US 2239433 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 22 1941. l L F. URBAIN 2,239,433
ADJUSTABLE SHIN Filed Feb. 10, 1940 Patented Apr. 22, 1941 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE ADJUSTABLE simu Leim F. Urbain, chicago, 111. Application February 1o, 1940, seran No. 318,314
(ci. 25er-104) 2l Claims.
strips. Shingles are most frequently used for this purpose. When a shingle is so employed it is first pressed or driven, thin edge rst, sufciently far to dispose the required body thickness beneath the part being levelled, and then the remaining butt portion is broken off. These butt portions are simply discarded because they are awkward to carry until such a time, if ever, when the thinnest edge thereof would be insertable beneath or between .parts tcbe spread. Consequentlyi lwhen only the tip of a shingle is used, practically the whole shingle is thrown away. The waste is tremendous. It is estimated that '70 percent of the bulk in every bundle of shingles "carried onto a job to be used as slLms is lost through waste ofV this nature. Further waste-is often incurred, when the work is finished, by
simply abandoning any partially depleted bundles of shingles, for once a bundle is broken, considerable time would be necessary in re-packaging the lot to ensure theirreaching a subsequent job in perfect condition. As a general rule, therefore, the smallest building project requires a bundle of shingles earmarked for shims.
An object of the present invention is the provision of a new, compact, easily packaged andv transported shim of inexpensive structure that will obviate the above mentioned waste.
A further object of this invention is the provisio-n of` an improved `shim member of which a plurality are conveniently carried by a tradesman as a carpenter in his apron. Shingles, for instance, are long and interfere with essential body movements such as stooping.
A further object of this invention is the provisionof a shim member made from a material as sheet metal which indenitely retains its shape and thus remains where it is originally lodged despite temperature and humidity changes.
An additional object of the invention is the provision of a novel shim that is cooperably adi;-
In the lconstruction of a building, for
justable in interlocking relation with another identically constructed shim.
The above and other desirable objects of the invention will become apparent upon reading the following description with reference to the single sheet of drawings comprising a part of this specication and wherein:
Fig, 1 is a fragmentary horizontal sectional view taken through a vertical building wall on the line l-I lof Fig. 2, and showing in side elevation a (1o-assembled pair of shims, each of which embodies one form of the invention;
Fig. 2 is a vertical fragmentary sectional View illustrating, in end elevation, two pairs bf said shims in position for vertically aligning a furring strip;
Fig. 3 is a plan View of a. pair of my improved shims of the character shown in Figs. l and 2,
illustrating such shims in interlocked assembly;
Fig. 4 is a side elevational view showing one of the shims as those in Figs, 1 to 3 in the inverted position;
Fig. 5 is a view similar to Fig. 3, showing a pair of modified shims in cti-assembled relation;
Fig. 6 is an end elevational View taken on the line 6-5 of Fig. 5;
Fig. '7 is a fragmentary plan View illustrating a pair of shims as those illustrated in Figs. 1 to 3, but having transverse ribs or oorrugations; and
Fig. 8 is a side elevational view taken on the line 8--8 of Fig. 7.
While my improved shim has a definite immediate demand in the building trade and is herein illustrated and described with reference to' particular uses in such trade, it should be understood that the device in its present or modied form is equally capable of utility in many other elds. For example, when stamped from heavy gauge sheet steel, the shim is useful flor leveling light or medium weight machinery preparatory to grouting, and when cast of iron or other suinciently strong material it is useful for leveling heavy machinery or for use in conjunction with, or in lieu of, tie plates beneath railroad rails. The uses are too numerous to attempt an exhaustive list.
Referring now to the drawing, and particularly to Figs. 1 to 4 which illustrate one embodiment of the invention, this embodiment will be seen tol be in the form of a substantially U-shaped member l0. Said member l0 may be formed either by stamping or casting. When the member is of comparatively light weight, as that illustrated in the drawing, it will usually be stamped from sheet metal, although it may be shaped from any other material which has sucient strength, such as a phenol condensation composition or other plastic materials.
In Figs. 1 -to 3 the shim member i0 is shown in association with a similarly shaped member Ia. Said shim member II] comprises a pair of legs II and I2 which extend in parallelism and in the same direction form a base section I3. Each of the legs II and I2 'has a rounded edge section which sections serve as guide-ways at the entrance to a slit I5 between said legs. The leg I I has stamped therein a longitudinal cam section I8 which is concavo-convex in shape, This cam section IB protrudes the furthest from the obverse face of the shim at its end nearest the base section I3, and gradually diminishes in the amount of protrusion as the extended end of the leg II is approached, said section It having Zero protrusion at some such point as I'I.
The opposite leg, I2, of the shim I0, in Fig. 3, is for the most part concealed below a leg member Illa of the shim Ia, said leg I2 constituting a locking section of the shim Iii since it is disposed in fricticnal engagement with the under or reverse side of the leg IIa. Inasmuch as the shim Ia is identical with the shim IIJ, all designated parts thereof are indicated by respectively corresponding reference characters with an a added. The frictional engagement between the locking legs YI2 and I2a and the cam-bearing legs II and I la is Vincreased in eciency by knurling or otherwise roughening the faces of these members which are contiguously disposed, as indicated at I8 and Ia. Thus, in Fig. 3, the obverse faces I8 and Ilia of the legs I2 and Ira are roughened as are the reverse faces of the legs Ila and II respectively engaged thereby. Such roughening of these faces may also be effected by applying a coating thereto which is rough in nature, as, for example, a glavanized coating, or a surface deposit obtained by means of an electrolytic process.
It will be observed in Fig. 3 that the interlocked shims IQ and I Ila may be adjusted axially relatively to one another, and that they are movable relatively endwise incident to being assembled in the relation there shown. Such assembly is facilitated because of the legs I2 and I2a being relatively displaced flatwise of the shims whereby the legs I I and I2 diverge as shown in Fig. 4.
One use of a pair of shims as IIJ and Ia is illustrated in Figs. l and 2. In these iigures a furring strip I9 is shown in association with the inner face'of a brick building wall 29 comprising bricks as 2l separated and held together by mortar 22. In order that the inner face of the wall, consisting of laths 23 and plaster 24, will be truly vertical, pairs of the shims as I!! and Ita are disposed between the furring strip I9 and said wall 2Q. These furring strips I9, which are spaced horizontally along the wall ZI at intervals for coinciding with the adjacent ends of laths as illustrated in Fig. l, are held in place to the wall oy means of nails 25. Said nails 25 are driven through the furring strips I 9 at those points where they will strike and embed themselves in the mortar between the bricks, Now it will be understood that when the comparatively rough brick work is not truly vertical or free of surface unevenness, the strips I9 may be selectively spaced therefrom by means oi the shim members as I@ and lila so as to cause the strips is to lay vertical. When the shims Iii and Ida are extended axially,lFigs. l and 3, sections of less protrusion upon the cams I5 and Iia will be in registry with the strip wherefore they will permit the strip to occupy a position quite close to the wall 23. Ii the shims Iii and Ita are moved axially together, higher points upon the cams I6 and Ita will be carried between the wall 23 and the strip IS to displace the strip further from the wall. Thus the shims il! and lila are adjusted to cause the strip I9 to occupy the desired vertical position.
Said cams Iii and Ita also are adapted to receive the fastening means as the nails 25 within the opening 2S formed jointly by the slits I5 and Ia. Said fastening means 25 therefore serves as a stop to abut against the legs as I I and I2 of the shims and prevent their vertical displacement. Axial displacement of the shims as Ii! may be prevented by driving small nails through holes as 27 and 23 respectively at the ends of the shiins.
When the shims are in their extended position in which the cams I and Ita displace the strip IS but slightly, the holes 2 and 21a will be separated the most distantly and will thus be exposed upon opposite sides of a piece as i9, and when the shims are moved toward the opposite extreme of relative adjustment in which the cams I and Ia are arranged for displacing the member as IS the greatest distance, the holes 28 and 28a will be accessible upon opposite sides of said member. Hence, this arrangement of the holes as 2 and 28 insures that at least one of them will be expdsed, at a side of a member being positioned, in any adjusted position of the shims.
A slit as I5 may or may not be provided between the legs as II and I2 of the shims, but when such a slit is provided it enables the shims to have a holding member as the nail 25 centrally located with respect thereto. In this manner the force of a piece as the upright I9 is applied more evenly upon the cams I6 and Ita for snugly retaining the friction suraces as I8 in engagement with the obverse face of the cambearing leg as I Ia in interlocking relation therewith.
While a shim Il is usable alone, it is especially adaptable for use complementally with a shim as ma. When the shirns are used inpairs their cams as I6 divide the load impressed thereon by the part being leveled, and in addition these cams, since they are inserted beneath opposite sides of said part, tend to hold said part level. In fact, if the part beneath which the cams are being inserted is warped or otherwise distorted so that it will not stand upright when supported upon a level footing, one of the shms may be inserted a greater distance than the other so as to cam one side of the part a greater distance than the other and thus tilt said part to correct for its deformity and cause it to set upright, perpendicular or at any selected degree of angularity.
A second embodiment of the invention is shown in Figs. 5 and 6. In each of these gures there is shown a shim 50 having a base section 5I from one side of which spaced legs 52 and 53 project in the same direction. Each of these legs has upon it a cam section 54, which in the present instance is formed by die-pressing the same so as to cause the cams to protrude outwardly from the shims obverse face. These cam members 54 protrude the furthest at their ends nearest the base section 5I and diminish in the amount of such protuberance as the projecting ends of the legs are approached.
The base section 5I of the shim 53 is arched upwardly from its obverse face to form a bridge 55 having shoulders 57 at opposite sides of the bridge. The underside of these shoulders 57 are sufficiently elevated to slidingly receive the edge sections as 58 bordering opposite sides of a 'cam member as 54a upon a different and similarly constructed shim M. The bridge 56 is of suicient height to telescopically receive a cam member as 54a of such a similarly constructed shim. Since the shims 50 and 50a are identical, the designated parts of the shim 50a are identified by corresponding reference characters with the letter a added.
Shims 50 are employable in the same manner as shiins I0, above described, either singly or in combination with other shims as 56a. A pair of shims 50 and 50ct are Vrelatively adjustable axially for placing cam sections of different thickness beneath opposite edges of a piece being shimmed. Inasmuch as the shims shown in Figs. 5 and 6 have twice the number of cam sections as the shims `in the lower numbered figures they are adapted to support twice the load. A pair of the shims as 5U and 50a, provide four areas of support against a piece being shimmed, two areas of support being at one edge of the piece and likewise two areas at its opposite edge. Obviously, suchdistribution of the areas at which the cams 54 and 54a exert ,force upon the shimmed piece result in a rm support therefor. Furthermore, any irregularity in said piece may be compensated for by sliding one of the complementary paired shims further beneath the edge with which itis associated, and thus the piece may be tilted and held in any selected degree of angularity.
In Fig. 6 it will be seen that the shoulders 5l' and 51a t closely over the leg edge portions as 58a and 58 so as to be pressed into rm frictional engagement therewith when pressure is applied to the cams 54 and 54a.. This frictional interlocking resists accidental displacement of the shims subsequent to their disposal in shimming relation with a piece. Such frictional engagement between the leg edge portions as 58 and the shoulders as 51a. may be augmented by driving one or more nails through the holes as 59 into a wall, studding, or flooring or the like against which the reverse faces of the shims are placed. Here, as in the rst described embodiment of the invention, the holes as 59 and 60 are arranged at opposite ends of the shims so at least one of these holes will be exposed adjacent to an edge of the shimmed part and thus accessible for receiving a nail.
Because of the greater number of camming sections provided by that form of shim shown in Figs. 5 and 6 it constitutes a light-weight comparatively heavy-duty device. This form of shim is therefore especially adapted for insertion beneath sections about the base of machinery or the like for leveling the same preparatory to grouting or otherwise permanently securing the machinery in place. When cams as 50 are made sufficiently heavy, by malking them of heavy gauge sheet metal or by casting, they may very readily provide the permanent support for a machine or other body of great weight.
The modied form of shim, shown in Figs. 7 and 8, is in all respects like that in Figs. 1 to 3, excepting that there is additionally provided a series of transverse surface irregularities in the form of ribs or corrugations. These corrugations are indicated on the shim lib by the reference numeral 'l5 and on the shim I lc by the reference numeral 16. Shim l-Ib corresponds to the shim I I in Fig. 3, whereas the shim l Ic corresponds to the shim Hal. Consequently the cam sections IBb and Ic respectively correspond to the cam sec- Lil) tions I6 and Ilia, in Fig. 3. It becomes obvious upon examining Figs. 7 and 8 that the intertting surface irregularities 'l5 and 16 offer considerable resistance to relative movement of the shims Hb and llc axially of the cams lBb and |60 when saidcarns are pressed together beneath a load.
While I have shown and described only three forms of shim, it will be understood that other forms may be made without departing from the spirit of the invention and so it is intended that the invention shall not be limited to the present specific illustrative disclosure.
1. A shim comprising a plate having a butt end and a bit end and including `an elongated section extending between said ends `and decreasing in thickness as the bit end is approached, and an` adjacent frictional locking section of substantial uniform thickness projecting edgewise from said elongated section and connected therewith only at a butt end portion thereof.
2. A shim comprising a plate including juxtaposed sections of which one is a locking section,
and an elongated `tapered body upon the other of said sections, said shim being disposable in cooperative relation with a similarly constructed shim and each of said sections thereof being adapted to ht in overlapping relation with the non-corresponding section `of such a similar shim during such cooperative relation.
3. A shim generally in the form of a plate-like 4body and including juxtaposed sections of which one is a locking section, and an elongated tapered formation upon the other of said sections, `and said sections being relatively off-set normally of said body to facili-tate sliding of the shim into assembly with another similar shim and with said locking section of each assembled shim in overlapping relation with the formation bearing section of the other.
4. A shim comprising a plate having butt and bit ends and including juxtaposed sections of which one extendsbetween said ends and includes an elongated tapered cam body extending `axially thereof, .the other of said sections constituting a frictional locking section projecting laterally edgewise from said one section and being connected therewith only at -a butt end portion thereof, at opposite ends of said plate to facilitate anchorage thereof to a supporting surface.
5.` A shim comprising a pair lof substantially fiat spaced-apart legs, and an elongated concavoconvex :tapered cam body upon at least one of said legs and decreasing in thickness as the free end of such leg is approached.
6. A shim comprising a longitudinal cam member and a locking member disposed laterally edgewise thereof in a position to lay flatly in overlapping relation with the cam member of a diiierent shim.
7. A shim comprising a pair of substantially dat spaced-apart legs, and an elongated tapered cam body upon at least one of said legs, said cam body being narrower than the face of the respective leg and projecting outwardly from such face and decreasing in the amount of such projection as the free end of such legis approached.
8. A shim comprising a substantially iiat U- shaped member including upon one of its legs an elongated tapered cam section decreasing in thickness as the free end of such leg is approached, a comparatively rough friction surf-ace upon the cam-bearing leg at the side 0f Said member opposite tothe cam, and a comparatively rough friction surface upon the other leg and at the opposite side of said member.
9. A shim comprising a substantially flat U- shaped member including upon one of its legs an elongated tapered cam section decreasing in thickness as the free end of such leg is approached, and said legs diverging iiatwise of said member.
l0. A shim comprising a U-shaped plate and wherein one of the legs has an elongated concavoconvex cam sec tion tapering from the base toward the free end thereof.
11. A shim comprising a pair of substantially at spaced-apart legs, an elongated concaVo-con- Vex tapered cam body upon at least one of said legs and decreasing in thickness as the free end of such leg is approached, yand means substantially at opposite ends of said shim to facilitate anchorage thereof to a supporting surface, and said means at the end of said shim where said legs join being aligned with the space therebetween whereby it will be accessible through such space of a similar shim with which said shim is co-assembled with the legs of each shim in overlapping relation with the legs of the other.
12. A shim comprising a U-shaped mem-ber of which the legs are `tapered to decrease in thickness from their base ytoward .their free ends, and of which the base is arched transversely `of said legs to adapt it to receive a leg of a dierent similar member.
13. A shim comprising a U-sh-aped plate, cam members extending longitudinally of the legs of said member and decreasing in thickness as the ends of said legs are approached, 4and the base of said member being constructed and arranged for frictionally and telescopically receiving a leg of a different similar member.
14. A shim comprising a pla-te including a base, parallel laterally spaced legs projecting in the same direction from said base, cam sections extending longitudinally of said legs and decreasing in thickness as .the projecting ends thereof are approached, and said base embodying an arched bridge and shoulder portions at the ends of the bridge of such contour that said shim is disposable in cooperative relation with a similarly constructed shim with the bridge of each in telescopic relation with a leg of the other and with said shoulders of each in overlapping relation with marginal edge portions of the telescopically received legs.
15. A shim comprising a plate including a base, parallel laterally spaced legs projecting in the same direction from said ibase, concavo-convex cam sections integral with and extending longitudinally of said legs while decreasing in thickness as the projecting ends of the legs are appreached, said base being arched to form a bridge between said legs, and the bridge being of such character that when two of said shims are coassembled the bridge of each is adapted to receive a leg lof the other and permit its axial movement therein.
le'. A shim comprising a plate including a base, parallel laterally spaced legs projecting in the same direction from said base, concavo-convex cam sections integral with each of said legs and protruding outwardly from one face of the shim but protruding less distantly as the projecting ends of said legs are approached, said base being arched while also protruding outwardly from said shim face to eiiect a bridge and shoulder sections at the ends of such bridge, said bridge being suiciently arched that when two of said shims are co-assembled the bridge of each is adapted to receive a leg of the other and to permit its axial movement therein, and said shoulder sections being of such elevation as to lie in close overlapping relation with the marginal edge portions of the leg received by their associated bridge.
17. A shim comprising a longitudinal cam member and a locking member disposed laterally thereof, and said locking member being of a character to receive a part of a 4diierent shim for telescopic adjustment therein.
18. The combination of a pair of shims, parallel longitudinal cams respectively upon said shiins, and means common to said shims to prevent their relative displacement laterally of said cams While permitting their relative displacement axially of said cams.
19. A shim generally in the form of a platelike body and including juxtaposed sections of which one is a locking section, and an elongated tapered formation upon the other of said sections, and said sections being relatively off-set normally of said body to facilitate sliding of the shim into overlapping relation with another similar shim and with the locking section of each shim upon the formation bearing section of the other.
20. A shim comprising a plate including an elongated cam section graduated in thickness from one end toward the other, and an adjacent locking section disposed laterally edgewise of said elongated section, and said locking section including elongated surface irregularities extending substantially transversely of said cam section.
2l. A shim comprising a plate including-juxtaposed sections of which one is a locking section, an elongated tapered cam body protruding from a face of the other of said sections, and locking means comprising elongated surface irregularities within each of said sections and extending substantially trans y'ersely of said cam body.
LEON F. UEBAN.