US 2240274 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 29, 1941. w, DE 2,240,274
ARTICLE AND PROCESS AND APPARATUS FOR PRODUCING THE SAME Filed Aug. 7, 1956 IN VEN TOR.
Patented Apr. 29, 1941 Aarrcm AND raocass AND arraaa'rus FOR. raonucmc ran sam:
Worth Wade, New York, N. Y., assig'nor to Sylvanialrr ustrial Corporation, Fredericksbnrg,
Va., a corporation of Virginia Application August 7, 1936, Serial No. 94,809,
9 Claims- (cr. 154-1 This invention relates in general to ribbons adapted for use in the textile and cordage arts and in particular to an improved tying ribbon formed of a strip of flexible relatively plastic maerial.
It is well'known that ribbons formed from a narrow strip of relatively plastic sheet material, such as Cellophane, have relatively little resistance to tearing. This is due to the fact that when the load is borne by the cut edge the strip begins to tear from the edge, the tear originating from any irregularity or'serration in the edge. At-
this tendency of the strips to tear by folding the longitudinal edges of the strip so that the stress will be borne by the folded edge, Such folding operations are tedious, expensive and wasteful of material.
It is therefore a general object of the invention to provide a tying ribbon formed from a strip of relatively plastic material in such a manner that, without folding, the tear resistance and apparent tensile strength of the strip is increased to many times that of the original strip.
It is another object of the invention to provide a process and apparatus for making a tying ribbonof high tear resistance, enhanced decorative character and an increased flexibility.
Other objects of the invention will in part be obvious and will in part appear hereinafter.
According to the present invention, the problem of imparting a high tear resistance to narrow cut strips to adapt them for use in the textile and cordage arts is solved by relieving the cut edges of the load and modifying the marginal edges of the cut strip so that the load is carried by the central or body portion of the strip. Therefore the invention comprises means for and the steps of treating the longitudinal edges of a strip of flexible, relatively plastic material whereby to give the marginal edges agreater length than that of the central body portion of the strip, preferably-by softening areas of the strip adjacent the marginal. edges and stretching the softened areas with respect to the central body portion of the strip.
The article of the invention comprises in general a tying ribbon, adapted for use in the cordage,
and textile arts, formed of a strip of a flexible, relatively plastic material and having its longitudinal edges stretched with respect to the body portion thereof, the edge portions preferably being convoluted whereby stresses are carried by the body portion.
The invention accordingly comprises the proctempts have been made heretofore to overcome ess having the several steps and the relation of one or more of such steps with respect to each of the others, the apparatus embodying features of construction, combinations and arrangement of parts adapted to effect such steps, and the article which possesses the characteristics, properties and relation of elements, all as exemplifled in the detailed disclosure hereinafter set forth and the scope of the invention will be indicated in the claims.
For a more complete understanding of the nature and objects of the invention reference should be had to the accompanying drawing, in which Fig. 1 represents a side elevation of one embodiment of a suitable apparatus for making the ribbon of theinvention;
Fig.2 represents a top plan view of the apparatus of Fig. 1;
Fig. 3 represents a second embodiment of a suitable apparatus for making the article of the invention;
Fig. 4 represents a sectional view of the apparatus of Fig. 3 taken along the line 4-4 thereof; and
Figs. 5 to 12 inclusive represent perspective views of as many embodiments of the article of the invention.
The ribbon of the invention is formed of at least one strip of a flexible, relatively plastic material. The relatively plastic material may be formed in whole or in part of a material swelling in water, such, for example, as Cellophane, alkali-soluble cellulose ethers and cellulose oxy-ethers, gelatine, casein, and the like; or of a material swelling or dissolving in organic solvents but not swelling in water, such, for example, as cellulose esters, cellulose ethers and cellulose ester-ethers, synthetic plastics such as polymerized vinyl resins, rubber, halogenated rubber, and the like. The sheet material may be transparent, translucent or opaque and may be colored, embossed, printed, metallized, and/or provided with a moistureproof and/or waterproof coating.
In general the apparatus of the invention comprises means, such for example as a pair of rollers having opposite end portions provided with intermeshing projections,-adapted to cause the lon itudinal edges of a strip passed therebetween to traverse a distance greater than the distance traversed by the central body portion of the strip.
In the embodiments of the apparatus shown in Figs. 1 and 2,'a strip I of relatively plastic material is passed from a roller, preferably over a pair of spaced rollers 3 and 3' which dip into a bath 2 of a conditioning liquid which is thereby applied to the longitudinal edges 01 the strip. The treated strip is led by means of drawing rollers} and 4' between guide plates I and l'and between spaced pairs or compoimd stretching rollers I and The rollers I and I comprise two end portions I and I, having intermeshing peripheral proiections, and a central cylindrical portion 0 oi.
smooth peripheral surface. As the strip passes between the pair of rollers I and 8', the iongl-' the strip I, so that this roller does not contact'the treated longitudinal edge portions or the strip. Obviously, roller 0' may. it desired, extend the full width of the strip. The edge-stretching portions I and I of the rollers i and I may be adjustable transversely of the strip so that strips of diilerent sizes may be treated in the same apparatus. Likewise the conditioning rollers I and I may be adjustably mounted with respect to each other transversely of the strip for the same purpose.
In the embodiment'shown in Figs. 3 and 4, the strip I is passed between two spaced pairs of pressure rollers I2I2' and I3-I3' which serve to maintain the strip under tension. There is positioned between these pairs of rollers a compound stretching roller I4 comprising a central cylindrical roller Ila and conical rollers Ilb on each side. The compound roller I4 is mounted above and in co-extensive contact with two com pound rollers II each of which comprises a central cylindrical roller lie, or the same length as roller Ila, and two conical shaped end rollers to the corresponding rollers Ilb. The strip I is passed first between the pair of pressure rollers I2--I2', then between the compound rollers I4 and I! wherein the marginal edge portions II oi the strip are caused to traverse a path longer than the path travelled by the central body portion ID of the strip. The pressure applied by the compound rollers ll and II is suflicient to prevent transverse displacement of the strip I with respect to these rollers. The strip flnally passes from the stretching rollers around the rollers Il-IS, which are driven so as to draw the strip through the apparatus. To increase the plasticity oi the strip, the compound rollers I4 and I 5 may be heated, for example by a heating element It which partly surrounds the compound roller I4, as shown in Fig. 3. The degree of stretch to which the edges 01' the strip are subjected may be varied by providing several sets of complementary conical rollers Nb and lib, each set having a different taper. The degree of stretch will depend directly upon the degree of taper of these rollers.
With the apparatus herein disclosed there will be produced a ribbon such as that illustrated in Fig. 5, comprising a thin strip of a flexible relatively plastic material having an unstretched central body portion I0 and longitudinal edge portions II which are stretched with respect to the central body portion. As a result of this stretching, the edge portions I I will assume a convoluted state in the finished ribbon. I! desired, the unstretched portion may comprise only an ex- IIb having complementary shapes with respecttremely narrow area running longitudinally 01 7 maycompriseasinsle in Figs. 5. l1 and 12, showninFigs. 6,7,8 strip maybe folded toiormaribbon of this ribbon stretched to produce the showninl'lmil. Thestripmay thereisshownanembodimentinwhiohasingle strip I of relatively plastic material is laminated between two narrow stripsjll o! extraneous material. The strips Il may be substituted hystrips or relatively plastic material of the same or like character as the strip I. In Fig. 10 thereis shown an embodiment in which two strips I of relatively plastic material enclose a flexible core I! of fibrous or non-fibrous material which is preterably centrally disposed longitudinally of the strips I and which is thus not subjected to any stretching operation.
' For conditioning the relatively plastic material, there may be employed any suitable solvent or swelling agent therefor. For example, for Cellophane there may be employed water or a mixture oi water and a polyhydric alcohol or an ester oi such alcohols, and for cellulose esters there may be employed acetone or a mixture 0! ether and alcohol. It is understood that the conditioning agent may be applied to the entire strip or only to the longitudinal edge portions II, as shown in Figs. 1 and 2. There may be disposed between the stretching means and the wind-up roller 0 any suitable means for removing the conditioning agent from the strip ii desired, such, for example, as a heating chamber to cause the evaporation of the conditioning agent. As a result of conditioning the longitudinal edge portions II these portions can be stretched to a greater extent than when such portions are not conditioned. This enables ribbons to be made in which the longitudinal edge portions II are ruiiled, as shown in F18. 11.
It is obvious that other structures and embodi ments of the article of the invention may be made. For example, the central body portion I I of the strip may be corrugated longitudinally to give a series of ridges I8, as illustrated in Fig. 12. Such corrugation is easily carried out when the strip is conditioned over its entire width and passed between suitable known corrugating rollers (not shown).
The article of the present invention is characterized by having a high tear resistance because, when in use. the longitudinal stresses are carried by the central body portion I0 which is shorter than the stretched longitudinal edge portions II. Therefore, even ii the longitudinal edges are cut edges, the tendency of the cut edges to tear is removed or greatly diminished. Moreover, by such stretching of the edge portions as herein provided, the flexibility and apparent tensile strength of the finished ribbon is greatly enhanced. The convolutions and'ruffling of the edges resulting from such stretching enhances the decorative character of the ribbon.
Since certain changes may be made in carrying out the above process and in the product, and modifications effected in the apparatus for practicing the principle thereof, without departing from the scope of the invention, it is intended that all matter contained in the above description or shown in the accompanying drawing shall be interpreted as illustrative and not in a limiting sense.
Having described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. As an article of manufacture, a substantially flat tying ribbon formed of a strip of flexible relatively plastic stretchable material having longitudinal edges and a body portion.
and having its edges stretched longitudinally 20 fibrous cellulosic stretchable material havins 25 longitudinal edges and a body portion, and having its edges stretched longitudinally with respect to the body portion thereof, said body portion being non-extended.
3. As'an article of manufacture, a. substanmaterial between said rollers.
tially flat tying ribbon formed of a strip of Cellophane having longitudinal edges and a body. portion, and having its edges stretched longitudinally with respect to the body portion thereof,
said body portion being non-extended. 35
' comprising a smooth central cylindrical'portion and opposite end portions having intermeshing' 4. As an article of manufacture, a flexible tying ribbon formed of a strip of relatively plastic-material, the longitudinal edges of the strip being convoluted transversely whereby longitudinal stresses will be borne substantially only 40 by the central portion of .the ribbon. the central portion being substantially unstretched.
5. A process of producing a tying ribbon which comprises treating a flat strip of a flexible relatively plastic material with a liquid which is a softening agent therefor and stretching the edges of said strip longitudinally with respect to the body portion thereof, while gripping the central portion of the strip between the edges to maintain it in a substantially flat unstretched condition.
6. A process for producing a tying ribbon comprising transversely convoluting and stretching the longitudinal edges of a flat strip of a flexible relatively plastic 'material while gripping the central body portion oi said strip between the edges to maintain it in a substantially flat unstretched condition.
7. An apparatus for producing a tying ribbon comprising means for stretching the longitudinal edges of a strip of a flexible relatively plastic material comprising a pair of convoluting rollers and a cylindrical roller disposed between said convoluting rollers for maintaining the central body portion in a flat condition.
8. An apparatus for producing a tying ribbon, comprising means for stretching the longitudinal edges of a strip of a flexible relatively plastic material comprising two pairs of cooperating convoluting rollers and a cylindrical roller disposed between said convoluting rollers and means for feeding a strip of flexible relatively plastic 9. An apparatus for producing a tying ribbon,
, comprising means for applying a softening agent to a strip of flexible relatively plastic material; a pair of cooperating rollers, each of said rollers projections thereon, and means for feedlngsaid strip between said cooperating rollers, and means for maintaining the central portion of the strip l in a substantially flat condition.
. WORTH WADE.