US 2241444 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
May 13, 1941. J. H. w. Bowl-:R
` REsPIRAToR JACKET Filed Oct. 3, 1958 Inl/en for. Josep/1 /WBo wer.
Patented May 13, 1941 Joseph H. W. Bower, Toronto, Ontario, Canada Application October 3, 1938, Serial N0. 232,948 In Canada October 4, 1937 1 claim.
In the treatment of poliomyelitis where the respiratory organs are affected in such a manner that the patient cannot perform the function of breathing naturally it has been found necessary to place the patient Within an air tight cabinet, which has become commonly known as the iron lung and by means of external apparatus create within said cabinet a regularly uctuating pressure to cause a regular exhalation and inhalation of air from and to the lungs of the patient.
Machines of the character above described are extremely costly and in the event of an epidemic the demand very greatly exceeds even an extraordinary normal supply and unless artificial respiration can be induced in the patient very quickly after the paralysis of the lungs is noticed death ensues.
The principal objects of this invention are to enable surgeons, hospital attendants and others to `create an equipment in a very limited time which will effectively protect the patient and enable the application of articial respiration, and further to devise a method of constructing a casing to envelop the respiratory section of the body which will effectively withstand the continuous alternation of pressures, positive and negative and which may be fashioned to fit an individual patient or may be capable of adjustment to t patients of Variable sizes within certain limited ranges, and which may be produced at an extremely low cost.
The principal features of the invention consist in the novel formation of a shell or casque shaped to fit the contours of the back, chest and abdomen of the patient and in providing same with a resilient lining to contact with the body and form an air seal therewith, the said shell having formed therein a cavity to extend over the pulsating respiratory portion of the chest and abdomen and being provided with a tubular connection to be connected with a pulsating air pressure device of a suitable form.
The invention is diagrammatically illustrated in the accompanying drawing in which Figure l is an elevational view of the prone body of a person showing in longitudinal mid-section a respiratory jacket constructed in accordance with this invention.
Figure 2 is a cross sectional view taken through the line 2-2 of Figure 1.
Figure 3 is an enlarged and exaggerated sectional detail of a portion of the shell showing a manner of fabricating same.
Figure 4 is a view similar to Figure 1 but showing the respiratory jacket in elevation.
In carrying this invention into eiect a person to be tted with a respiratory jacket is rst molded in a plaster cast which is made to extend from the neck down to the waist or abdominal section. This is removed and quickly dried and a model M (shown in the part in Figure 3) `of the patients body is then molded in the cast so made and caused to set as quickly as possible. The model is then covered with a layer b of stockinette or suitable textile fabric to form a base for the shell, the model being rst built up over the chest section preferably with plaster of Paris in a plastic state to whatever height may be desired in the finished product in the form of a cavity.
A coating c of material such as cellulose acetate (Celluloid) is then preferably placed over the textile material and while such material is still plastic it is encased in a covering b' of textile material of the same nature.
A covering c of plaster is then applied and further coatings of stockinette and cellulose acetate or plaster may be applied to bring the shell to the desired thickness so that when complete it will be extremely rigid.
It will be understood that a shell constructed as described will be very light.
When the shell has been completed it is preferably divided longitudinally along the side walls so as to enable its being placed readily in position upon the patient and may of course be easily removed.
'I'he shell sections A and B when separated are lined with a thick resilient lining C such as sponge rubber, the lining in the section A extending only around the iiange portions a which extend around the cavity D. The lining of the section B is preferably turned outwardly over the longitudinal edges, thereby forming gaskets against which the mating longitudinal edges of the section A may be fitted.
Suitable straps E provided with fastening devices may be fastened adjacent to the longitudinal division edges of both sections A and B to enable their being drawn tightly together and in such a manner that sufcient pressure will be applied to ensure the sponge rubber lining forming an air seal contact with the body of the patient.
A device constructed as described when placed about the body of a patient provides a cavity extending o-ver the chest and abdomen so that when air is exhausted from within the cavity the chest structure will be lifted expanding the lungs and causing an inflow of air to the mouth and nostrils.
The'release of the vacuum or the application of air pressure to the cavity presses the lung structure of the patient inwardly causing the air therein to be expelled. The air seal eiected by the sponge rubber around the neck opening and around the arms and the lower part of the body prevents the'ingress of air to the cavity when the air has been drawn therefrom by artificial means, reversely When pressure is applied in the cavity the air pressure so applied cannot escape, with the result that by the attachment of a suitable type of pump to the pipe opening F in the top of the shell cavity perfect respiratory conditions" may be simulated.
Such conditions maintain respiration of. the patient while allowing the arms and legs perfect freedom which will enable the applicationy of splints or the use of the limbs and it will also enable the patient to enjoy the comforts of a bed instead of being housed within the narrow connnes of a totally enclosing cabinet.
Another andveryjimportant feature is that the hospital attendants may attend the patient and I resilient material arranged around the cavity of the front section adapted to form an air seal with the patients body, a pad of sponge rubber lining upon the inner face of the back section for both cushioning and sealing contact with the body and being extended laterally outward between the mating edges of said sections to form a seal, and means. for clamping the sections together with the laterally extending portions o' said air seal compressed between the said mating edges.
JOSEPH H. W. BCWVER.A