US 2239936 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April" 29, 1941. E; w. SIMONS coonme TOWER CONSTRUCTION 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 Filed April 14, 1939 INVENTOR fry Ward 1 5/mon5 6 ATTORNEYS Ap 941. E. w. SIMONS 2,239,936
COOLING TOWER CONSTRUCTION Filed April 14, 1939 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 1 20 I 9 6 Z O 6 w 5 I 5 v v /5 7a 77" w 22:} 2/ 5 24 T 3 5; I I Z/ F IE| E /5 /4 J a 7 H M 'FIIE E k 24 I "/9 INVENTOR 5-- Z} [aM/ard W. 5/)720/75 W yzpm y! ATTORNEYS April 29, 1941. E. w. SIMONS 2,239,936
I COOLING TOWER CONSTRUCTION Filed April 14, 1939 I 4 Sheets-Sheet 3 INVENTOR [dz ard W 57/77:):
gm/ ATTORNEYS E. W. SIMONS COOLING TOWER CONSTRUCTION Filed April 14, 1939- April 29, 1941.
4 Sheets-Sheet 4 v ,24 F'l'E E /3 f v m INVENTOR /2 BY W ATTORNEYS Patented Apr. 29, 1941 iznssaa i stares ATENT FiC Y 2,239,936 COOLING TOWER CONSQRUCTION:
Edward W. Simons, San FranciscosC alifi, assignor to Redwood Manufacturing (10;,
Califi, a corporation of Nevada Application April 14, 1939; ScriaLNo; 267,809
This invention relates to cooling towers, and has for its objects improved construction in such towers providing greater cooling efiiciency and greater economy of water by substantial eliminationofthe loss in water due to objectionable drifting thereof out of the tower. Another object is the provision of a tower in which the walls comprise rows of vertically elongated spaced elements arranged to permit passage of air through thewalls and to promote high cooling efficiencyunder both normal and abnormal wind conditions, and a still further object is a construction in a tower in which the shape of said elements contributes materially to effectively controlling the flow of air through-the tower in amanner to insure best results for any and all conditions that occur due to normal or abnormal wind velocities or sudden changes in such velocities.
Other objects and advantages will be apparent indicating the path'Of" air across the tower.
Fig. 3is a fragmentary sectional View taken along line 3-3 of Fig. 2.
Fig, 4 is a, greatly enlarged sectional view, showing the'louveraslats, strips or the like of one of said walls; and which figure is also intended to show the preferred cross-sectional contour of said louvers, etc.
Figure 5 is a cross sectional view of a modified form of one of the louvers, and- Fig. 6 shows slightly different louvers, in a wall.
One of the most importantfeatures of this inventionresides in the structure of the walls of the cooling tower. Conventional construction in cooling towers includes sides in the form of 'horizontally extending louvers, or solid panels, that are inclined at an angle of 45 relative to horizontal. In this invention, the walls or panels of the walls, are made up of several horizontal rows of horizontally spaced vertically extending strips or slats, or the like, one Or more of which rows of elementsmay be termed louvers in this description, but which are not to be confused with the conventional horizontally extending, angularly disposed lcuvers as found inthe various arts, including the art of cooling towers.
In detail, Fig; lirepresents a four-sided cooling tower having four corner posts, framework 2,
horizontalsupports- 3,; forsupporting conventionallmats, distributing decks, screens or the like t thereon-, and walls thataregenerally designated 5;
The panels of louvers that'form the sides of the tower are each made upiof several parallel rows of horizontally'spaced, parallel; vertically extendingv elements, all of which will generally-be termed louvers. These. panelsare preferably disposed-one 'above the other on each sideof'the tower, the
with reference to the center or inside of'the tower,
number used. depending upon the desired height of the tower, and alsot-he panels may beseveral in-numberateachlevel on each side of the tower,
depending. upon the desired height ofthetower,
and alsothepanels maybe-several in number at eachlevel-I on. each side of the tower,- depending upon the desired width. of the towenthe corner posts being farther. apart. asfthe. width, is increased. Itis, of course, obvious that. each side of the tower may beef unitary constructionor a single panel, if so desired.
In describing the louvers in detail, elements associated therewith, the terms firmer, inwardlyjf outer and outwardly are used Referring to Fig. 2, it is seen that the innerside of each well of the tower comprises a horizontal row ofvertically extending, horizontally spaced elements 6,. which will hereafter be termed blades, or-deflector blades to distinguish from other elements of the Walls.
The blades-6 comprise strips that are relatively wide, and which strips are equally spaced apart,
and are, disposed in the direction of their greatest width, inparallelplanes that extendnormal to the plane of the panel or wall of which the strips are apart The opposite sides of each blade extendv generally divergently from its inner edge so thatthe thickness. ofthe blade adjacent said inher. edge is. appreciably lessv than the thickness ofthe blade adjacent itsopposite edge,and both the inner and outer edges arelrounded, a11 asbest seen in Fig. 4. With this constructiornthe blades offer substantially a minimum resistance to air currents initially engagingthe outer edges thereof, While insuring substantially full engagement' o f&such airwith the opposite sides! of. the blades irrespective .of the directional..,movement ofthe air, between the outer and inner. edges. Also, the divergentlyextending sides provide surfaces that are more efficiently disposed forcatchmg moisture, in the form of drops or vapor, that tend tosplash or drift;outward1yfrom within. the
The spacing between the adjacent blades of the at the thickest part, with a taper of the sides from about one-half inch at the outer edge to about one-eighth inch at the inner edge.
The blades 6 of each wall are supported between horizontally extending battens I, 8, the battens 1 extending across the inner edges of the blades blades at opposite sides of such blade.
and the battens 8 extending across the outer edges of the blades. Any number of battens may be used, but it has been found that a pair of battens and a pair of battens 8, is generally su';t-
ficient for blades of about four foot lengths, in which a pair I, 8 are adjacent the upper ends of width across the base side of about two inches, which is found to be satisfactory.
The slats I I are spaced apart a distance to bring the adjacent slats of each pair thereof in the row of slats directly outwardly of alternate blades 6 with the plane of each of said alternate blades substantially bisecting the slat II adjacent thereto. Thus the opposite edges of the sides of the slats II extend about half way across the spaces between the blade nearest thereto and the Nails III convergently extending from the convergent outer sides of slats II and into battens 3 secure the slats I I to said battens.
the blades and a pair I, 8 are adjacent the lower ends.
The battens I, 8 and blades 6 are preferably formed with interlocking recesses or notches, as
indicated in Fig. 3 at points where the battens cross the blades so as to facilitate the assembly of the blades and accurate spacing thereof as well as for insurin a rigid structure with the blades held together in the panel as a unit.
The horizontal width of battens I and themterlocking recesses in battens I and the blades,
are preferably such as to position the inner-edges, of the blades substantially flush with the inner with the interlocking recesses of the battens and blades in interlocked relation, several vertically I extending strips 9 are placed at intervals in the row of blades, which strips are preferably thicker than the battens, but of similar Width, and these strips and battens I, 8 are recessed at points of their intersection like the blades to interlock at said points, and nails IO' (Fig. 4) driven trans-1 versely through the battens and into said strips secure the battens to the strips.
Against the outer lateral sides of battens 8 are secured a row of horizontally spaced, vertical.
parallel slats I I. The cross-sectional contour of these slats is preferably, generally triangular, as
shown in Fig. 4, or they may be substantially V semi-cylindrical, as shown by slat I2 in Fig. 5.
In Fig. 4 each slat is seen to have a wide, planar base side against battens 8 with adjoining, parallel V-grooves I3 formed therein from end to end of the slat to provide open channels for draining moisture andto provide increased evaporating surface.
The nose of each slat, facing outwardly, is of parabolic contour merging into a true circular contour at points about midway of the two outer sides and the-opposite edges of the base side are rounded in continuation of said circular curve,
the latter being inscribed about, a center positioned about midway across the base side, all as shown on Fig. 4.
Where slats II are used in connection with blades of substantially the dimensions described, I have found that each of slats II may have a Across the :outer sides of the slats II are battens I4, which are positioned at about the same levels as battens 8. The battens I4 engage the rounded edges of slats II that are opposite the sides engaging battens 8, and are secured in place by nails I5 that pass .through some of the slats I I and into batten 8, as indicated in Fig. 4.
V The battens I4 are principally for the purpose of spacing a second row of slats I6 outwardly of slats II. The slats I6 are of the same shape as slats I I and are similarly grooved at I3 on the base sides, which sides are against battens I4 and face inwardly toward the inside of the tower. Nails I0 secure slats I6 in place, and said slats are spaced from each other the same distances as slats I I are spaced from each other. However, slats I6 are offset to directly over the spaces between slats II, and the spacing is substantially equal to the width of the slats across their base sides, it is obvious that air cannot pass directly through the'tower, horizontally, and along lines substantially parallel to the Planes of blades 6, without obstruction. As the horizontal width of the battens It, for the size of slats shown in the drawings, is about one inch, or slightly less, and as the thickness of slats II, I4 in the direction normal to their base sides is about one inch, it will be seen that horizontally flowing currents of air may, however, readily pass around the slats, with the minimum of resistance, and through the tower.
In some installations, the use of two rows of slats, as described up to this point, and in combination with the row of blades, may be adequate, but I preferably add a third row of slats I'I positioned outwardly of the slats I6, which slats are similar to slats II, It in shape, and are secured to battens I8 which are similar Ito-"battens I4. Nails III' secure the slats I! to battens I8 and also nails (not shown) similar to those indicated at I5, may secure the battens I8 in place against slats It. The slats I I are positioned directly over the spaces between slats I6 and said slats II are grooved on their inner sides at I3" in the same manner as slats I I, I6 are grooved.
In the tower illustrated in Fig. 1, the width of each side of the tower comprises two panels of blades, slats and battens, as above described,
which panels adjoin along a vertical medial line of each wall, and are secured to -a vertical post I9 of the tower frame. In Fig. 2 the manner of securing said panels at their adjacent edges is best illustrated, and in Fig. 3 a vertical section further illustrates this construction in which bolts 20 extend through post I 9 at vertically spaced points, which bolt passes between vertical strips 8 at the ends of the rows of blades 6 in adjacent panels, which strips are similar to strips 9. Generally U-shaped clamps 2| extend across the outer edges of strips 9 through which clamps the bolts .2 0, respectively, eirtend with a suitable-washsame, with the ends of the blades "and battens in each row in alignment, and above and below the opposite ends of the blades and battensof each panel is a shelf 23 inclined to correspond to the plane in which said ends aredisposedwhile across the width of each side of the tower and against the outer edge of each shelf 23 is secured a horizontal strip 24 that'extends above and below said shelf to overlap the upper and lower adjacent ends of slats H of superposed panels.
In Fig. 1 it will be seen that the lowermost panels of the tower also rest on a shelf 23 that is similar to the shelves 23.
These shelves incline in the direction of their widths downwardly from their outer edges, hence any moisture draining from the blades 6 and the slats of the several rows, in each panel, will be directed back into the tower.
The foregoing construction greatly facilitates the rapid construction of a cooling tower, since the panels may be prefabricated, and quickly secured in place.
In Fig. 2 the flow of air across the tower from one side to the other and out is indicated at A, A by dash lines and arrows. The windward side of the tower, in this instance, is designated W, and the leeward side L.
The lines A show the path taken by air entering between a pair of adjacent slats I! while the lines A indicate the path of air striking the outer sides of slats I1.
Wherever, herein, slats are referred to such as slats ll, l5, H, the modified form of slats as shown in Fig. 5, may be considered as being suitable for use, although the shape of the slats II, It, I1 is preferable.
In further explanation of the construction described, in the open-wing louver towers heretofore most generally used, with wind greater than about seven miles per hour, the water travels across the tower due to the wind action, and therefore at the bottom of the tower the cooling surface exposed to the air is considerably less than at the top.
With the shape and arrangement of slats and blades, of this invention, referring to Fig. 2, the rounded noses of the slats and the stream line cross-sectional shape of the blades, offers the minimum of resistance to the air approaching the windward side of the tower. The shape of the slats on the leeward side, and their arrangement, result in greater retardation of the air current for a given velocity than is caused by the windward elements. Thus it will be seen that the shape and arrangement of the slats and blades as hereinbefore described, irrespective of the direction in which the wind is blowing, results in a great retardation of air velocity encountering the dropping water in the tower, when there is a high velocity wind. And it is further apparent that the resistance pressure on the leeward slats of the tower is very slight compared with resistance pressure encountered by the approaching'windat the windward slats, because the resistance increases rapidly as the approaching wind velocity increases. If the flat inner face construction. of the leeward slats were used against the approaching wind, the resistance offered thereby to' the approaching wind at the windward side-Would be objectionablygreat.
With the tower of my construction, as the Wind passes over and around the tower, a low pressure area is developed at the top of said tower, and at the leeward side, which low pressure acts as a suctionventiiatingforce in the tower. This suction force thus developed, tends to cause'more air to pass through thetower, than otherwise wouldbe the case;
With the construction as shown and described herein, it is estimated, as theresult of tests, that with about a five mile per hour wind, the air flow across the inside of the tower is about one-and one half miles per hour, while with about a ten mile per hour wind, the air flow throughthe tower is about three miles per hour, and with a twenty mile per hour wind, the air flow across the tower will be about six miles per hour.
In certain districts, towers are subject to prevailing winds of from fifteen to twenty miles per hour, and in such districts, with towers as heretofore described the wind velocity would be decreased, as it passes through the tower to the desired velocity for best efiiciency in eliminating drift losses and for cooling.
Splash from the falling water encountering the splash decks thereon, or the like, will be intercepted by the leeward blades and slats, and will be drained onto the inclined drainage strips or shelves 23, 23', and from thence back into this tower. Also the grooved faces of the slats and the sides of the blades offer large and effective cooling surfaces. With proper water distribution at the top of the tower the application of the vertical slats and blades, as distinguished from the conventional enclosed louvers, adds about 35% to the fixed cooling surface of the tower.
In summary, it will be seen that this invention eliminates splash and drift losses, due to mechanical arresting of the drops and the reduced velocity of the wind across the interior of the tower, and supplies an additional cooling area. The mere reduction of air velocity is not adequate in itself to fully accomplish any of the desired results, thence the particular manner of controlling the velocity plus the increase in evaporating surfaces, as herein disclosed, are very important.
Having described my invention, I claim:
1. A cooling tower having a pair of opposed side walls, each of said side walls comprising a row of spaced, elongated members in side by side relation, providing a passageway between adjacent members for passage of air to within the tower at one of said side walls and from within the tower outwardly at the other of said side walls, substantially the entire outwardly facing sides of said members being generally convex in cross-sectional contour to reduce resistance to flow of air to within said tower.
2. A cooling tower having a pair of opposed side walls, each of said side Walls comprising a row of spaced, elongated members in side by side relation providing a passageway between adjacent members for passage of air to within the tower at one of said side walls and from within the tower outwardly at the other of said side walls, substantially the entire outwardly facing sides of said members being generally convex in crosssectional contour and the inwardly facing sides of said members being substantially planar, thereby producing a greater resistance to flow of air from within the tower outwardly than from outside the tower inwardly at said walls.
3. A cooling tower having a pair of opposed side walls, each of said side walls comprising a row of spaced, vertically extending elongated members in side by side relation providing a passageway between adjacent members for passage of air to within the tower at one of said side walls and from within the tower outwardly of the other of said side walls, substantially. the entire outwardly facing sides of said members being generally convex in cross-sectional contour to reduce resistance to flow of air to within said tower and the inwardly facing sides of said members being formed with convergent sided adjoining grooves extending longitudinally of said members to provide an increased evaporating surface for moisture collected thereon and also to provide drainage channels for said moisture.
'4.A coolingrtower having a pair of opposed side walls, each of said side walls comprising a plurality of pairs of elongated, vertically extend-v ing slats in side by side relation, said slats being generally triangular in cross-sectional contour and arranged with one of the flattened sides of the slats of said row in planar relation facing inwardly toward the innerside of the tower, the remaining outwardly facing two sides of the slats being equal in width and free from concavity in cross-sectional contour, the corner of each slat facing outwardly of the inside of the tower being convexly rounded and being a continuation of said two sides whereby air currents at the windward side of the tower provided with said slats will passover said two sides and past the adja-.
cent slats of each pair free from objectionable resistance and free from the formation of objectionable eddies in said air currents.
EDWARD W. SIMONS.