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Publication numberUS2243343 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateMay 27, 1941
Filing dateMay 10, 1939
Priority dateMay 10, 1939
Publication numberUS 2243343 A, US 2243343A, US-A-2243343, US2243343 A, US2243343A
InventorsHoward Johnson
Original AssigneeHoward Johnson
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Clock
US 2243343 A
Abstract  available in
Images(4)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

y 2 7.1 H. JoHNs oN; 2,243,;343

1 v cI opK 2 Filed May 10, 1939 4 Sheets-Sheet 1 iNvEN-roR M ATTORNEYS May 27,1941;

H. JOHNSON CLOCK Filed May 10, 1939 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTIOR award/Miami;

M ATTORNEYS Patented May 27, 1941 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CLOCK Howard Johnson, Brooklyn, N. Y.

Application May 10, 1939, Serial No. 272,824

14 Claims.

This invention relates to improvements in time-pieces and more particularly to improvements in clocks.

An object of the present invention is to provide a clock of such construction that indication of time thereby can be viewed from a number of difierent angles.

Another object of the invention is to provide a clock structure of such character that the passage of time can be indicated thereby at a number of different points in the structure simultaneously by the same mechanism.

Another object of the invention is to provide a clock structure in which the means indicating time at a particular location in the structure simultaneously indicates time at other locations in the structure without the addition of other moving elements.

A further object of the invention is to provide a clock structure in which the indication of time is accomplished through the agency of concentric cylinders moving in opposite directions and having cooperating indication means or formations thereon.

An additional object of the invention is to provide a clock structure wherein a pair of concentric cylinders moving in opposite directions is utilized to indicate hours, and a second pair of concentric cylinders moving in opposite directions is utilized to indicate minutes.

A still further object of the invention is to provide formations in the respective pairs of cylinders of such character that light can pass through the cooperating formations to indicate the passage of time visually in conjunction with a scale.

In carrying out the foregoing and other objects of the invention a clock housing is constructed in such fashion that in the form illustrated the housing is provided with four sides, each side having vertically aligned and separated windows therein. Within the housing is mounted a clock motor of any desired type, such as a spring motor or an electric motor, or any other convenient motor for furnishing power. Associated with this clock mechanism is a pair of concentric cylinders rotating on a vertical axis and in opposite directions. In one form of the invention each of the concentric cylinders is provided with a plurality of spiral slots, the slots in one cylinder extending in the opposite direction to the slots in the other cylinder. The slots in each cylinder are of number corresponding to the windows in the casing and are so designed that as the cylinders rotate in opposite directions these slots cross each other and the point of crossing moves upwardly at a uniform rate. These slots can be so registered, those in one cylinder with those in another and with the respective windows, that the upward movement of the opening provided by the crossing of the slots will, when the cylinders are rotated at a predetermined rate, indicate the passage of time according to a scale associated with the respective windows.

Also mounted in the housing is a second pair of concentric cylinders rotated in opposite directions and provided each with a plurality of slots in the manner previously described. This second pair of cylinders can be operated to rotate at a different speed from the first pair so that if the first pair indicates the passage of hours, the second pair can indicate the passage of minutes. In order that the openings provided by the crossing slots can be more readily visible, a source of light rays can be positioned in the housing in such fashion that rays of light can pass through such openings.

If instead of utilizing slots in the cylinders for the passage of light rays, it is desired to utilize other indicating arrangements, the invention contemplates that the inner cylinder of each pair can have, instead of a slot, a spiral stripe thereon of a different color from the body of the cylinder while the outer cylinder will have slots therein which will cross the spiral stripes in the inner cylinder and thereby provide a moving configuration for indicating the passage of time. As a still further embodiment of the invention, the pairs of cylinders can be made of material in which the body and the spiral zones would be either opaque or translucent. For example, if the body of each cylinder is of opaque material, the spiral zones could be made of translucent material whereby crossing of such zones, as the cylinders rotate in opposite directions, would provide an illuminated indication marker. Also, translucent bodies could have stripes of polarized glass with the planes of the polarized glass crossing stripes out of coincidence and preferably at to create a difference in the translucency.

Other features, objects, and advantages of the invention will become apparent by reference to the following detailed description accompanying the drawings, wherein Fig. 1 is a perspective view of one form of device embodying the present invention;

Fig. 2 is an enlarged section taken substantially on the line 22 of Fig. 1;

Fig. 3 is an enlarged section taken substantially on the line 33 of Fig. 1;

Fig. 4 is a vertical section taken substantially on the line 1-4 of Fig. 3;

Fig. 5 is a further enlarged horizontal section taken substantially on the line -& of Fig. 4;

Fig. 6 is a transverse section taken substantially on the line 6-6 of Fig. 5;

Fig. '7 is a diagrammatic layout or development of the parts utilized for indicating the passage of minutes, such layout including the windows in the housing;

Fig. 8 is a similar showing of the hour indicatien mechanism, and

Fig. 9 is a small layout, partially broken away,

illustrating a modification of the invention.

Referring now to the drawings, it indicates generally a casing for a clock embodying the invention, such. casing being composed of any desired suitable material. The casing is made up of a base portion ii which is of generally square shape in cross section and a tower portion 52 also of generally square shape in'cross section but of smaller dimensions crosswise. The base portion ii and the tower portion l2 may be of suitable ornamental configuration to relieve the square shape in cross section. The base portion H has each surface thereof provided with a window l4 across the interior of which may extend a sheet I5 of some suitable transparent material such as mica, glass, or some plastic material. The tower portion i2 likewise has each of the four surfaces thereof provided with windows it, such windows likewise having sheets ll of transparent material extending across fastened to the inner surface thereof.

The base portion H has a partition 22 located therein and spaced from the bottom 2! a suitable distance. This partition as can be supported on pedestals 22 or can be fastened in the base portion in any other suitable manner. The space between the partition 23 and the bottom 2! serves to receive a clock motor of any desired type, such as a spring motor, electric motor, or any other well-known type of clock motor. By reference to Fig. 6 it will be seen that the partition 29 has extending upwardly therethrough a shaft which is driven by the clock motor (not shown) in the customary fashion. This shaft 25 is designed to be driven at a rate suitable for driving the mechanism utilized in indicating the passage of minutes. To the upper end of shaft 25 and immediately above partition 2% is a gear 2 3 secured to the shaft for rotation therewith. This gear 2% has three sets of teeth thereon, namely, upper set 2'1, a middle set 28, and a lower set recess cut in a suitable support positioned on the partition M, such recess being so shaped as to provide a cylindrical portion 3 i, an upstanding ring portion 32, and a second concentric ring portion 34. Parts of these ring portions will be broken out as occasion may demand for the mounting of portions of the operating mechanism.

Mounted for rotation within the housing is a cup member indicated generally at and having an upstanding wall part 35, a bottom 35, a depending portion 33, and an annular inwardly extending flan e The cup is so positioned that the bottom 31 thereof rests on the ring 32 with the depending flange 38 positioned closely to the inner wall of this ring. flange part 39 is provided with gear teeth til meshing with the middle set of teeth 28 of the gear 26.

A second cup-like member M is shaped similarly to the cup-like member 35 except that the This gear 25 is positioned in a r bottom 42 extends inwardly beyond the bottom 31 and has a depending part it, in the outer edge of which are out teeth 45 meshing with the upper set of teeth 2! of the gear 26. This second cup-like member 45 is supported by the first member 35 so that when these parts are rotated in opposite directions one part slides upon the other. This opposite rotation of the two parts is obtained by the method of mounting gears on the cups as shown.

A shaft member 45 s fixedly secured in the partition 26 against rotation and has rotatable thereon a gear t? which is provided with three sets of teeth, namely, a lower set 48 (Fig. 5), an intermediate set 49, and an upper set 59. As shown in the drawings, the lower set 48 are formed on a part of the gear of considerable diameter and are designed to mesh with the lower set of teeth 29 on the gear 26. Supported by the ring as of the support 352 is a cup-like member indicated generally at 5% made up of an upright portion 52, a bottom 53, a depending annular part and inwardly extending flange part having teeth 55 cut in the inner edge thereof. These teeth 56 mesh with the intermediate set of teeth 49 on the gear ll. A second cup-like member 51 is shaped in, a fashion similar to that of the member iii except that the bottom 58 extends over the top of the shaft 4.6 and has a depending flange portion in the periphery of which teeth 59 are out. These teeth mesh with the upper set of teeth of the gear ll. As in the case of the first two cup-like members described, the second cup-like members are so mounted that the inner member 5T nests within and is supported by the first member 5 i. Each set of cup-like members is preferably made of some suitable metal, desirably of light weight, but of good wear resisting property which is advantageous since the cups bear against each other and are subject to a slight amount of friction, and wear of course is minimized due to the low speed of movement of the parts.

By reference to Fig. 4 it will be seen that the two cup-like members 35 and 4| extend upwardly only a short distance. The inner cup-like member 4! has two narrow stay members 60 extending upwardly therefrom in diametric opposite disposition. These stays or supports are joined to an inner tubular shell 6|. Likewise two similar stays 62 extend upwardly from outer shell member 35 and are joined to an outer cylindrical shell member 64. The two sets of stays 60 and 62 are positioned substantially 90' degrees apart, one member of one set from a member of the other set. These stays are shown in cross section in Fig. 3, with the stays 90 degrees apart, which angularity varies as the parts rotate.

The two cylindrical shells 6i and B4 are positioned in the tower part l2 of the casing. The inner tubular shell 6! is provided with a plurality of parallel slots extending diagonally from near the top to near the bottom of the shell so that in effect they assume a spiral direction. The outer cylindrical shell 64 is provided with a plurality of parallel slots E6 extending diagonally from near the top to near the bottom of the shell at the same angle as the slots 65 but in the exact opposite direction. By reference to Fig. 7, the relation of the slots will be apparent if it be assumed that the two shells be made of stripmaterial which is then rolled into cylindrical form and fastened in this form in some suitable fashion. In this figure the slots 5 5 in the inner shell are shown in dotted lines while the slots 66 in the outer shell are shown in full lines. Moreover in this same figure the relative position of the windows I6 has also been shown in dot-dash lines. Since the windows I6 are four in number, it follows that each shell is provided with four diagonal slots. When the shells are assembled they are so assembled that the slots 65 and 66 cross each other midway between the side edges of a window I6. When one set of crossing slots has been properly positioned relative to one window IS, the other three crossing sets of slots will be properly positioned relative to the other three windows I6. In the arrangement shown in the drawings the two shells 6| and 64 are preferably made of the same metal as the cup-like members 35 and 4|.

The material of the upstanding part 52 of the outer cup-member is extended upwardly to form a cylindrical shell. Likewise the upstanding part of the cup-like member 51 is extended upwardly to form an inner cylindrical shell 51'. The inner shell 51 is provided with a plurality of diagonal slots I0 extending in one direction while the outer shell 52 is provided with a similar number of slots II extending at the same angle but in the opposite direction. The relative position of the shells 51' and 52 with their crossing slots III and II has been shown in Fig. 8 along with a dot-dash showing of the windows I4 of the base part II of the housing. These slots of the shells are brought into register with each other and with the windows I4 in the same manner as that described in connection with the upper shells BI and 64 and the windows I6.

Secured to the partition 20 centrally thereof is a block 80 of suitable material fastened to the partition by screws 9|. An electric lamp socket 82 is fastened to this insulating member 80 by screws 84. The partition 20, support 30, and block 80 have registered openings for the passage of an electric cable 85, the conductors 85' of which are connected to the proper terminals of the socket 82. An elongated electric light bulb 86 can be inserted into the socket 82 through an open top of the tower part I2 of the housing, such open top being adapted to be closed by a cap member 81.

The base portion I I of the housing is provided with suitable indicia on the surface thereof opposite the windows I4, which indicia may be in the nature of parallel lines, preferably of such number as to indicate the passage of twelve hours. Likewise similar indicia may be provided on the surface of the tower part I2 in the nature of parallel lines of such number as to indicate the p ssage of sixty minutes. It is to be understood, of course, that indicia other than lines as shown may be used.

The operation of this clock is substantially as follows. Assuming that the clock is set to begin operation either at noon or at midnight, the two hour shells 52 and 51 will be so positioned relative to each other that their crossing slots I0 and II will cross each other at their respective bottoms. Due to this crossing of the slots, a substantially diamond shaped opening through the slots of the combined shells is provided. If this diamond shaped opening is properly aligned substantially midway of a window I4 and the crossing of the slots is at the bottom thereof, the horizontal points of the diamond will be exactly opposite the horizontal line at the bottom of the indicia, which bottom line can be designed either zero or I2. At the same time the two upper shells are likewise registered one with another and with the windows I6 so that the horizontal points of the diamond shaped through opening formed by the crossing of the slots will be in register with the lowermost horizontal line of the indicia associated with a window I6, which lowermost line can be designated either zero or 69.

With these two sets of shells so properly registered, power supplied to the drive shaft 25 will serve to rotate each shell of the two pairs but with the shells of the respective pairs in opposite directions. The various meshing teeth are so designed that the inner and the outer shell of each set will complete a rotation simultaneously, or in other words, the two shells of each set move at the same rate. However, the gearing is also so designed that the pairs of shell in the base of the housing will rotate at a relatively slow rate as compared to the shells in the outer part of the housing. The ratio of rotation, as in a clock having a minute hand and an hour hand, is the ratio of 1 to 12. As these two sets of shells are rotated in the manner described, it follows that the diamond shaped openings formed by the crossing of the various slots will move vertically upwardly relative to the respective windows I4 and I6.

At the end of an hours time the position of the through opening formed by the crossing of the slots in the shells in the base will have moved vertically upwardly until the horizontal points of this diamond shaped opening are in line with the first horizontal stripe removed from the bottom of the window. Also during this first hour the diamond shaped openings in the tower shells will move vertically upwardly at a continuous uniform rate until at the end of an hour the horizontal points of the openings will be in alignment with the topmost horizontal indicating mark. Simultaneously a succeeding diamond shaped opening will appear at the bottom of each window due to the arrival at-each window of the next spiral slot in the outer shell in one direction and the next spiral slot in the inner shell in the other direction. Thus as one diamond shaped opening disappears from the window another appears so that the indication of time can be carried out continuously. Likewise at the expiration of twelve hours one diamond shaped opening in the base set of shells will disappear from the windows and another opening will appear at the bottom of each window.

A modified form of indicating arrangement is shown partially diagrammatically in Fig. 9 wherein the topmost or outer shell 90 of the superimposed shells is shown as being provided with slots 9I similar to the slots before described. However, the bottom or inner member 92, instead of being provided with slots, has stripes 94 painted or otherwise applied to the surface thereof, which stripes are of a contrasting color relative to the remainder of the surface of this member 92. For example, if the main portion of this member 92 be painted or otherwise treated to have a black coloring, then the stripes 94 can be made white. Likewise it will be advantageous to have the surface of the member 90 painted black so that when the slots 9| cross the stripes 94 the result will be a diamond shaped figure in white. With this arrangement the inner electric light bulb can be dispensed with if desired since light does not shine through the shells.

As a further modification it is contemplated that the sets of shells can be made of such material as to permit parts thereof to be transparent or translucent while other parts thereof are opaque. With this arrangement it is possible,

without the provision of slots, to cause an illuminated diamond shaped figure to move upwardly in each window, or, by the use of polarized glass a contrasting figure can be caused to move upwardly.

While the invention has been illustrated and described as being embodied in a housing wherein it is possible to ascertain the passage of time through Windows located in four sides of the figureflt will be evident that the housing can be made of any desired number of sides having windows therein, or can be of any other shape permitting the provision of windows, the only requirement being that the housing be so dimensioned and the shells be so dimensioned that each shell will have sufficient slots or similar formations to permit the indication of the passage of time through the various windows. I It is to be understood that the invention is not to be limited to the illustrated embodiment which serves to disclose only a preferred form thereof, but the invention is capable of modifica tion; in view of which the limitations to be imposed thereupon are only those set forth in the following claims,

I claim:

1. A clock of the type described, comprising two pairs of moving elements, the elements of each pair having cooperating formations providing a locus moving steadily vertically upwardly as the elements are moved, the moving locus of one set of elements indicating the passage of hours, and the moving locus of the other set indicating the passage of minutes.

2. A clock of the type described, comprising a housing having vertically extending windows therein at two different levels, a pair of moving elements associated with a window at one level, said pair of elements having cooperating formations providing a locus moving steadily vertically upwardly behind the window as the elements are moved to indicate the passage of hours, and a second set of moving elements associated with a window at the second level, said second set of moving elements having cooperating formations providing a locus moving steadily vertically upwardly behind the window as the elements are moved to indicate the passage of minutes.

3. A clock of the type described, comprising two pairs of moving elements, the elements of each pair having a plurality of cooperating formotions providing loci moving steadily vertically upwardly as the elements are moved, the moving loci of one set of elements indicating the passage of hours, and the moving loci of the other set indicating the passage of minutes,

4. A clock or" the type described, comprising a housing having a plurality of vertically extending windows therein at each of two different levels, a pair of moving elements associated with windows at one level, said pair of elements having cooperating formations providing loci moving steadily vertically upwardly behind the windows as the elements are moved to indicate the pa sage of hours, and a second set of moving elements associated with the windows at the second level, said second set of moving elements having cooperating formations providing loci moving steadily vertically upwardly behind the windows as the elements are moved to indicate the passage of minutes.

5. A clock of the type described, comprising two pairs of concentric rotating elements, the elements of each pair rotating in opposite directions having cooperating crossing formations providing a locus moving steadily vertically upwardly as the elements are rotated, the moving locus of one set of elements indicating the passage of hours, and the moving locus of the other set indicating the passing of minutes.

6. A clock of the type described, comprising a housing having vertically extending windows therein at two different levels, a pair of rotating elements one within the other associated with a window at one level, said pair of elements having cooperating crossing formations providing a locus moving steadily vertically upwardly as the elements are rotated in opposite directions to indicate the passage of hours, and a second set of rotating elements one within the other associated with a window at the second level, said second set of moving elements having cooperating crossing formations providing a locus moving steadily vertically upwardly as the elements are rotated in opposite directions to indicate the passage of minutes.

'7. A clock of the type described, comprising two pairs of rotating elements, the elements of each pair having spiral slots therein with the slots in one element extending in the opposite direction to the slots in the other element, said slots in. the elements being crossed to provide an opening moving steadily vertically upwardly as the elements are rotated, the moving opening of one set of elements indicating the passage of hours, and the moving opening of the other set indicating the passing of minutes.

A clock of the type described, comprising a housing having a plurality of vertically extending windows therein at each of two diiierent levels, a pair of rotating elements associated with a window at one level, said pair of elements being nested one within the other and having slots therein extending at the same angle but in opposite directions in the two elements, said slots being crossed so that rotation of the elements in opposite directions provides an opening moving steadily vertically upwardly as the elements are moved to indicate the passage of hours, and a second set of similar rotating elements associated with a window at the second level to indicate the passage of minutes.

9. A clock of the type described, comprising two pairs of moving cylindrical shell-like elements, the elements of each pair being in nested relation and being provided with slots inclined at the same angle but in opposite directions in the two elements, said slots being positioned to cross each other as the elements are rotated in opposite directions, whereby the crossing of the slots provides an opening through the elements, which opening moves steadily vertically upward- 1y.

10. A clock of the type described, comprising a housing having a plurality of windows therein at each of two levels, two pairs of moving cylindrical shell-like elements, the elements of each pair being in nested relation and being provided with slots inclined at the same angle but in opposite directions in the two elements, said slots being positioned to cross each other as the elements are rotated in opposite directions, whereby the crossing of the slots provides openings through the elements, which openings move steadily vertically upwardly, said openings being registered with the windows.

11. A clock of the type described, comprising a housing, markings thereon, continuously moving elements associated with said housing and driven at a predetermined rate, the same elements being visible from different positions around said housing and cooperating with said markings whereby the passage of time can be ascertained.

12. A clock of the type described, comprising a housing, continuously moving elements within said housing and driven at a predetermined rate, said housing bein provided with a plurality of windows through which the same elements are visible from different positions around said housing, a ings on said housing adjacent said windows and cooperating with said elements whereby the passage of time can be ascertained.

13. A clock of the type described, comprising a housing, sets of continuously moving elements within said housing and driven at predetermined rates, said housing having windows therein through which the same set of elements is visible from different positions in a complete circle around said housing, whereby the passage of time can be ascertained, the indications of passage of time being identical for all of said positions.

14. A clock of the type described, comprising a housing, sets of continuously moving elements within said housing and driven at predetermined rates, said housing having sets of plural windows therein registering with the sets of elements, markings on said housing adjacent said windows, the same set of elements being visible from different positions around said housing, said elements being movable relative to said markings whereby the passage of time can be ascertained.

HOWARD JOHNSON.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2424981 *Feb 27, 1943Aug 5, 1947Submarine Signal CoSignaling system
US2570803 *Sep 17, 1947Oct 9, 1951Carl HausenClock
US2769160 *Mar 20, 1953Oct 30, 1956Raytheon Mfg CoElectrical distance-measuring device
US4092823 *Feb 2, 1976Jun 6, 1978Sansho Co., Ltd.Timepiece having display cylinders
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US5838643 *May 31, 1996Nov 17, 1998Reiner; Daniel J.Timepiece display and method of displaying information time on a timepiece
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US7362662 *Aug 4, 2003Apr 22, 2008Lang Timothy RColor timepiece
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US7978566 *May 26, 2009Jul 12, 2011Christopher RussoTiming apparatus for alerting a user when time has elapsed
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EP0677796A1 *Mar 6, 1995Oct 18, 1995Johannes Wilhelm Alexander HachDevice for moving hands in wrist-watches
Classifications
U.S. Classification368/222, 368/228, 116/281, 968/150
International ClassificationG04B19/06, G04B19/08
Cooperative ClassificationG04B19/082
European ClassificationG04B19/08B