surface, and means for magnetizing and demagnetizing them at the proper times. 6. The combination of a iongitudinally-im clined self feeding internal magnetic separotor, a series of magnets outside of the sepa rater, a series of soft-iron strips or pieces ar ranged on its inner surface and connected with the poles of the magnets, and means for automaticslly neutralizing, ouercoming, discharging, renewing, the strips or pieces at the proper times.

7. The combination, der, ofo. series of temporary or induced'magnets arranged on its the proper time and a trough or receptacle within the cylin er forcatching the iron frag mcnts, substantially as and forthe purposes set forth.

erasing, and reversing the electric nun-cutie, trough or receptacle within thecylinder for or reversing the magnetism of with '8 revolving cylin interior surfacqmeansfor magnetizing and dcmagnetizing them at the iron fragments, and a dynamo-electric machine or other source of electricity.

an outlet, 3),:1 series of magnets outside of the cylinder, a, series of soft-iron strips or pieces connected with the magnets and arranged on the interior surface of the cylinder, a circular commutator and segment \vithbrushes or'contact-makers, both arranged at the sam end of the cylinder, a trough within the cylinder discharging tnroughthe outlcttp, and tidyname-electric machine or other source of electricity, substantially as and for the purposes set forth. p

10. In a separator, a commutator and a segment, both at the same end of the cylinder, the commutator having two circles of contact pieces, arranged in pairs, one pair for the magnet or magnets of each soft-iron strip, each piece having one or more side projections toward the other circle, the segment having two insulated brushes, corresponding to the two circles, connected with. the two poles of the source of electricity, and each brush wide enonghto touch the projections on the contact-pieces of the other circle, the whole being constructed and arranged, substantially as herein described, for sending the current through such wires or coils in snch directions and for such times as'may he desired.

groin by inducing magnetism in soft-iron strips or pieces by means of permanent magnets, which stripsorpieces seize and hold the iron fragments whilic in or near the grain, but are demegnetized and drop the iron after they are out of the grain. I

vi2. A; separator-cylinder revolving on hollow hubs, in combination with inict P, outlet p, and'o trough or receptacle, T. t 13. A revolving metic separator having in its interiora'ctoticnary trough or receptoole for catching the iron, supported on or mains in the some position while the cylinder is revolving around it.

a; supplemeutsry'pteole, t, for testing on perfection of the cleaning., i oneness n. rn-rrn presence of In Rn; Cosnm JAMES s.

9. The combination of a cylinder revolving on hollow hubs, and having an inlet, P, and

by the iniet and ontict pipes, so that it're- 11. The method of separating iron from lQi'Ehe combination, with the trough T, of v

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3087616 *Oct 26, 1959Apr 30, 1963Naturizer CoMagnetic separator
US4046679 *Nov 28, 1975Sep 6, 1977Raytheon CompanyMagnetic drum materials separator
US4363723 *Apr 27, 1981Dec 14, 1982Carpco, Inc.Multifield electrostatic separator
US5795479 *Nov 29, 1996Aug 18, 1998Eastern Power LimitedApparatus and method for waste recycling and conversion
US6048458 *Jul 30, 1998Apr 11, 2000Eastern Power LimitedApparatus and method for waste recycling and conversion
Cooperative ClassificationB03C1/12