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Publication numberUS2241442 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 13, 1941
Filing dateApr 1, 1939
Priority dateJun 7, 1938
Publication numberUS 2241442 A, US 2241442A, US-A-2241442, US2241442 A, US2241442A
InventorsRowland Wylde Joseph, Smith Bell Angus
Original AssigneeCelanese Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Process of producing composite yarns
US 2241442 A
Images(1)
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Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

y 1941- A. s. BELL ETAL 2,241,442

PROCESS OF PRODUCINGVCOMPOSITE mms Filed April 1, 1939 CDDDC CDDDC S twist ADEAADEA Patented May 13, 1941 PROCESS OF PRODUCING COMPOSITE YARNS Angus Smith Bell and Joseph Rowland Wylde, Spondon, near Derby, England, assignors to Celanese Corporation of America, a corporation of Delaware Application April 1, 1939, Serial No. 265,485 In Great Britain June 7, 1938 12 Claims. (Cl. 57-157) This invention relates to improvements in composite yarns and in fabrics and other materials containing such yarns.

In British Patent No, 482,425, processes are described wherein composite yarns resembling wool yarns are produced by associating together, preferably by a doubling twist, one or more yarns of crinkled cellulose acetate filaments with one or more high twist yarns, the said yarn or yarns of crinkled cellulose acetate filaments being present in the composite yarn produced in substantially greater proportion than the said high twist yarn or yarns and having in the composite yarn produced at most only a low degree of twist, and the said high twist yarn or yarns having in the composite yarn produced a degree of twist such that they possess the ability to shrink on treatment with hot aqueous liquors. Again, in British atent No. processes are described wherein composite yarns resembling wool yarns are produced by associating together, preferably by a doubling twist, one or more yarns of crinkled artificial filaments, which preferably have a basis of a material other than cellulose acetate, with one or more highly twisted yarns, said yarn or yarns of crinkled artificial filaments having in the composite yarn at most only a low degree of twist and the said yarns of high twist being in the composite yarn so highly twisted that they possess the ability to shrink on treatment with hot aqueous liquors. Also, in British Patent No. 482,376, processes are described wherein composite yarns resembling wool yarns are obtained by associating one or more yarns of crinkled artificial filaments with one or more yarns capable of being shrunk relatively to the said yarn or yarns of crinkled artificial filaments and thereafter shrinking the said shrinkable yarns, the said yarn or yarns of crinkled artificial filaments having in the composite yarn at most only a low degree of twist, and the said shrinkable yarn or yarns having in the composite yarn a degree of twist less than crepe twist.

It has now been discovered that particularly valuable composite yarns may be produced by doubling two or more yarns of uncrinkled filaments with one or more yarns of crinkled filaments, the yarn or yarns of crinkled filaments being fed to the doubling device at a greater speed than the yarns of uncrinkled filaments, and the yarns of uncrinkled filaments being fed to the.

are very well secured in position so that such yarns have very little tendency to slip along the yarns of uncrinkled filaments and thus form slubs. Y

The invention is of particular importance in connection with the production 'of composite yarns containing yarns of crinkled cellulose acetate filaments. Crinkled filaments of cellulose acetate are obtained by subjecting bundles of yarns of cellulose acetatefilaments, especially such as comprise filaments of fiat or nearly flat cross-section, to the actionof hot or boiling water, or preferably hot or boiling dilute soap solutions. The flat type of filament is preferably pro- 459,781. Other things being equal, a higher degree of crinkling, and therefore of voluminosity, is obtained with the higher filament deniers. The crinkling of the cellulose acetate filaments ma} be effected, for example, by treating such filaments, e. g; in the form of hanks of yarn, with hot aqueous liquors, and especially with hot dilute soap solutions, without tension so as to develop the crankle in the filaments. The crinkle developed by the above processes is irregular in character.

Again, crinkle is imparted to cellulose acetate filaments by processes such as those described in U. S. Patents Nos. 2,089, 2,039,199 and 2,111,211. These processes consist, broadly, in imparting a twist to the yarns, setting the twist in the yarns, e. g. by the action of steam, and thereafter untwisting the yarns. Preferably the operation is effected with a false twisting device. Such processes impart a spiral crinkle to the filaments. If desired, the crinkling of the filaments may be accomplished by a combination of the two methods described above, e. g. a yarn or bundle of flat filaments of cellulose acetate may be subjected to one of the processes of U. S. Patents Nos. 2,089,198, 2,089,199 and 2,111,211 and either before or after such treatment, subjected to the action of hot aqueous liquors.

The yarns of crinkled filaments may have a basis of materials other than cellulose acetate. Thus, they may comprise filaments of any other organic derivative of cellulose, regenerated cellulose, e. g. viscose, cuprammonium and nitrocellulose artificial silks, or partially or completely saponified cellulose acetate or other cellulose ester artificial silk. Or again, the yarns of crinkled filaments may have a basis of celluloslc material but have been subjected to a process of surface esterification or etherification, or may have a basis of an organic derivative of cellulose and have been sublectedto a process of esterification, e. g. as described in U. S. Patents Nos.

2,159,011 and 2,159,012 and British Patent No.

448,817. Crinkled artificial filaments contained in the yarns may have been subjected to a stretching processor a shrinking process prior to theirassociation with the yarns of uncrinkled filaments in accordance with this invention. Any stretching operation should, of course, be carried out prior to' imparting crinkle toth'e filaments. i p

The crinkled filaments in the yarns may be continuous or may be discontinuous, provided that the length of the staple in the product is not so short as to necessitate a relatively high degree of twist to produce a coherent product. A staple length of -8 or inches or more may be'used but preferably the staple is as long as possible, e. g. of the order of 18 inches.

The yarns of uncrinkled filaments maybe made of any suitable material, e. g. the materials specified above for. the yarns oi crinkled filaments. It is especially advantageous to employ yarns of high tenacity, e. g. 2.5 or more grams per denier, as the yarns of uncrinkled filaments, for example cellulose acetate yarns which have been stretched considerably so as to impart to them or the products obtained by partial or complete saponification of. such yarns. By employing yarns of considerable strength as the yarns of uncrinkled filaments it is possible to double with them relatively large quantities of the yarns oi crinkled filaments and thus increase the total voluminosity of the product while conserving the necessary strength for the product considered as a whole.

Novel efiects may be obtained according to this invention by employing in the construction of the composite yarns, individual yarns some of which are coloured and the remainder uncoloured or which are coloured in difierent colours.

As stated above it is essential according to the present invention that the yarn or yarns of crinkled filaments should be fed to the doubling device at .a higher speed than the yarns of uncrinkled filaments. Speeds of 50% or more, and especially from 100 to 300%, faster than that of the yarns of uncrinkled filaments are suitable.

In this way the yarn or yarns of crinkled filaments appear in the composite productsas if they were more or less spiralled round the yarns of uncrinkled filaments, with the result that the latter may be more or less embedded in the composite product. a

It is further essential according to the present' invention that the yarns of uncrinkled filaments (of which at least two must be employed) should be fed to the doubling device in difierent directions. It is not essential, however, that the packages from which such yarns are withdrawn should be widely spaced an f fand it is sumcient to lead two such yarns to the doubling device together and to cause them to pass on opposite sides of an obstruction,.such as a smooth bar, just before they reach the point where the twist commences to be inserted, so that they converge on this point from difierent directions. Thus, using a downward twisting device provided above th twisting spindle with a guide through which the yarns to be twisted are led, a rigid bar may be mounted just above such guide and the yarns of uncrinkled filaments caused to pass on opposite sides of such bar so that they converge on the guide at an angle to one another.

' If desired there may be employed as the yarns of uncrinkled filaments, yarns which are capable of being shrunk relatively to the yarns of crinkled filaments. Thus, there may be employed as yarns of uncrinkled filaments the high twist crepe yarns and other shrinkable yarns described in British Patents Nos. 482,425 and 482,376, referred to above. If such shrinkable yarns are employed they may, if desired, be shrunk in the composite yarns, e. g. before incorporating the composite yarns in a fabric, the shrinking being effected by any of the methods described in the said applications.

By employing according to the invention high twist crpe yarns or other yarns of high extensibility as the yarns of uncrinkled filaments, products may be obtained which not only resemble chenille yarns in appearance but have the additlonal advantage of a much greater extensibility than ordinary cotton/wool chenille yarns.

The doubling twist used to double together the yarns of uncrinkled filaments and the yarn or yarns of crinkled filaments is preferably only low and should not be so high as to reduce substantially the voluminosity. As a result of the doubling operation the yarns of uncrinkled filaments either receive twist or have some twist removed from them, depending on the relative directions of the twist in such yarns and of the doubling twist. For this reason the twist in the yarns of uncrinkled filaments before the doubling operation should be either in excess of or short of that desired for them in the ultimate product.

Where the yarns of uncrinkled filaments are high twist crpe yarns it is preferable to insert the of the yarns of uncrinkled filaments is conserved.

For example where an ultimate twist of turns per inch in the yarns of uncrinkled filaments of the composite product is desired it is better to insert a twist of 50 turns per inch and then increase this to 55 by a doubling twist of 5 turns per inch in the same direction than to start with an original twist of turns per inch and to decrease this to 55 by a doubling twist of 5 turns per inch in the reverse direction.

As indicated above it is essential that at least two yarns of uncrinkled filaments are employed. More than two of such yarns may, however, be employed if desired, e. g. to make a heavier product. Again more than one yarn of crinkled filaments may be employed. The composite yarns obtained may themselves be doubled together to form composite yarns of greater denier. They may also be doubled with yarns of other types, e. g. normal yarns or high twist crepe yarns, for producing other eifect yarns.

lilxamples illustrating the production of composite yarns according to the invention will now be described with reference to Figs. 1-4 of the accompanying diagrammatic drawing.

In the drawing- A is a'75 denier low twist yarn of normal cellulose acetate filaments;

B is a 200 denier low twist yarn of crinkled cellulose acetate filaments;

C is a 140 denier low twist yarn of normal cellulose acetate filaments;

D is a 150 denier low twist yarn of crinkled cellulose acetate filaments, dyed to a suitable colour;

E is a 100 denier low twist yarn of crinkled cellulose acetate filaments;

F is a 55 denier high tenacity low twist yam of regenerated cellulose filaments;

G is a 55 denier high tenacity high twist (48 t. p. i.

Z twis't) yarn of regenerated cellulose filaments; and v H is a 170 denier low twist yarn of crinkled cellulose acetate filaments.

Yarns F and G may for example have been produced by completely saponifying a cellulose acetate yarn which has been stretched to 500 or 1000% of its original length in wet steam as described in U. S. Patent No. 2,142,721.

Referring to Fig. 1, two ends of the yarn A are delivered from one feed roller over a tension bar to a doubling devic'e. Just before reaching the doubling device these ends are caused to pass on opposite sides of a bar so that they converge on the doubling device in different directions. One end of the yarn B is delivered from a separate feed roller to the doubling device, the rate of feed being adjusted so that for every 100 units of length of each of the yarns A delivered to the doubling device 300 units of length of the yarn B are delivered. A doubling twist of 36 t. p. i. (*Z twist) is inserted by the doubling device. Two doubled yarns thus obtained are then doubled together with a doubling twist of 12 t. p. i.

twist).

In Fig. 2, two ends of the yarn C are led to the doubling device in the manner described above with reference to the yarns A, and three ends of yarn D are fed from a separate feed roller to the doubling device, the rate of feed being adjusted so that for every 100 units of length of each of the yarns C 300 units of length of yarn D are delivered. A doubling twist of 29 t. p. i.-

(Z twist) is inserted. Two doubled Yarns thus ,obtained are then doubled together with a doubling twist of 12 t. p. i. (S twist).

Fig. 3 illustrates a process in which two ends of yarn A are led to the doubling device as above and one end of each of yarns D and E are fed to the device at a rate of feed such that for every 100 units of length of each yarn A 300 units of length of yarn D and of yarn E are delivered. A doubling twist of 36 t. p. i. (2 twist) is inserted and two doubled yarns thus obtained are then doubled together with a doubling twist of t. p. i. (S twist).

In Fig. 4 an end of yarn F and an end of yarn' G are led to the doubling device in the manner described above with regard to yarns A and an end of yarn H is fed from a separate feed roller at a rate of feed such that for every 100 units of length of yarn F and of yarn G 300 units of length of yarn H are delivered. A doubling twist of 34 t. p. i'.'(Z twist) is inserted and two yarns so formed are then doubled together with a doubling twist of 12, t. p. i. (S twist).

The composite yarns produced according to the above examples closely resemble chenille yarns. It will be understood that in any of these examples other yarns of crinkled filaments and other yarns of uncrinkled filaments may-be substituted for those specified and that any of the yarns mentioned may, if desired, be coloured. Further, the three ends of yarn D referred to in Fig. 2 may be similarly coloured or they may be V yarns of crinkled filaments are caught at inuncrinkled filaments being fed to the doubling device at an angle to each other, so that the yarns of crinkled filaments are caught at intervals between the yarns of uncrinkled filaments.

4. Process for the production of composite yarns which comprises doubling two or more yarns of uncrinkled filaments with one or more yarns of crinkled filaments, the yarns of crinkled filaments being delivered to the doubling device at a speed at least 50% faster than the speed of delivery of the yarns of uncrinkled filaments, at least two of the yarns of uncrinkled filaments being fed to the doubling device at an' angle to each other, so that the yarns of crinkled filaments are caught at intervals between the yarns of uncrinkled filaments.

5. Process for the production of composite yarns which comprises doubling two or more yarns of uncrinkled filaments with one or more yarns of crinkled filaments having a basis of an organic derivative of cellulose, the yarns of crinkled filaments being delivered to the doubling device at a speed at least 50% faster than the speed of delivery of the yarns of uncrinkled filaments, at least two of the yarns of uncrinkled filaments being fed to the doubling device at an angle to each other; so that the yarns of crinkled filaments are caught at intervals between the yarns of uncrinkled filaments.

6. Process for the production of composite yarns which comprises doubling two or more yarns of uncrinkled filaments with one or more I. Process for the production of composite yarns which comprises doubling two or more yarns of uncrinkled filaments with one or more yarns of crinkled filaments relatively to which said yarns of uncrinkled filaments are capable of being shrunk, the yarns of crinkled filaments being fed to the doubling device at a greater speed than the yarns of uncrinkled filaments, at

least two of the yarns of uncrinkled filaments I being fed to the doubling device at an angle to each other, so that the yarns of crinkled filamentsare caught at intervals between the yarns of uncrinkled filaments.

8. Process for the production of composite yarns which comprises doubling two or more high twist crepe yarns of uncrinkled filaments with one or more yarns of crinkled filaments relatively to which said yarns of uncrinkled filaments are capable of being shrunk, the yarns of crinkled filaments being fed to the doubling device at a greater speed than the yarns of uncrinkled filaments, at least two of the yarns of uncrinkled filaments being fed to the doubling device at an angle to eachother, so that the yarns of crinkled filaments are caught at intervals between the yarns of uncrinkled filaments.

9. Process for the production of composite yarns which comprises doubling two or more high twist crepe yarns of uncrinkled filaments with one or more yarns of crinkled-filaments, the yarns of crinkled filaments being delivered to the doubling device at a speed IOU-300% faster than the speed of delivery of the yarns of uncrinkled filaments, at least two of the yarns'of uncrinkled filaments being fed to the doubling device at an angle to each other, so that the yarns of crinkled filaments are caught at intervals between the yarns of uncrinkled filaments.

10. Process for the production of composite yarns which comprises doubling two or more yarns of uncrinkled high tenacity filaments having a basis of an organic derivative of cellulose with one or more yarns of crinkled filaments, the yarns of crinkled filaments being fed to the doubling device at a greater speed than the yarns of uncrinkled filaments, at least two of the yarns of uncrinkled filaments being fed to the doubling device at an angle to each other, so that the yarns of crinkled filaments are caught at intervals between the yarns of uncrinkled filaments.

11. Process for the production of composite yarns which comprises doubling two or more yarns of uncrinkled high tenacity filaments having a basis of an organic derivative of cellulose with one or more yarns of crinkled filaments, the yarns of crinkled filaments being delivered to the doubling device at a speed at least faster than the speed of delivery of the yarns of uncrinkled filaments, at least two of the yarns of uncrinkled filaments being fed to the doubling device at an angle to each other, so that the yarns of crinkled filaments are caught at intervals between the yarns of uncrinkled filaments.

12. Process for the production of composite yarns which comprises doubling two or more yarns of uncrinkled filaments with one or more yarns of crinkled filaments, at least one of the component yarns having a' basis of cellulose acetate, the yarns of crinkled filaments being fed to the doubling device at a greater speed than the yarns of uncrinkled filaments, at least two of the yarns of uncrinkled filaments being fed to the doubling device at an angle to each other, so that the yarns of crinkled filaments are caught at intervals between the yarns of uncrinkled filaments.

ANGUS SMITH BELL. JOSEPH ROWLAND WYLDE.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2445751 *Aug 25, 1945Jul 27, 1948M & W Thomas CoTextile fabric
US2821835 *May 6, 1955Feb 4, 1958Lees & Sons Co JamesCarpet yarn and method of making same
US3025661 *Aug 18, 1958Mar 20, 1962Duplan CorpCoiled textile strand and method of producing same
US3092955 *Jun 21, 1962Jun 11, 1963Algemene Kunstzijde Unie NvMoulinee yarn and method of making the same
US3157982 *Aug 20, 1962Nov 24, 1964Cyprien Alexandre Albert MarceProcess for manufacturing crepe fabrics with multifilament textile yarns of synthetic origin
US3309855 *Jun 9, 1961Mar 21, 1967Celanese CorpProcess and apparatus for producing bulked plied yarn
US5058371 *Nov 30, 1989Oct 22, 1991Monsanto CompanyContinuous filament yarn for trackless carpet
DE1510516B1 *Feb 2, 1963Apr 30, 1970Bancroft & Sons Co JVerfahren zur Herstellung eines Effektfadens aus zwei aus heissfixierbarem endlosem Material bestehenden Faeden
Classifications
U.S. Classification57/362, 57/239, 28/287, 28/220
International ClassificationD02G3/28, D02G3/26
Cooperative ClassificationD02G3/28
European ClassificationD02G3/28