US 2240307 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
April 29, 1941 H. LIST FLUID PUMP Filed July 1, 1958 s Sheets-Sheet 1 April 29, 1941. H T 2,240,301
FLUID PUMP I Filed July 1, 1938 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 III" . lnvenfvr:
f I M fiMWEK A ril- 29, 1941. H. LIST FLUID PUMP Filed July 1, 1938 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 A Tra /v5).
Patented Apr. 29 19,41
- UNITED STAT Es PATENT-OFFICE I FLUID PUMP Heinrich List, Berlin-Lichterfelde, Germany Application July 1, 1938, Serial No. 216,949-
In Germany July c, 1937 14 Claims.
' jects will be apparent from the following description and the appendan't claims.
In theaccompanying drawings several embodiments of the invention are illustrated by way of example only and are not intended to restrict the invention which is defined'by the appended claims.
In the drawings:
Figs. 1 to 4 show various embodiments and details,
Figs. 5 to illustrate diagrammatically various examples of the construction of the magnet frame, the armature and the winding,
Figs. 11 to 14 show various devices, wherein an oscillating element acting as diaphragm or piston is connected to the armature of a vibrating motor and is operated thereby.
In general the pump of the present invention comprises a working chamber having side walls II, I2 and a pair of end walls of which one is formed by an oscillatable element such as It and the other by a fixed element such as 3. At least one of the end walls, for ,example the fixed wall as in Figures 1 to 5 or the movable. wall as in Figures 6, 7, 9, and 10 to 12 or both walls as in Figures 7 and 13, is curved. The end walls formed by the members suchas 3 and III are ,convergent so as to define at least one edge of the working chamber and the oscillatable member is so constrained in its movement towards the opposite wall-that the line or contact advances progressively along said walls. The movement, in effect, is' equivalent to a rolling movement between the two walls and, in some cares, may actually be a rolling movement,
It follows that in order to attain this effect it is necessary for the oscillatable member to be free to move longitudinally relatively to the opposite wall, at least at the part remote from the edge defined at the point 01' convergence.
Thus, in Figure 1 the free end of the member Ill moves through a curved path and, therefore longitudinally of the member I, 2, 3'.
member acting as an extension of the operating Referring now more specifically to the variousfigures of the. drawings:
In Figure 1 a magnet frame. consisting of laminating plates is indicated at I, whilst 2 and 3 are the operating poles or a magnet-formed to present a curved surface and 4 is an intermediate piece of non-magnetic material conforming to said curve. Secured to the operating pole 2 there is a member 5, the free end or which is capable of oscillating between narrow limits, said pole. A resilient armature III is fastened to this member by means of rivets or screws 9. The magnet limbs 2 and 3 carry windings I and 8. II is a casing, the front wall of which is indicated at I2 and conforms to the path of movement of the end of the armature III. Secured to the wall I2 there is a springy plate I3, which covers the valve opening I! in the wall I: and is itself provided with apertures, staggered with reference to the valve opening ll and not shown in the drawings. I5 is a discharge nozzle. The device is conveniently operated by means of alternating current and its operation is as follows:
When the current flows through in one direction the operating pole 3 forms, for example, the
negative pole, the pole 2 being then the positive pole, the positive pole continued in the extension 5 right into the armature Ill. The freely oscillating end of the armature III is in a position of readiness slightly spaced above the upper edge of the side wall of the casing, so that an inlet opening I8 is formed at this point.
Owing to the opposite polarity obtaining be-.
tween the freely oscillating end of the armature I0 and the operating pole 3 the armature III is attracted by the pole 3, first Weekly and then with gradually increasing strength. The line of contact between the walls of the working cham- I ber thus advances progressively towards the discharge nozzle I5, giving the effect of a rolling motion, so that the air contained in the operating chamber at II is compressed until the valve plate I3 is lifted and the compressed air is discharged. through the openings I4 and the nozzle [5 under a. pressure of desired value. As the current passes through the centre of amplitude the magnet becomes non-magnetic for a armature performs 100 workingstr'okes per second and owing to this high frequency conveys or compresses a large quantity ofair even if the strokes are small. "'I'he'extension 5 of the operating pole 2 conveniently consists of a resilient, magnetizable material, so that by the oscillation of the free end .the result may be obtained that even if the whole device is of small measurements the armature I springs back far. thereby forming a large operating chamber without the necessity of the armature having to bend too much at each working stroke. This considerably lengthens the useful life of the device and ensures trouble free operation, so that even with a small device according to the invention, inexpensive to produce, a sufllcient amount of air can 'besupplied for a great variety of purposes. In
Fig. 1 the movement of the oscillating armature is exaggerated for clearness.
The heating which must be put 'up with in electromagnets is not lost in the invention as energy, but is utilized for increasing efficiency, because all heat discharged into the gaseous medium to be conveyed during and after the compression additionally increases the discharge velocity of the medium owing to the increase of the energy content thereof. In the present case this heat is given on mainly by the resilient armature, which becomes heated owing to the frequent reversal of magnetization. Obviously, the whole device may be disposed in a casing of any desired shape, not shown in the drawings for cleamess.
Fig. 2 diagrammatically represents a nozzle arrangement, operating according to the known jet effect. In this example the tapered nozzle I5 is disposed directly on the wall I2 of the casing. In front of the nozzle I5, spaced therefrom, there is a tapered catch nozzle H, which has a tubular extension I8. In this arrangement the jet of air issuing from the nozzle I5 drags additional air with it from the, atmosphere with the aid of the nozzle I1, and if the tube I8 is of sufficient length congestion occurs when the armature springs back, and this prevents the air from returning from the tube It into the operating chamber II through the nozzle l5. In this manner it is- 2 and 3, which arealternately energized with the aid of direct or alternating current and are' suitably insulated from one another magnetically by means of anintermediate piece I. This embodiment' is suitable for use more especially in cases where a current of air without high pressure is necessary, forexample for use as a fan. The armature III consists of a flat non-flexible plate of magnetizable material. At its ends blade springs. I9 and of the same width as the armature are mounted. The armature oscillates between two lateral walls II, wherein the valve openings 22 and 23 are provided within the areas bounded by the blade springs I9 and 20. A- compression spring 25 is supported on a bridge 24 connecting the casing walls, said spring pressing on the armature at the centre of oscillation thereof, thereby ensuring that the operating chambers are sealed with reference to one another. Conveniently, the curved rolling path on the magnet following figures the casing parts are omitted for clearness.
Fig. 6 illustrates an embodiment, wherein the surface of the laminated magnet frame I has an infinite radius of curvature, l. e. is formed with a plane, surface. The resilient armature III is curved and is attracted by vthe surface of themagnet frame at each operative stroke.
In the embodiment shown in Fig. 7 a curved armature I0 is provided and the surface of the magnet casing I is also curved. The armature is secured at the centre of the magnet casing I, so thattwo operating chambers result.
In the embodiment shown in Fig. 8 the magnet casing I carries at its ends rollers II and "rotatable in bearings and supporting the resilient armature III. The pole surface of the magnet casing is concave, so that the operating chamber is formed between the pole surface and the armature. The armature is attracted by the pole surface at every operative stroke and during this movement its ends roll on the rollers 21 and 28. At suitable points compression or blade springs or rubber blocks,-not shown in the drawings, are provided, which prevent the armature from being shifted from its location.
The mounting and fixing of a rigid rolling ele- A ment may be conveniently effected as shown in Fig; 9. In this example at certain distances apart guide strips or wires 28 and 30 are disposed on the magnet frame, which comprises the alternately energized magnets 2 and 3 and the nonmagnetic intermediate piece I, the said strips or wires being alternately secured at one of their ends to the magnet frame and their other ends to the rolling armature III. This arrangement, which is known in connection with rolling elements of other types, has the advantage that'it provides a good guide for the rolling armature even in continuous operation.
Evidently, for example the midportion of the rolling element may also consist of non-magnetic material, so that only the ends act as the armatures of the alternately energized magnet. Hereinafter this drive is referred to as "remote drive."
For avoiding undesirable vibration the weight of the armature is .as small as possible with reference to that of the frame. Fig. 10 shows that two or more armatures may be disposed on one magnet frame. If, for this purpose, for example the magnet frame shown in Fig, 6 is employed, two operating chambers are formed as shown in Fig. 10, and by their simultaneous response the armatures compensate for the oscilla- 2,240,307 of the current impulses. The armature In is returned and guided by the element 3|.
In the embodiment shown in Fig. 12 two blade springs 3| are secured to a rigid intermediate element 32 and are interconnected by a wall 33 which vibrates therewith. To this wall is secured with the'aid' of the holder element 34 the armature III, which is attracted by the operating poles 33 provided on the laminated magnet frame 33 and is returned into the position of readiness by a. return spring, not shown.
being disposed between these walls. The free end of this spring strip is pulled tight on to the outer periphery of the casing i by the armature III of the vibrating motor 35 through the lever 34 and isreturned into the position of readiness by a return spring 43 mounted in a suitable position. Conveniently, a roller 44 is provided between the free end of the spring strip 3 and the casing I, said roller flrstly acting as sealin means and secondly eliminating friction between the end of the spring strip and the wall of the casing.
Fig. 14 shows the device in section on the chain dotted line of Fig. 13. The operation is as follows: In the position shown the strip spring 3 projects over the upper edge of the lateral walls 2 to such an extent that between the strip spring and the upper edge an inlet opening is formed. If now the armature ill of the magnet is-attracted by the operating poles 36, the strip spring is actuated by the lever 34 and compresses the air between the casing I and the spring 3, until the tension of the valve plate 45 disposed over a discharge opening is overcome and said plate is lifted ofl the wall I. In this manner the compressed air passes into the storage chamber 48 formed by the casing I, which is provided with a regulable outlet valve 41.
The air blower according to the invention may also be employed for the operation of a dust extractor. The suction nozzle or a rigid suction mouthpiece and the dust catching means may be connected either to the inlet opening is iFlg.
. l), to the catch funnel ll (Fig. 2) or to both.
For this utilization particularly the valveless embodiment already described is suitable.
From the foregoing description it will be appreciated that in one embodiment of the invention there is provided an oscillating armature which is resilient and oscillates in an operating chamber formed by the armature, the magnet frame and suitably formed casing element, the magnetic arrangement forming the compression means. The invention is not limited to the use of alternating current since the oscillating system could operate self-interrupting contacts so that direct current could be employed. The device of the present invention may have inlet and outlet valves disposed on the .armature on I the casing or may operate without valves, for
example with the jet effect as hereinbefore described. vIf valves are used preferably these are disposed on the casing to avoid an increase in the weight of the armature.
It willbe readily appreciated that the invention'is not restricted to the examples shown or to the shapes thereof and that further constructional modification may be made without leaving the scope of the invention.
' I claim;
LA conveying device for fluid media, having a plurality of walls forming a working chamber,
one of said walls being constituted by a power operated oscillatable member which converges into contact with an opposite wall to define at least oneedge of the chamber and which .is
free to move longitudinally relatively to said' wall at least at the part remote from said edge.
at least .one. of said converging walls being curved, and means being provided whereby the wall formed by the oscillatable member is so constrained in its movement towards the opposite wall that the line of contact advances progressively along said walls.
,2. A conveying device for fluid media, comprising a compression chamber having a fixed being so curved that during said flexing the line of contact between the walls advances progressively along them.
3. A conveying device for fluid media, comprising a casing forming a working chamber, said chamber having a fixed wall provided with a resilient flexible extension at one end, and
opposite thIQtO a movable wall formed by a flexible plate secured at one end to said extension and set to form an acute angle therewith, said plate forming the armature of an electromagnetic motor by which it is flexed towards and away from said fixed wall, and at least one of said walls being so curved; that during said flexing ,the line of contact advances progressively along said walls. I
4. A conveying device for fluid media comprising a casing forming a working chambe said chamber having a fixed wall formed at least partly by the pole face of an electromagnet, a movable wall opposite thereto which is free at one end and converges at its other end into contact with the flxed wall, and forms the armature of said electromagnet, and side walls between which said armature moves, said armature having a resilient connection with said flxed wall which, when the magnet is inoperative maintains the free end, of the armature projecting beyond the side walls of the casing to form an inlet, whilst the magnet in operating is adapted toforce said free end into the casing, closing said inlet, at least one of said walls being .so curved that during said inward movement of the armature the line of contact between it being supported on roller elements at the edges of said fixed wall so as, to form with the latter a working chamber, opposite sides of which converge into contact and so that during inward movement of the armature said line of contact will advance progressively.
6. A conveying device for fluid media having a plurality of walls forming a working chamber, one of said' walls being ,flxed and formed at least partly by the pole face of an electromagnet a curvedarmature member rockably supported on'said pole face, said magnet in operation being adapted to rock said armature whereby the line of contact between it and said fixed wall will move to and fro.
v'l. -A conveying device for fluid media, comprising a plurality of walls forming a working chamber, two of said walls opposite to one another converging into contact to define at least one edge of the chamber, at least one of said walls being free to move longitudinally relatively to the other wall at least at the part remote from and the wall opposite thereto being formed by acute angle with said fixed end wall and mounted for movement along a greater part thereoi towards and away from the fixed wall so that the line of contact therebetween advances progres- 5 sively, inlet and outlet for said fluid in-said structure and electromagnetic means forming an integral part 0! said fixed end wall and arranged to attract periodically said movable end wall towards itself.
11. A device for propelling fluid, comprising a hollow wedge-like structure having fixed side walls and a pair of relatively movable end walls said edge, means for producing relative move- I I from each other, inlet and outlet for said fluid ment of said walls towards and away from. one another, and means whereby the line of contact between said walls is caused to move progressively to and fro simultaneously with the relative movement of the walls.
8. A pump for fluid, comprising a compression chamber having side walls, a pair of oppositely disposed end walls, at least one of which is curved, arranged to converge towards one another, the end and side walls together giving the chamber a wedge like form, said end walls being-mounted for movement with respect to one another along at least their major part and between said side walls, means being provided to constrain said end walls to make contact along a line which moves to and fro during such movement, inlet and outlet for said fiuid and power means operatively connected to'one end disposed to convergent anacute angle, both of said end walls being curved in directions away 'in said structure, and electromagnetic power means forming an integral part of one of said end walls for operatively influencing the other oi said end walls and for alternately moving said lg o other end wall towards and away from said means.
12. A device for, propelling fluid comprising a hollow wedge-like structurehaving fixed side walls, a fixed end wall. a second end wall connected at one end to said fixed end wall and curved away from said fixed wall towards a free end of said second end wall, inlet and outlet for said fiuid in said structure; and power means operatively connected to the second end wallfor alternately. moving said free end of said second wall for alternately moving said wall towards and away from the other.
9. A device for propelling fluid comprising hollow wedge-like structure having fixed side walls and a pair of relatively movable-end walls disposed to convergeatan acute an le, one at least of said end walls being curved, inlet and as, the said power means comprises an electromagvwall towards and away from the said fixed end wallso that the line of contact between said end walls advances progressively.
13. A device as claimed in claim 12 in which net forming an integral part of said fixed wall. 14. A device for propelling fluid comprising a hollow wedge-like structure having fixed side walls,.a rigid convex end wall, a flexible convex outlet for said fluid in said structure, and power-40 end wall in contact at one part with said rigid means operatively connected to" one end wall for alternately moving said wall towards and away from the other end wall so that the line of contact .betweensaid walls advances progres- I I at partsother than said one part so that the sively.
10. A device for propelling fluid, comprising a hollow, wedge likestructure having fixed side wall, inlet and outlet for said fluid in said structure, and'power means operatively associated with said flexible wall for periodically moving said wall into contact with said rigid end wall line of contact between said walls advances progressively.