|Publication number||US2244688 A|
|Publication date||Jun 10, 1941|
|Filing date||Mar 16, 1938|
|Priority date||Mar 16, 1938|
|Publication number||US 2244688 A, US 2244688A, US-A-2244688, US2244688 A, US2244688A|
|Inventors||Kastilan Fritz, Alfred N Goldsmith, Harry R Menefee, Mayer William|
|Original Assignee||I R System Inc|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (10), Classifications (13)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
J1me 1941- A. N. GOLDSMITH EI'AL 2,244,688
ART OF IMAGE FORMATION AND APPARATUS FOR FORMING IMAGES Filed March 16, 1938 5 Sheets-Sheet l \NVENTO R5." pare-a N 62720 5171 off! Harry 2 Man? fa? Mayer I??? kasfrihfl ATTORNEY J n 10, 1941- A. N. GOLDSMITH ETAL 2,244,688
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ART OF IMAGE FORMATION AND APPARATUS FOR FORMING IMAGES Filed March 16, 1938 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 ATTORN EY J1me 1941' A. N. GOLDSMITH ETAL 2,244,588
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ART OF IMAGE FORMATION AND APPARATUS FOR FORMING IMAGES Filed March 16, 1938 5 Sheets-Sheet 5 Ham? 2 Jrcunel Scamqizy q Scunnz'n Ppry'od HRH AT'TORN EY Patented June 10, 1941 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE ART OF IMAGE FORMATION AND APPARA- TUS FOR FORMING IMAGES New York Application March 16, 1938, Serial No. 196,242
Our invention relates to the art of image formotion by means of an optical objective and intermittent photo-illumination of the object space of such objective, particularly where the photo-illumination illuminates one after another regions of an object space spaced different distances from the optical center of the objective along its optical axis.
Our invention is particularly applicable to increased range systems in the art of image formation set forth in an application for Letters Patent of the United States Serial No. 149,078, filed June 19, 1937, wherein regions in the obiect space of an objective lens and at axially different distances therefrom are illuminated to photographic or television intensity one by one, and the rays emanating from the respective regions, as illuminated and converged by the objective lens, have their convergence points shifted by an assembly of transparent plates of different thicknesses, (or equivalent optical devices). Such plates having parallel surfaces or forming afocal lenses we have designated diflos," and they are moved across the optical axis in synchronous relation with the illumination to photo intensity of the respective regions.
We shall use herein the terms photo-illumination or illumination to photo-intensity to indicate rays having an intensity and character that will form an image, as distinguished from shadows, on suitable media, such as the photochemically sensitive surface of motion picture film, the photo-electrically sensitive mosaic of a television iconoscope, a ground glass, or the like, and to differentiate from visual rays capable merely of stimulating the optic nerve or forming an image on the retina.
Such photo-illumination may be of photographic intensity or of television intensity. To be of photographic intensity the light rays must be of an intensity and character sufilcient to cfiect the reduction of the salt of the emulsion on the film during an exposure of one-sixteenth of a second or less. To be of television intensity the light rays must be of an intensity and character sumcient to form an image on the television pickup device of adequate luminosity to produce an electrical output capable of accurate transmission and reproduction of the picture substantially free from objectionable background interference in the picture due to foreign electrical disturbances in the circuits, tubes and photo-electric devices. In practice television intensity is generally from one to ten or more times the light intensity required for photog- 1 raphy on fast emulsions, under similar conditions.
In accordance with the present invention, images are made in cycles each of which is deemed to consist of (a) a photo period and (b) a photo interval.
The photo period as used herein is to be understood as designating the period during which a photo-sensitive surface is subjected to the action of photo-chemically or photo-electrically effective rays, as, for instance, the open shutter.
period of a camera having an intermittently moving film, or during the period when the image forming rays are deflected but little or not at all from the optical axis by the optical rectifier of a camera having a continuously moving film,
or the period when the scanning beam is not scanning the object or scene to be imaged in television, and sometimes called the frame return line period.
The photointerval as used herein is to be understood as defining the period when the photosensitive surface is subjected to no, or negligible, action of photo-chemically or photo-electrically effective actinic rays, as, for instance, during the closed shutter period of a camera having an intermittently moving film, the period when the image rays are bent sharply from the optical axis by the optical rectifier of a camera having a continuously moving film, and the time other than the period designated the frame return-line period when the scanning ray is returning from the terminus to the start of its path in television.
The term regional flash," as used herein, is to be understood as meaning the photo illumination respectively identifiable with one of the several regions of an object space. The complementary action of a regional flash from each region is utilized in producing one composite image unit of the entire object space.
The term visual illumination, as used herein, is to be understood as designating rays which are capable of acting as stimuli to the optic nerves but which are deemed sub-photo rays either because of their character or lack of intensity or their occurrence during a photo interval of a particular photo-sensitive surface.
By our present invention, deleterious effects of regional flashes on the eyes are minimized by providing (a) Groups of regional flashes near the beginning and near the end of the photo period:
(b) Visual illumination during the photo interval.
The regional flashes at the beginning and end of a photo period may emanate from the same light source or may emanate from different light sources, one of which may provide regional illumination from a diflerent angle or intensity or wave characteristic than that provided by the other sources.
The illumination occurring during the photo interval may be of photo intensity and character to activate an additional sensitive surface or surfaces, or may be of an intensity and character to stimulate only the optic nerves. In the latter case, the visual illumination may be equal in duration to the photo interval, or may be of momentary duration midway of the photo interval, or may be a series of flashes at intervals, during the photo interval. For instance, a series of flashes of decreasing intensity may be arranged at the beginning of the photo interval.
When the illumination during the photo interval is solely for the purpose of reducing the deleterious eifect of flicker on the eyes, such illumination is preferably concentrated in the regions occupied by persons, and is preferably, although not necessarily, of sub-photo intensity. Such concentration can be conveniently effected by means of properly timed spot lights having lamps or color filters providing an illumination of the same general color as the photographic illumination and properly coordinated therewith.
When the illumination during the photo interval of one photo apparatus is of photo intensity, our invention contemplateabut does not require, the utilization of a plurality of cameras so coordi nated in operation that the photo period of each camera will coincide with the photo interval of the other camera or cameras. If, for instance. two cameras are used, the photo period of one camera will coincide with the photo interval of the other camera, and vice versa. If three cameras are used, the photo period of the first camera may coincide with the last half of the photo interval of the second camera and with the first half of the photo interval of the third camera; the photo period of the second camera may coincide with the second half of the photo interval of the third camera and the first half of the photo interval of the first camera; and the photo period of the third camera may coincide with the last half of the photo interval of the first camera and with the first half of the photo in terval of the second camera.
For special effects. the duration of the photo periods of the several cameras may be varied relatively to one another and the photo intervals of the respective cameras proportioned accordingly, even though this may involve some slight overlapping of photo illuminations.
Regardless of the number of cameras, our invention contemplates the provision of a lighting system complementary to each camera and the illumination by such systems of regions of the set one after another in any desired order. Our invention further contemplates, in its preferred form, the shifting of convergence points of the rays emanating from each region, along the optical axis of the camera complementary to the lighting system in action, by the diffo or afocal plates of the particular camera complementary to the several regions.
The illumination provided by the different lighting systems may differ in intensity, concentration, diifusion, angularity and distribution of light and a given source of light may be connected with a flashing timer of one or more cameras so that the same lamp may be caused to flash at such times as corresponds to the proper regional focusing of the different cameras.
By having the photo period of one camera interspersed with the photo periods of one or more other cameras, the regional flashes requisite during the photo period of one camera may be so coordinated with the regional flashes requisite during the photo period of another camera or cameras as to provide flashes of such rapidity and constancy that visually perceptible flicker is eliminated and eye strain minimized when the flashes are all of photo intensity.
By our invention, the scene on a set may be very rapidly given different appearances by the rapid variation or alternation of the types of illumination illuminating the several regions, and several cinematographic films of a given scene or action illuminated by the different types of illumination may be taken so as to give different photographic effects, although the performers are going through but a single performance or action.
For instance, a black and white motion picture film may be taken by a series of light flashes of an intensity suitable to the corresponding emulsion, a colored motion picture film may be taken by a series of light flashes of greater intensity suitable to the sensitivity of emulsions of the color film, and a stereoscopic picture may be taken by light flashes of a type and intensity more appropriate for this type of photography.
The groups of light flashes used in making the three types of pictures follow one another so that no one of the films is injured by the series of flashes not intended therefor, and the groups of flashes follow one another with such rapidity as to eliminate perceptible flicker and hence have no effect upon the performers or their acting. Several types of pictures of a given scene or action may be taken from substantially the same viewpoint, or the cameras may be so arranged that several pictures are taken from different viewpoints, or several pictures of the same general type may be taken from different viewpoints, with lenses of different focal lengths, angle of view, location, field of view, etc.
By our improvements the performers are relieved from the effects of flicker and are given perfect freedom of action on the set, with consequent minimizing the acting effort, economy of studio time, and reduction in expense. The production of several different types of pictures, or pictures made under different lighting conditions. of the same scene and action permits the editing and coordination of the several negatives into a film for projection having a desirable variety of photographic effects and a maximum of artistic merit and popular appeal.
While our flashing system of illumination for multiple photography under rapidly varying light conditions may be carried out with standard types of cameras sharply focused on a particular region, its principal advantages and usefulness are found in conjunction with our method of image formation wherein a composite picture of the whole object space of the objective lens is made up mosaically by rays emanating from the different regions of the object space at different times and whose convergence points are displaced from the plane or planes normally functionally resulting from the focal length of the objective lens and the respective distances of the several regions therefrom.
Our present invention relates therefore pri-- marily to embodiments of our increased range systems in which th regions are illuminated by flashing lamps having timed relationships to diflo plates and to the shutter or recti'fler of a camera or the appropriate portion of a scanning cycle of a television pick-up, and a leading object of the present invention is to obviate or minimize the deleterious ocular efl'ects of flicker, and to utilize more eil'ectively all or a large proportion of the flashes produced by forming, upon diflerent photo-chemical or photo-electrical sensitive surfaces, a variety of images of the scene within the object space. Another of the primary objects is to enable multiple photography or television pick-up simultaneously, and with identical or diflerent illuminations therefor.
In the utilization of our improvements in conjunction with cinematographic cameras in which fllm is advanced step by step, the periodical illuminations to photo intensity must. of course, occur while the camera shutter is open to expose the photo-sensitive surface This illumination to photo intensity should not be confused with nonphotographic, visual or ocular illumination which may be provided concurrently with or alternately to the photo illumination to minimize the tiring of the eyes by flicker.
In accordance with one form of the present invention, the set or object space or regions oi the object space are illuminated by the same or complementary flashing lamps during the period when the shutter is closed, as well as during the period when the shutter is open, and the periods of darkness, unilluminated by flashes, are rendered so brief and nearly equal as to be visually imperceptible.
We have found that the periods of darkness (between flashes of illumination) should preferably be as nearly equal as possible, and that the integrated illuminations therebetween should also be as nearly equal as possible. The flicker produced on a surface intermittently illuminated (a) Increases as the brightness of illumination is increased under otherwise identical conditions,
(b) Or (to use an approximately equivalent description) increases as the contrast is increased between the brightness of the illuminated periods and brightness during the relatively dim periods (which latter may be periods of total darkness),
Diminishes when the periods of darkness are diminished in length,
(d) Diminishes when the lengths of the periods of darkness are made nearly or altogether alike,
(e) Diminishes when the lengths of the periods of illumination are made nearly or altogether alike, I
(I) And diminishes when the successive intensitles of illumination are made nearly or altogether alike.
We prefer to describe the flashing and intermittent illumination as balanced" when conditions d, e and I are fulfllled. Accordingly, we propose to reduce flicker in such intermittentillumination systems by observing conditions a, b and c and also balancing" the illumination as described.
When it is desired merely to reduce flicker, in
or shutter openings and the intermittent fllm feeding mechanism that- (a) Two or more groups of lamp flashes are utilized during each period of rest of the fllm and the groups of flashes are occasioned as near the extremities of the fllm rest period or open shutter period as possible, thereby shortening the time between successive groups of flashes;
(b) The intermittent flashes occurring during the fllm rest period or open shutter period are completely or partially duplicated during the fllm movement or closed shutter period, to render more nearly uniform the intervals between the spacing of the intermittent groups of flashes. The flashes occurring during the fllm movement or closed shutter periods may be made as dim as is feasible consistently with the desired reduction of flicker.
(c) During the intervals between the fllm rests or open shutter periods, the portions of the object space occupied by actors who may notice flicker may be illuminated- I. By a steady light of non-photo intensity and emanating from a colored source or having a color fllter providing rays giving a color generally similar to the color of the flashing lights. Such illumination should be so arranged and directed that the actors will receive visually a suitable amount of light from the separate illumination during the negative or non-photographic or closed shutter portions of the exposure cycle to prevent the impression of flicker; the minimum intensity of illumination requisite for this purpose being employed.
2. The separate illumination may be turned on and off in timed relation with the camera shutter so that no illumination from the separate source reaches the set during the active or open shutter portion of the exposure cycle, while the set is being photographed.
The duration of the illumination during the non-photo period of the cycle may be quite widely varied. For instance, a lamp may be turned on at the beginning and turned oil at the end of the non-photo portion of the cycle, or may be turned on and oil! repeatedly during the non-photo portion of the cycle, or may be caused to flash repeatedly but with decreasing intensity during a portion (preferably the early portion) of the non-photo period of the cycle. The required or desired groups of flashes may be all produced from a single group of lamps or from different groups of lamps caused to flash in desired sequence by suitable timer mechanisms, such as described in application Serial No. 149,078, such timers being properly initially coordinated and being maintained in coordination by suitable synchronous motors or other appropriate means.
By suitable coordination of the timer contacts, the rate of flashing during the photo period of the cycle may be caused to exceed the number of flashes during the non-photo period of the cycle without giving an impression of flicker, if the flashes occur at a sufliciently rapid rate. For instance, (for each region in the object space) there may be forty-eight flashes per second during the photo periods of the cycle and twenty-four flashes per second during the nonphoto periods of the cycle. Since the cycle itself ordinarily consumes but one-twenty-fourth s) of a second or less the intervals between any of the flashes are too small for visual perception. Similarly, the intensity of the flashes occurring during the photo period of the cycle may exceed the intensity of the flashes occurring during the non-photo period of the cycle.
In addition to their elimination of flicker, the flashes occurring during the non-photo intervals of one camera or image-forming unit may he suitably timed and made of sufficient intensity to provide photo illumination for one or more additional photo-chemically or photo-electrically sensitive surfaces of supplementary image-form ing units, such as cameras or television pick-ups having a mosaic scanned by a moving electron beam.
In such cases, the timing of the flashes for illuminating the different regions is so coordi nated with the movements of the diifo plates and photo intervals of the several units that one set of flashes activates the sensitive surface of the film of one unit and another set of flashes activates the sensitized surface or film of a second unit, and so on for as many different imageforming units as may be desired. The cameras are so interconnected, either mechanically or electrically, as, for example, by synchronized motor operation, that the photo period of one unit occurs wholly or primarily during the non photo period of the other unit or units. The operation and focus of the two units may be entirely independent excepting for the relationship of the timing of the photo periods to the flashes, and hence one unit may be used to take a close=- up, and another unit may be used to take a medium or long shot, or a picture may be taken from some particular desired angle and with any de- ,sired distribution of illumination in the object space in each instance. Such distribution may, in practice, be different and suited to the correct lighting of the corresponding view. Of course, the several units may be combined in a single casing to form a composite camera or combined camera and television mechanism, or each photographic unit may be separately encased.
It will be noted that by our improvements it is possible to photograph simultaneously a given scene in action from a multiplicity of different viewpoints and focal lengths, and such effectively simultaneous photography of a given scene oraction may be taken with diiferent types of illumination since the flashes illuminating one photo-sensitive surface are entirely or substantially excluded from the other photo-sensitive surfaces and may differ materially from the flashes which actuate such other photo-sensitive surfaces.
All of the pictures may be made in sharp focus from front to rear of the set, or portions of the set may be photographed soft" by properly proportioning optical constants, e. g., the thickness of the diifo plates controlling the illumination from a particular region, as set out in our aforesaid application. Not only may one set of pietures be black and white, another set be photographed in color, and a third set be stereoscopic pictures, but one set of pictures may be made by nearly uniform flood lighting giving a low-key picture, while another set may be made by markedly non-uniform lighting giving contrasting or harsh effects, all as desired. Since the pictures of each set alternate with the pictures of the other set or sets, they may be interpolated therein in printing without detriment to the continuity. Further, sound which is recorded during such multiple photography is in synchronism with each set of pictures, and thus film cutting and editing is facilitated.
By our increased range system, the freedom of the movements of actors on a set without going out of focus is greatly increased, in fact, there is practically no limitation on freedom of movement. The simultaneous production of multiple aaeaees sets of pictures in identical time-coordination with one another and with the action and sound recording, but taken under different lighting conditions, renders it possible to modify the composite effect on the screen by suitable selection of pictures from each set in the printing, cutting, or reviewing room.
The characteristic features and advantages of our improvements will further appear from the following description and the accompanying drawings in illustration thereof.
In the drawings,
Fig. 1 is a diagrammatic top plan view of a set which comprises a number of regions independently illuminated by sets of flashing lamps suitably disposed for desired types of lighting in each instance and coordinated with a plurality of image-forming units, each having objectives and diffos comprising sets of afccal plates or plates with parallel surfaces and of different thicknesses through which light from the respective regions is transmitted to photo-chemical or -photo-electrical surfaces to form composite pictures of the set which forms the object space of each objective;
Fig. 2 is a perspective view illustrating diagrammatically the sequence of objective, diifo, and photo-sensitive surface utilized when the image-forming units are photographic cameras;
Fig. 3 is a diagrammatic view illustrating the relationship of the flashes illuminating the several regions to the exposed and unexposed light sensitive surfaces of the respective units, illustrating diagrammatically the co-ordination of the flashes with the photo periods and photo intervals of the photo units;
Fig. 4 illustrates diagrammatically a set having a plurality of regions each of which may be illuminated in turn by light of different intensity, wave length, angle, concentration or diffusion, the light sources being connected in timed relation with photo units viewing the set from different positions at different angles and through objectives of different focal lengths;
Fig. 5 illustrates diagrammatically the co-ordination of the flashes of the different sets of lamps of Fig. i with respective photo units during the exposure and non-exposure of the sensitive surfaces of such units;
Fig. 6 illustrates diagrammatically a set having regions each of which is illuminated in sequence from different light; sources to permit the sequential photographing of all of the regions comprised in the object space of each of the photo units having objectives trained on the principal center of interest of the set;
Fig. 7 is a diagrammatic view illustrating one method of co-ordinating the flashes illuminating the respective regions with the several photo units;
Fig. 8 is a diagrammatic view illustrating a second method of co-ordinating the light flashes i1- luminating the respective regions with the several photo units so that the sensitive surface of a unit receives two distinct activations from each region of its object space during a single exposure of the sensitive surface of such unit;
Figs. 9 to 15 illustrate diagrammatically various suitable arrangements of flashing to minimize flicker when only a single photo unit is in action;
Figs. 16 and 17 illustrate diagrammatically the adaptation of our invention to a camera having a continuously moving film, and
Figs. 18 to 2G illustrate diagrammatically the ing the mosaic of a television iconoscope as the light sensitive surface to which light is passed from the various regions of a set through an objective and diffo.
As illustrated in Figs. 1 to 3 of the drawings, a studio stage or set I is provided with a set of sequentially flashing lamps 2, 2, 4 and i which may be provided with suitable reflectors (not shown) to confine the light directed downwardly from the respective lamps substantially to the foreground region 2, middle foreground region I, middle background region 2, and background region I of the set, these regions extending transversely across the set and following one another in sequence from the front to the rear of the set.
The set is provided with a second set of sequentially flashing lamps 2a, 2a, la, and 2a having suitable reflectors (not shown) for confining the light directed downwardly from these lamps substantially to regions extending diagonally of the set and comprising the diagonal foreground is, diagonal middle foreground Ia, diagonal middle background to and diagonal background 9a.
A plurality of concurrently acting lamps, instead of a single lamp, may be provided for any or all of the regions as illustrated, for instance for the illumination of the diagonal background region 20.
The flashing lamps may be of known type, as, for instance, lamps havinggas filled bulbs of considerable length through which a high voltage current is discharged controllably at specified times so as to produce a number of flashes per second, each fiash being, in general, of but a few tens of micro-seconds duration but of high lumen output per fiash. It is generally preferable to use lamps capable of making at least forty-eight flashes per second and of very high luminous output per fiash.
The current for illuminating the lamps 2, 2, 4 and i is supplied from high voltage sources such as power-charged condensers III, II, I2 and I! connected with the terminals of the lamps but requiring an inciter or tickler current to initiate the fiash. The timing of the dashing of the lamps 2, 2, l and I is controlled by the supply of inciter or tickler high voltage surges. These surges are transmitted from the secondaries of high tension ignition coils in the transformer assembly it through the respective conductors II, II, II and I2 to the respective electrodes is. 22, 2i and 22 contacting with the lamp tubes intermediate the ends thereof. The surges in the secondaries of the coils may be induced by making and breaking primary circuits 22, 24, 25 and 22, each containing a battery source and each connected with make and break contacts of a timer 2!. The timer is'operated to make and break the cincuits 22, 24, 25 and 26 in desired sequence by a synchronous motor 12 which drives the main shaft 22 of a cinematographic camera 22 for advancing the sensitized film 2| thereof step by step in synchronism with the rotation of the diffo 22 which may supplant the ordinary camera shutter or be coordinated therewith. The diifo 22 has an opaque segment 22 which shuts off any light from the film 2| during the intermittent movement of such film, and a segment containing the transparent plates 24, 2|, 22 and 21 which pass in front of the film gate while a section of the film 2i is stationary in smh gate. The plates 24, 25, 22 and 21 are of different thicknesses and may have parallel surfaces or may be afocal lenses having no image-forming capacity but which are capable of shifting in a direction approximately parallel to themselves and to the optical axis groups of image rays converged toward the plane of the film 2| by the objective 22, or may be any substantially equivalent optical system. Tins objective has as its object space all of the set lying within its field of view indicated by the lines extending from the objective to the points 29 and 42.
The diflo 22 and timer 21 are operated by the synchronous motor 22 so that the difio plate 24 is in the optical axis of the objective 2! when the lamp 2 is flashed. The diifo plate 22 is in the optical axis of the objective 22 when the lamp 2 is flashed. The diflo plate 26 is in the optical axis of the objective 22 when the lamp 4 is flashed, and the difio plate 21 is in the optical axis of the objective 22 when the lamp 5 is flashed.
It is obvious that the convergence points of rays emanating from the regions 8, I, I and 9 during the illumination thereof by the flashes of the respective lamps 2, 2, l and 5 would ordinarily lie in diflerent planes after passin through the objective 22, since each such region would have its complementary image. plane. But by the interposition of the diflo plates the convergence points are shifted by displacing the converging rays parallel to themselves and to the optical axis of the objective proportionately to the distances between the image planes naturally conjugate to the respective regions, the diifo plates having thicknesses proportionate to the requisite displacements necessary.
1 The current for illuminating the lamps 2a, 2a, 4a and is is similarly supplied from high voltage sources, such as power-charged condensers Ila, Ila, Ho and I2a connected with the terminals of the lamps, the flash of the lamps being initiated by high voltage inciter or tickler current transmitted from the secondary of high tension ignition coils in the transformer assembly Ila through the respective conductors Iia, lia, I'la and Ila. These conductors have electrodes Isa, 22a, Ma and 22a fixed on the ends thereof and contacting with the lamp tubes of the lamps intermediate of the ends of such tubes.
The surges may be induced in the secondaries of the coils in the transformer assembly Ila by making and breaking primary circuits 22a, 24a, 25a and 22a, such circuits including the primaries of the coils, a battery source and make and break contacts of a timer 21a. This timer is operated to make and break the circuits 22a, 24a, 2la and 26a in desired sequence by a syn-. chronous motor 22a supplied from the same source of alternating current as the synchronous motor 22. The synchronous motor 280 drives the main shaft 22a of a camera 20a having a difl'o 22a operated in synchronism with the Geneva movement (not shown) for moving the film 2Ia step by step. The camera 20a has an objective 22a by which rays emanating from the regions la, la, la and 2a are focused.
The diifo 22a is provided with diflo pla'tes similar to the difi'o plates of the difl'o 22 and of suitable relative thicknesses to shift the convergence points of rays emanating from the respective regions 6a, la, la and 9a parallel to themselves and to the optical axis of the objective so that the planm of the convergence points of rays emanating from the respective regions are brought into accurate registration with the light sensitive emulsion on the film 2Ia as the difl'o plates are moved into the optical axis of the objective one after another.
The contacts of the timer 21a are correlated to the positions oi the respective diifo plates so as to cause a flash of the lamp when the thinnest difl'o plate is in the optical axis, to cause a flash of the lamp 311 when the next thicker difio plate is in the optical axis, to cause a flash of the lamp 4a when the next thicker difl'o plate is in the optical axis. and to cause a flash of the lamp 5a when the thickest difio plate is in the optical axis.
The synchronous motors 28 and 28a and their connected parts are initially so positioned that the flashes produced by the action of the timer 21 alternate as a group with the flashes produced by the action of the timer 21a and the diflo plates of the diffo 32 register with the optical axis of the objective 38 when the opaque portion of the difl'o 32a registers with the optical axis of the objective 38a, and vice versa. The
synchronous motors maintain the initially established relation of the parts. Hence, as indicated diagrammatically in Fig. 3, during the flash produced by the lamp 2 the diffo plate 34 passes image rays emanating from the region 6 and converged by the objective 38 to the plane of the film 3|; during the flash produced by the lamp 3 the difio plate passes image rays emanating from the region I and converged by the objective 38 to the plane of the film 3|; during the flash produced by the lamp 4 the difi'o plate 35 passes image rays emanating from the region 8 and converged by the objective 38 to the plane of the film 3|; and during the flash produced by the lamp 5 the diffo plate 31 passes image rays emanating from the region 9 and converged by the objective 38 to the plane of the film 3|. During all this period the opaque portion 33a of the diffo 32a prevents the passage of any light to the film 3|a and the lamps 2a, 3a, 4a and 5a are not lighted.
After the lamp 5 has flashed, the opaque portion 33 of the diff-o 32 shuts off the passage of light to the film 3|. Thereupon, the action of the timer 21a causes a flash from the lamp 2a which illuminates the diagonal foreground region 6a and the rays emanating therefrom are converged by the objective 38a, and are displaced parallel to themselves by the thin diflo plate so that the plane of their convergence point coincides with the sensitive emulsion on the film 3|a. Thereafter, the action of the timer 21a causes a flash of the lamp 3a which illuminates the diagonal middleforeground la and the rays therefrom passing through the objective 38a are converged towards image points and in passing through the diffo plate are displaced so that the plane of their convergence point coincides with the emulsion on the film 3|a. Thereafter the action of the timer 21a causes a flash of the lamp 4a to illuminate the diagonal middle background region 8a, and the rays therefrom passing through the objective 38a are converged towards image points and are displaced by the diifo plate so that the plane of their convergence point coincides with the sensitive emulsion on the film 3| a; thereafter the action of the timer 21a causes a flash of the lamps 5a to illuminate the diagonal background region 8a, and the rays therefrom passing through the objective 38a are converged toward image points and displaced by the difio plate so that the plane of their convergence point coincides with the emulsion on the film 3|a.
It will be understood that the respective lamps provide illumination of photo intensity only for the respective regions to which they are appurtenant so that each region is individually and sharply photographed on the film and the photographs of all of the regions of one group or series are photographed upon a film section from a single frame or picture unit in the photo period of one camera to form amosaic picture of the whole set which is in sharp focus throughout. Thereafter, during the photo interval of the first camera, the second camera similarly photographs on a film section equal to a single frame or picture unit a sharp image of each diagonal region one at a time so that during the photo period of the second camera a mosaic picture of the entire object space is made which is sharp throughout.
The photo period of each camera should not exceed one-sixteenth (1 of a second in duration and ordinarily will not exceed one-twentyfourth (1%) of a second in duration and the multiple flashes during each photo period are consequently so rapid as to be visually indistinguishable from one another. The photo period of one camera coincides with the photo interval of the other camera and hence there is a substantially continuous flashing at a rate so rapid as to be substantially indistinguishable visually, particularly where the flashes of each group are balanced and the groups of flashes are balanced.
A conventional photographic sound recorder comprising a microphone I00 near the set and connected with a recorder |02 provides for the recording of sound from the set in synchronism with each set of pictures produced by the cameras 30 and 30A.
In Figs. 4 and 5, we have illustrated diagrammatically a set-up of three cameras 40, 4| and 42. The camera 40 has an appurtenant set of flashing lamps 40a, 40b, 40c and 40d; the camera 4| has an appurtenant set of lamps 4|a, 4|b, 4|c and Md; and the camera 42 has an appurtenant set of lamps 42a, 42b, 42c and 42d. The lamps 40a, Ho and 42a each illuminate to photo intensity the foreground 6, the lamps 40b, 4|b
and 42b each illuminate to photo intensity the middle foreground the lamps 400, He and 420 each illuminate to photo intensity the middle background 8, and the lamps 40d, 4|d and 42 each illuminate to photo intensity the background 9. The groups of lamps appurtenant to the respective cameras may illuminate the several regions from different angles to different intensity and with different colors so that each camera may not only view the set from a diflerent angle and distance and through a lens of different focal length, but also views the set under difierent lighting conditions.
Each camera, of course, is provided with an objective, diflo, intermittent fllm mechanism, motor, and timer, such as above described. The difio and timer of the camera 48 are so arranged that the respective flashes of the lamps appurtenant to this camera occur when the proper plates of its diifo are in registration with its objective and while the opaque portions of the diffos of the cameras 4| and 42 are in registration with their objectives respectively. The difio and timer of the camera 4| are so arranged that the respective flashes of its appurtenant lamps 4|a, 4|b, 4|c and 4|d occur while the appropriate plates of its diifo are respectively in registration with its objective and while the opaque portions of the diifo of the cameras 4| and 42 are in registration with their respective objeca,a44,oaa end "closed" and indlcated the flashes of the tives. The diflo and timer of the camera 42 are so arranged that the respective flashes of the lamps 42a, 42b, 42c and 42d appurtenant to this camera occur while its appropriate diflo plates are in registration with its objective and while the opaque portions of the diflo plates II and ti are respectively in registration with the objectives of these cameras.
In Figs. 6, 7 and 8 we have illustrated diagrammaticaliy an arrangement of four cameras II, ll, 52 and it each focused from a different position upon a set having a center of interest at the point 54. ,Each of the cameras is provided with an objective, diflo, film mechanism, synchronous motor and timer, such as above described, and has appurtenant thereto a set of flashing lamps arranged to illuminate one after another the respective regions of the object spaces of the objectives of the respective cameras, the center of interest lying at a point common to all such object spaces.
The timer, contacts and difl'os of the respective cameras may be arranged as indicated in Fig. 7 in which the flashes of all flve of the lamps Ila, Iilb, 60c, 50d, and tile appurtenant to the camera it occur one after another while the appropriate diflo-plates of the five-plate diffo of the camera 50 register sequentially with its objective and the opaque portions of the diflos of the cameras ii, 52 and 53 register with the respective objectives of these cameras. Similarly each of the five lamps iiia, Bib, iilc. Sid and ie, appurtenant to the camera 6i, flash one after another while the appropriate diflo plates of this camera register one after another with the objective of the camera 5i and the opaque portions of the difio plates of the remaining cameras 50, 52 and 53 register with the respective objectives thereof.-
Similarly the five flashing lamps 52a, 52b, 52c, 52d, 2e appurtenant to the camera 52 flash one after another while the appropriate diflo plates of the camera 52 register one after another with its objective and the opaque portions of the diffo plates of the remaining cameras 56, 5i and 53 register with their respective objectives. Similarly the five flashing lamps 53a, 53b, 53c, 53d and 53s appurtenant the camera 53 flash one after another while the appropriate diffo plates of this camera register one after another with its objective and the opaque portions of the diffo plates of the remaining cameras 50, 5i and 52 register with their respective objectives.
If desired, the number of contacts in each timer and the speed thereof may be increased so that two complete sets of fiashes of each set of lamps occur during the photo period of each camera so that each frame is subjected to a double impression of every region before the film is moved to bring a new frame into place, as shown in Fig. 8.
It is not of course necessary that each camera should take pictures of all of the regions in its object space, nor is it necessary that all of the cameras should be in action, for the lamps ordinarily appurtenant-to some of the cameras may be utilized to provide fiashes merely for the purpose of reducing flicker. Or all the cameras but one may be omitted entirely and any number of timers and lamp equipments appurtenant thereto may be synchronized with one or more cameras in action to produce a wide variety of sequence of flashes, such as are illustrated in Figs. 9 to 15, inclusive. In these figures we have indicated the photo period of the camera by the legend open and the photo interval of the camera by the leglamps by vertical lines. When but a single camera is in action, it is desirable that only the flashes occurring during the photo period be of photo intensity. The flashes during the photo interval may be of sub-photo intensity, via, merely visual and may be of considerable duration midway of the photographic interval, as illustrated in Fig. 9; or be flashed midway of the photographic interval, as indicated in Fig. 10; or may consist of two or more flashes during the photographic interval as indicated in Figs. 10, ll, 12 and 13; or may be segregated at the beginning of the non-photo interval and of decreasing intensity, as indicated in Fig. 14, or may be entirely omitted during the photo interval and arranged in groups at the beginning and end of the photo period, as indicated in Fig. 15.
It is not necessary that the film should be moved intermittently as our invention is applicable to motion picture cameras having a continuously moving film, as for instance, cameras of the type shown in Patent No. 2,055,492 and Patent No. 2,056,966. In such cameras the maximum of light is transmitted to the film when parallel faces of the rectifier 60 are parallel with the continuously moving film 6i passing through the film gate 62, which is preferably twice the height of a single frame. In such case a diffo 63 is interposed between the copying lens 64 and the film, and the regions forming the object space of the camera's objective 65 are flashed one after another while the center of the picture is traveling from substantially the point B to substantially the point D or any lesser distance centering on C and physical illumination to prevent flicker is flashed while the center of the picture is moving from the point C to the point E, or any lesser distance centering on D, as indicated in Fig. 17.
In lieu of converging the image formed by an objective of a camera on a sensitized film, as indicated in Figs. 1 to 1'7, inclusive, an image may be focused by an objective Ill upon the mosaic ll of a television iconoscope I2, the image forming rays converged by the objective Ill being displaced parallel to themselves and to the optical axis by a difio 13 having plates of different thicknesses which respectively register with the objective 10 in synchronism with the flashing of lights illuminating the different regions of the set forming the object space of the objective 10. A stream of electrons projected from an electron gun 14 and controlled by two pairs of deflection plates 15, I6, 16' and 11 scans the mosaic of a line at a time, as indicated in Fig. 19, and the output of the iconoscope is withdrawn and passes from the conductor 18 into the television transmitter which it controls. The scanning of the mosaic may be considered as starting at the upper left hand corner of the picture, as indicated in Fig. 19, and sweeps across the picture one line after another from left to right, the electron stream being blanked out or rendered inactive during the return from the right to the left hand side of the picture. When the scanning stream has reached the lower right hand edge of the picture, the electron stream is again blanked out during the period necessary for its return to the upper right hand edge of the picture. This interval between the end of one scanning operation and the beginning of another scanning operation is kown as the frame return line or blanking period. In accordance with our invention, the regions of an object space of the objective iii are photoilluminated one after another during the blanking period by flashes of television intensity, as indicated in Fig. 20, so as to provide on the mosaic ll during this frame return line period a composite and electrically stored picture of all the regions of the object space one after another and all in sharp focus. During the following scanning period, the object space, or so much thereof as is occupied by performers is illuminated by flashes of visual intensity (preferably photo-electrically inactive) so as to eliminate the elect of flicker on the eyes of the performers.
Having described our invention. we claim:
- 1. In the art of dioptric image formation from a scene having objects in a plurality of regions at different distances from each of a plurality of objectives in the direction of the respective optical axes thereof, the steps which include illuminating the scene to photo-intensity regionally and one region at a time in regions substantially normal to the optical axis of one objective and then illuminating the scene to photo-intensity regionally and one region at a time in regions substantially normal to the optical axes of the other'objective, dioptrically converging toward an image plane and one after another image rays from the group of regions flrst illuminated and then dioptrically converging toward a second image plane transverse to the first imge plane andone after another image rays from the group of regions secondly illuminated, image rays from the first group of regions forming a composite pictorial image of all the regions of the scene and image rays from the second group of regions forming a composite pictorial image of all the regions of the scene but from a difierent angle.
2. In the art of dioptric image formation from a scene containing a plurality of objects in the object space of each of a pluraltiy of objectives having optical axes intersecting one another within the scene,the steps which include illuminating said scene regionally and one region at a time by a plurality of groups of light flashes, said light flashes together providing photo-periods of similar duration and intensities and photo-intervals of similar duration and at rates obviating visually perceptible flicker, dioptrically converging toward an image plane normal to one of said optical axes image rays resulting from said illumination by one group of flashes, and dioptrically converging toward an image plane normal to another of said optical axes image rays resulting from said illumination by a second group of flashes, the passage of image rays to each of said planes being interrupted during the passage of image rays to the other of said planes, and varying the normal back focal length of the image rays converged from one region relatively to the back focal length of the image rays converged from another region toward each of said planes.
3. The combination with a set, of means for photo-illuminating one after another and only one at :a time parallel regions extending across said set, means for photo-illuminating one after another and only one at a time parallel regions extending diagonally of said set at an angle to the regions first named, the illuminations of the first named regions alternating with the illuminations of the second named regions, a photounit having an objective with an object space ineluding said flrst named regions and means for varying the back focal distances of the respective images formed upon the illumination of the respective regions first named, in a predetermined relation to the distances of the respective regions from the objective of the flrst photo-unit, a second photo unit having an objective with an object space including said second named regions, means for v rying the back focal distances of the respective images formed upon the illumination of the respective regions second named in a predetermined relation to the distances of the respective regions from the objective of the second photo-unit, and means for alternately interrupting the passage of illumination from the first named means to the image plane of the objective of the second photo-unit and for interrupting the passage of illumination from the second named illuminating means to the image plane of the objective of the first named photo-unit.
4. The combination with a plurality of photo units each including an objective, each unit also including means for systematically axially displacing images formed by its objecitve, and each unit also including means for supporting a sensitive surface to receive images formed by its objective, of groups of light flashers illuminating.
respectively regions spaced along the optical axis of the respective objectives, and means for synchronizing the position of one image displacing means with the flashes of one group and the positon of the other image displacing means with the flashes of the other group, said flashes illuminating only one of said regions at a time to photo intensity the image displacement power of each image displacing means in its severai'positions being functionally related to the distances of the respective regions illuminated by the flashes synchronized therewith and compensating for the differences in the locations of the regions that are so illuminated.
5. The combination with a photo unit having an objective, an electro photo-sensitive surface and scanning means, means for operating said unit in a cycle providing a photo period and a photo interval, light flashing means, timing mechanism for flashing said means during said photo period and during said photo interval, and a series of transparent plates of different thicknesses movable sequentially between said surface and light flashing means in complementary timed relation to the flashes occurring during each photo-period.
6. The combination with a camera having an objective, means for moving a film continuously and a piano-parallel rotating block through which image forming rays from said objective are transmitted to said film, of a set" in the object space of said objective and means coordinated with the rotation of said block to provide photo-illumination of the set" in said object space of said objective while surfaces of said block aresubstantially parallel with said film and to provide decreased illumination of said ;set" when an angle of said block is nearest said ALFRED N. GOLDSMITH.
HARRY R. MENEF'EE. WILLIAM MAYER. FRITZ KASTILAN.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
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|US2539498 *||Sep 18, 1947||Jan 30, 1951||Waller John V||Method of preparing cinema film to depict repetitive variation of subject|
|US2610246 *||Dec 30, 1949||Sep 9, 1952||Rca Corp||Composite picture television|
|US2628274 *||Feb 20, 1946||Feb 10, 1953||Homrighous John H||Multiplex television system|
|US2661652 *||Oct 10, 1949||Dec 8, 1953||Martin E Evans||Motion-picture apparatus and method|
|US2702312 *||Oct 3, 1949||Feb 15, 1955||Columbia Pictures Corp||Lighting for television|
|US2784248 *||Mar 3, 1950||Mar 5, 1957||Columbia Pictures Corp||Lighting system in taking moving pictures and in television system|
|US3826557 *||Dec 4, 1972||Jul 30, 1974||Redifon Ltd||Illuminating and imaging system for optical probe|
|US4782386 *||Mar 4, 1987||Nov 1, 1988||Richard Wolf Gmbh||Video endoscope with a light source operable in a continuous or stroboscopic mode|
|US4807291 *||Oct 10, 1986||Feb 21, 1989||Richard Wolf Gmbh||Circuit for a flash stroboscope for examining vocal chord functions|
|U.S. Classification||352/49, 348/64, 348/38, 348/371, 348/722, 352/88, 352/133|
|International Classification||G03B15/06, G03B35/00|
|Cooperative Classification||G03B15/06, G03B35/00|
|European Classification||G03B15/06, G03B35/00|