US 2241282 A
Abstract available in
Claims available in
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 6, 1941. E. WACKERLE MUSICAL STRING Filed Feb. 18, 1939 INVENTOR.
[El/W3 EQWA/Qfi WAC/(E1946:
AZZOTzWqy Patented May a, 1941 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE IUSICAL sumo ma sum wuss-lo. cum, 111. am February is. ms, Serial No. we
(CI. ss-ss'l) Claims.
My invention relatu to improvements in musical instrument strings and method of making these strings. Y
Heretofore. musical strings have been formed by applying a metal wrapping on gut cores but. however, the extreme elasticity ofgut permits an elongation thereof when tuning the strings. which results in a reduction in the diameter thereoi',causingthemetalwrappingtobeeome loose upon the core. This loosening of the metal wrapping results in a rattle or false tones during the use thereof.
Another type of musical string is formed havingametalcoreuponwhichalayerofsilkor someothersoftsuhstanceiswrapped anda second wr pping of metal wire being placed over the silk. The bending or wrapping ofa metal wirearoundasoftcushioncauaesanuneven surface along the periphery of the composite stringandasthewindingproceeds,owingto the compressing action of the outer. wrapping upon the cushion filler. a false string is produced. Further, in due time. the cushion loses its springy action and a gradual loosening of the metal wrapping relative to the cushion and core results.
The principal object of the present invention is to provide a musical string which overcomes the drawbacks heretobefore produced in composite strings and, at the same time, produces a string which will itself produce true tones.
A further object of the present invention is to provide an exceedingly simple and emcient means for producing the musical strings.
Further objects of the present invention will be in part obvious and in part pointed out in the following detailed description.
In the drawing:
Fig. l is a side view of a musical string according to the present invention and showing the successive layers thereof.
Fig. 2 is a side view of a modified form of musical string which produces a .sharper tone than the string of Pig. 1.
Fig. 3 is a side view showing a third modification of the musical string produced according to the present invention, and
Pig. 4 is a diagrammatic view of the apparatus used in producing musical strings.
Referring now more particularly to the accomplaced side-by-side. Over this wrapping of fiber and metal cores is placed a phenolic resin such as Bakelite. catalin, or the like, which resin is permitted to impregnate the fiber wrapping I completely down to core I and, at the same time. is heat cured, causing the same to set and thereby retaining fibers 2 and core 6 permanently upon core i. A metal strip or wire 4 is wrapped upon the peripheral surface of the heat-cured resin 1 and cemented thereto.
Fig. 2 discloses the members forming a modified form of musical string, which is of a lighter construction for producing a string having a sharper tone than the string shown in Fig. l but not quite as sharp as a metallic string. This string comprises a metallic core II directly to which is applied a phenolic resin 22 which is heat cured thereon and which completely encompasses the same. Over this cured resin is wrapped a metallic hand N. which hand is cemented directly to the resin 22 for ensuring permanent adherence thereto.
A third modification of the musical string according to the present invention is disclosed in Pig. 8 of the drawing, wherein a metal core III isencasedinawrappingofwireiplacedtherearound, which wire 8 is completely covered by an enamel 222 and which separates the wire I from the core III and also from a coating of phenolic resin I, which is positioned therearound and completely fills all of the voids. This resin I is heat cured and thereby caused to set for firmly maintaining itself and enameled wire I in position upon core I'll. A metal wrapping l is applied around said plastic "3 in successive convolutions and cemented thereto.
In order to produce any of the foregoin strings. "the phenolic plastic resin I, 22 and 388 must-be ted in order to cause the same to set and a non-cushioning casing. Each of these .musical strings is formed by attaching both en'dsof thecore wires I, II or III toow site winding heads of the winding machine. The core is thereby rotated and in the case of the strings shown in Figs. 1 and 3, covered wire i is wrapped thereon as the core is rotated. After the filling formed by wire i is completely positioned, the phenolic resin 3, 3", or in the case of the string of Fig. 2, the resin if is applied over the core and its wrapping. The resin completely impregnates the fibers in the case of the string of Fig. 1 down to the core I and in the case of the wire of Fig. 3, it completely fills all voids and spaces provided by the enameled wire I. Said winding heads are each connected within an electrical circuit and in which circuit a transformer or the like is provided for controlling the amount of current supplied to the winding heads. The metallic core extending from these heads completes the circuit by joining one head to the other and current is thereby caused to pass through the core which will set up a resistance thereto and become heated. The heated core will in turn heat the phenolic resin, causing the same to harden and set. The phenolic resin having electrical insulating qualities, the metal wrapping I, 44 or 4 can be applied before the resin is cured, thereby assuring a complete and permanent attachment of one element of a musical string to the others.
The foregoing invention is capable of considerable modification and any modifications thereof which come within the scope 01' my claims, I deem to be a part oi my invention.
I claim: H
l. A musical string comprising a metallic core, a heat-curing phenolic plastic encasing and connected directly to said core, a metal wrapping wound upon and connected to said plastic and 25 said plastic electrically insulating said metal wrapping from said metal core.
2. A musical string comprising a metallic core, an insulated wire spirally wound upon said core, a phenolic plastic encasing said spirally wound wire and extruding through th convolution: thereof, the extruded portions of said phenolic plastic adhering directly to said metallic core, a metallic wrapping encaslng said phenolic plastic and connected thereto and said phenolic plastic electrically insulating said metallic wrapping from said metallic core.
3. A composite musical string comprising a steel core, a fabric covered wire spirally wound upon said steel core and forming spaces between the rovings thereof, a heat-curing phenolic plastic covering said fabric covered wire and extending through the spaces formed between the rovings thereof, said plastic adhering to said steel core and connecting said fabric covered wire thereto, a metal wrapping spirally arranged upon said plastic and adhering thereto and said plastic electrically insulating said metallic wrapping from said steel core.
LEWIS EDWARD WACKERLE.