US 2245900 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 17,1941. H, CA 'EW 2,245,900
METHOD OF MAKING PAPER CUPS Filed Aug. 12, 1938 6 sheetssheet l June 17, 1941. H. CAREW METHOD OF MAKING PAPER CUPS Filed Aug. 12, 1938 s Sheets-Sheet z June 17, 1941. H, A 2,245,900
METHOD OF MAKING PAPER curs Filed Aug. 12, 1938 6 Sheets-Sheet s June 17, 19.41. H1 CAREW 2,245,900
METHOD OFMAK ING PAPER CUPS Filed-Au 12, 1938 e Sheets-Sheet 4 June 17, 1941. CAREW I METHOD OF MAKING PAPER CUPS Filed Aug. 12, 1938 6 Sheets-Sheet 5 HERMAN 64.25%.
June-l7, 1941. c w 2,245,900
METHOD OF MAKING PAPER CUPS Filed Aug. 12, 1938 GSheeztS-PSheet 6 25 11, A r q TLEii/Z:
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METHOD OF MAKING PAPER CUPS \Herman Cal-cw, Easton, Pa., to Dixie- Vortex Company, Chicago, 111., a corporation of Delaware Application August 12, 193s, Serial No. 224,480
This invention relates to improvements in a method of making paper cups, the invention being highly desirable for use in connection with the manufacture of paper containers of the character of drinking cups, ice cream cups or wrappers, and similar devices made sufilciently economical to warrant disposition of a cup or container after a single usage, although the invention may have other uses and purposes as will be apparent to one skilled in the art. I,
In the manufacture of containers, such as paper drinking and ice cream cups, it is essential that economy of production be practiced to as great an extent as possible without sacrificing the the eiilciency and stability of the resultant container. Certain essentials of economy of production are economy of the stock used in making the container, and simplicity in the forming of a blank of stock into a cup or container. In other words, it is desirable to form a cup so as to use and waste a minimum amount of stock, and at the same time form a blank into cup shape with as few operations and in as simple a manner as possible.
In order to practice economy of material, it is desirable to have the blank in a very simple form, with the elimination of projecting portions and like configurations. It is preferable to have the blank substantially symmetrical to the extent that if folded on a median line, the two side portions will coincide with each other. To effect simple formation of the blank into a cup, it is desirable to cut the blank from the end of a substantially continuous stock strip and the blank is also preferably of a shape to facilitate its cutting from a stock strip with a minimum of waste material.
In the past, all of the methods of forming a.'
container of substantially true conical shape, of which I am aware, consistedof winding the blank around a rotatable forming element or mandrel, after applying glue to the blank, and then winding the projecting portion of the blank around the apex of the formed cup, with a presser element acting externally of the blank upon the mandrel. The cup was completely formed on the rotating mandrel, and when ejected or otherwise removed from the mandrel it was in its finished state, and consequently the cup had to be on the mandrel a sufllcient length of time for the adhesive joining overlapping portions of the blank to set to a very material degree.
With the foregoing in mind, it is an important object of the present invention to provide a method of making a paper cup of a given size from less material than any container of the same size of which I am aware has been made heretofore.
Another object of the invention is the provision of a method of making a paper cup of substantially true conical shape, with overlapped marginal portions, and maintaining the width of overlap substantially the same throughout the length of the container.
A further object of the invention is the provision of an extremely economical method of making a conical paper cup with a minimum of material and by simple process steps.
Another object of the invention is the provision of a method of making a paper cup of substantially true conical shape, without resort to a rotary winding of a blank around a forming element, but merely by carrying the blank in a nonrotating manner along a predetermined path and shaping it into a cup during its course of travel.
Also an object of the invention is the provision of a method of making a paper cup including the step of relying upon previously formed cups as ameans for completing the formation of each succeeding cup.
The invention also includes the method step of holding previously formed containers under radial compression, and forcibly jamming a newly formed container into nested relationship with the previously formed containers to complete the formation of the new container.
A further object of the invention is the provision of the method step of fixedly holding a blank of stock, moving the blank along a predetermined path which leads directly into a stack of previously formed and nested cups, and formingthe blank into a cup during its travel alon said path.
The invention also contemplates the method steps of severing a blank from a stock ribbon, fixedly holding the blank, moving it along a substantially straight path directly into forceful nested engagement with previously formed containers, and shaping the blank into a container during its course of travel along said path.
My novel method also includes the steps of severing a blank from a stock ribbon, applying adhesive to the severed blank, fixedly holding the blank and carrying it along a predetermined path, shaping it around a forming element during its course of travel in the path so that overlapped marginal portions are engaged by the applied adhesive, and then jamming the container tightly into previously formed containers to cause a proper setting of the adhesive and uniting of the overlapped parts.
The method herein embodied also includes the novel steps offcutting a symmetrical blank, fixedly holding the blank centrally thereof, advancing the blank along a straight path directly into engagement with previously formed cups,
and shaping the blank into conical form during its course of travel along the path, relying upon the previously formed cups to complete the shaping of the blank especially near the apex.
While some of the more salient features, characteristics and advantages of my novel method have been above pointed out, others will become apparent from the following disclosures taken in conjunction with the accompanying drawings, which in general illustrate one form of mechanism capable of performing the method herein set forth as well as certain steps in the process of forming apaper cup, and in which:
Figure 1 is a fragmentary top plan view of a portion of the mechanism, illustrating the feeding of the stock ribbon and the cutting of the blank;
Figure 2 is a vertical sectional view, with parts in elevation, taken substantially as indicated by the line 11-11 of Figure 1, illustrating the start of the forming operation;
Figure 3 is an enlarged plan view, somewhat diagrammatic in character, illustrating the disposition of the blank at the start of the forming operation;
Figure 4 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view taken substantially a indicated by the line IV-IV of Figure 3, with the blank shown in elevation;
Figure 5 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view taken substantially as indicated by the staggered section line V-V of Figure 4;
Figure 6 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view similar in location to Figure 5, but illustrating the next step in the formationof the blank;
Figure 7 i a fragmentary vertical sectional view illustrating a further step in the shaping of the blank into conical form with overlapping marginal portions;
Figure 8 is a vertical sectional view similar in location to Figure 5, illustrating the blank with the overlapped marginal portions held by adhesive, just prior to the finishing operation;
Figure 9 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view illustrating the finishing operation in the forming of the blank when the blank is forcibly nested into previously formed containers held under compression;
Figure 10 is a vertical sectional view illustrating in diagrammatic and exploded fashion the operation of Figure 9;
Figure 11 is a plan view of the finished container;
Figure 12 is a side elevational view of the container; and
Figure 13 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view through the apexial region of the finished container, taken substantially as indicated by the line XIII-)HII of Figure 12.
As shown on the drawings:
By way of presentation, the method embodied in this invention is herein set forth in connection with the making of a paper drinking or ice cream cup of substantially true conical shape. It will be appreciated that in the practice of the method, the containers are not limited to size, but may be made in various sizes, and the exact shape of the blank utilized to form the cup or container may be varied in contoursas will be apparent to one skilled in the art. For illustrative purposes, however, the method is described in connection with the making of a new and novel container embodying the new and novel blank which is more fully set forth, described and claimed in my copending application for U. S. Letter Patent, entitled "Container and blank therefor," filed September 9, 1937, Serial No. 162,968.
In order to'present the method in a clear manner, certain portions of one form of machine capable of practicing the method are illustrated in the accompanying drawings, this particular machine being more fully set forth, described and claimed in my oopending application for U. S. Letters Patent entitled Container making machines, flied August 12, 1938, Serial No. 224,479.
The method in general The paper stock is fed along in a substantially continuous ribbon from a suitable source of supply. such as a roll of stock of proper width. This paper stock may be of paper of the character commonly used in the manufacture of paper drinking and ice cream cups, preferably of the so-called dry wax type. in which the paper is impregnated with a waterproofing medium not visible on the surface of the paper.
Blanks are successively severed from the leading end of the stock ribbon, and very soon after its severance a blank is provided with a stripe of adhesive adjacent a side edge thereof. The blank is next elevated and firmly gripped, prefer ably centrally of the blank, preparatory to its start along a predetermined path ending in a nested stack of previously formed cups.
The path of travel of the blank, which in this instance is along a straight line, is relatively short. During its travel along this path, the side portions of the blank are first elevated, and folded over into conical shape, with the margin adjacent one side edge underlying the margin adjacent the other side edge. These margins are secured together by the adhesive previously applied to the blank. After the blank is thus formed into conical shape with overlapped marginal portions adhesively joined, the shaped blank is forcibly nested in the stack of previously formed cups at the end of it path of travel. A portion of this stack of previously formed cups is held under compression, that is, the cups are not permitted to expand to their full dimensions at the mouth end thereof. The forcible nesting of the newly formed blank insures the adequate adhesion of the overlapped marginal portions of the blank and also the sealing of the apexial portion of the cup, so that the cup will not leak when containing a liquid.
The cup is maintained in such nested position for a reasonable length of time suflicient to insure the setting of the adhesive, and then as each succeeding cup is forced into nested relationship, a previously formed cup is gradually moved out of the compression region and permitted, due to its own resiliency, to expand to its full size. Consequently, the cups ultimately become loosely nested, so that there will subsequently be no trouble in properly dispensing the containers one at a time.
It will be appreciated that in the event the cup is to be utilized as a drinking cup, the adhesive will be of a character to firmly unite the over lapped marginal portions and positively seal the apexial region of the cup. On the other hand, ifthecupis tobeusedasanicecream wrapper to be subsequently stripped from its frozen contents at the time of serving, it will be appreciated that the adhesive may be of the character of a crystalizing glue. This crystalizing glue may be applied either in the nature of a straight line or lines, or it may be applied in spaced dabs, whichever is deemed most expedient. When set, the crystalizing glue will hold the overlapped marginal portion together sufliciently to maintain the shape of the conical cup, but the glue will be insufiicient in strength to prevent a ready separation of these margins when it is subsequently desired to strip the cup from its frozen contents.
The blank and cap The blank and cup, sdected for the purposes of better presenting the method, are best seen in Figures 3, 11, 12 and 13 of the drawings. In Figure 3, a blank I is shown in flat position, just prior to the start of the forming operation. The illustrated blank is substantially quadrangular in shape, having a pair of opposed arcuate edges 2 and 3 and a pair of opposed substantially straight side edges 4 and 5. The arcuate edge 2 is considerably the longer and form the mouth edge of the finished cup. The side edges 4 and 5, which are preferably not radial to either of the arcuate edges, converge from the ends of the arcuate edge 2 towards the ends of the smaller arcuate edge 3,' which will ultimately be shaped to provide an overlay in the apexial re gion of the finished cup.
Both arcuate edges 2 and 3 are preferably of the same radius, and in the illustrated instance the center of the arc 2 is preferably at the midpoint of the arcuate edge 3, and vice versa, so that the entire blank is symmetrical in that if it is folded on the median line from the edge 2 to the edge 3, both halves of the blank will coincide. Such a symmetrical blank, while not absolutely essential, enables cups to be very rapidly manufactured under the present method.
Shortly after the cutting of the blank from the stock ribbon, an area of adhesive 6 is applied along the margin of the blank adjacent the edge 5. In the forming of the blank, the margin adjacent the edge 4 is disposed beneath this adhesive area 6 to form a seam l in the finished cup as seen in Figures 11, 12 and 13. It will be noted that this seam is of substantially equal width throughout the length of the cup, except where the overlapped portions taper towards the apex of the cup within the confines of the arcuate edge 3, as indicated at 8 in Figure 12.
With reference to Figure 3, it will be seen that the blank is formed around a point 9 as the apex of the finished cup. This point, while adjacent the leading edge 3 of the blank, is spaced inwardly from this edge, so as to insure a closed apex in the finished cup.
The method in particular For the purpose of clarity, the present method will be specifically described herein in connection with the machine parts illustrated in the drawings.
With reference to Figures 1 and 2, it will be seen that the stock ribbon I is fed along from a suitable source of supply, not shown in the drawings, within a tubular fabricated guide II. A suitable die block I2 is disposed above the guide II, and the cutting part l3 of this die block extends through asuitable aperture in theguide.
Of course, the die block I2 is hollow .and the cut- The punch die I4 is'mounted on a suitable pad l5, both of which are interiorly bored, as indi- V cated at [6, which bore communicates with a hollow II in the top surface of the punch die. Through a port l8, the bore i6 is in communicationwith any suitable source of suction, and by a timed valve means or the equivalent, suction is periodically established and cut oif within the bore l6 and the hollow ll.
A blank is severed from the stock ribbon l0 upon an upward movement of the die pad through a suitable opening in a frame member l9. As the punch die moves upwardly to the dotted line position seen in Figure 2, a blank is severed from the stock ribbon and carried upwardly on top of the punch die. contemporaneously with the severance of the blank, suction is appliedthrough the bore 16 and hollow ll so that the blank will be firmly held in position upon the punch die and maintained in exact alignment for forming. Otherwise,as the punch die moves upwardly, there might be danger of a current of air or some other medium disturbing the proper positioning of the blank.
The punch die delivers the severed blank to a pair of suction holding members 20-20 interconnected as indicated at 2!, and both of which may be connected to a suitable source of suction through a port '22 (Figure 1). By any suitable controlling means, suction is applied through the members 20-20 contemporaneously with the delivering of the blank thereto, and at the same time suction is cut oif through the punch die, the die returning to original position for another similar operation.
The blank is then temporarily held suspended by the suction holders 20-20, while a backing plate 23 moves inwardly under the margin of the blank adjacent the edge 5, as indicated by dotted lines in Figure 2. The plate 23 serves to support the marginal portion of the blank while a glue applying roller 24 passes over the blank and provides the aforesaid glue or adhesive area 6 upon the blank. This roller 24 is supported on a carriage 25 slidable on a fixed rail 26 and moved balckwards and forwards by the periodic rev ciprocatory action of a link or lever 21. Glue is supplied to the roller 24 by a larger roller 28 position shown in Figure 2, carryingthe blank,
therewith, and the applying roller 24 returns to its initial position seen in Figure 1, underneath the blank. The elevation of the now adhesived blank brings the central portion of the blank into contact with a non-rotative conical mandrel 30 carried on. the end of a hollow reciprocable shank 3|.
This mandrel 30 is hollow and is threa'dedly engaged on a collar member 32 fixed to the hollow shank 3|, as best seen in Figure 4. The collar also is centrally bored, as indicated at 33, and a plurality of transverse passages 34 establish communication with the bore 33 and a pair of annular grooves 35 in the nose of the collar, as seen in Figures 4 and 5. One or more oblique towards the receiving means.
' passages 36 are provided in the mandrel l0, and
these passages extend to the surface of the mandrel. so that when they are covered by the blank, suction through the mandrel shank will hold the blank in position upon the mandrel. This suction, however, is not available immediately after contacts the mandrel, a gripper jaw 38 hinged to the collar 32, as indicated at 39, closes and securely holds the blank upon the mandrel, this gripper jaw contacting only the central portion of the blank, as seen clearly in Figure 5. The mandrel shaft now starts the forward portion of its reciprocatory movement carrying the blank therewith along a predetermined straight path It will be noted that the blank is carried small end first as it moves along the path defined by the mandrel, and shortly after the start of motion, the mandrel passes between a pair of fixed rods 40-40 (Figure 6) which elevate the side portions of the blank and partially shape the blank around the mandrel. The blank is next carried between a pair of tapering shoes 4| and 42, each of which has a tapering socket 43 therein complemental to the side wall of the cup to be formed. The shoe 4| is carried on an arm of a bell crank 44, one end of which is pivoted on a pin 45 carried in a bracket 46, and a spring 41 urges the shoe towards the path of travel of the blank. Likewise, the shoe 42 is carried on an arm of a bell crank 48, one end of which is pivoted on the same pin 45, and a spring 49 urges this shoe towards the path of travel of the blank.
With further reference to Fig. 7, it will be seen that the shoe 42 has a wiper 50 associated therewith. The wiper is carried on a rod and urged away from the blank by a spring 52. A bell crank 53 connected by a link 54 to the outer end of the rod, pivoted as at 55, has a projecting head 56 disposed over a plunger 51 which is periodically actuated upwardly to move the rod and wiper inwardly over the adjacent portion of the blank against the action of the spring 52.
Therefore, after the side portions have been elevated by the rods 40-40 as seen in Figure 6,
the blank is forced through between the shoes 4| and 42 against the action of the springs 41 and 49, causing the blank to be intimately fitted around the mandrel 30. The shoes are so positioned that the shoe 42 acts upon the blank a trifle ahead of the shoe 4|, and just before the shoe 4| becomes fully effective, the wiper 50 is moved over the blank to lay the margin adjacent the edge 4 of the blank close against the mandrel, so that the shoe 4| will fold the margin carrying the adhesive 6 over on top of the margin adjacent the edge 4 to form the seam I, as seen in Figure 8.
The blank is now substantially formed into cup shape, and contemporaneously with the passage of the mandrel between the shoes 4| and 42, the gripping jaw 38 moves to a partially open position, seen in Figure 9, and the blank may now be held upon the mandrel by suction through the mandrel as above explained, if so desired. It is not essential to use the suction through the mandrel to hold the blank in position, because the travel of the mandrel is fast, there is only a small distance left to travel, and the blank being so formed around the mandrel will remain in position usually without any aid. The mandrel next forcibl jams the newly formed blank into nested engagement with a plurality of previously formed cups to in a receiving mechanism. The receiving mechanism is contained in a cylindrical bracket 58 carried by the machine frame, and the receiving chute 59 is rotatably mounted within the bracket. At the receiving end of this chute, a sleeve 60 is fixedly disposed in the chute and rotatable therewith, this sleeve 60 having a smaller inside diameter than the body portion of the chute 55. A pair of angle gears 6| periodically cause a rotation of the chute 59 to stagger the seams 1 of the respective cups and to aid in twisting the cups of! the mandrel.
With reference to Figure 10, it will be seen that when a blank I is formed around the mandrel, the month end of the blank projects partially over the cylindrical portion 31 of the mandrel, as indicated at 62. This cylindrical portion 31 of the mandrel has a diameter slightly less than the interior diameter of the sleeve 60, so that it may enter the sleeve. The normal interior diameter of the month end of the cup is greater than the interior diameter of the sleeve 60. Consequently, those cups contained within the sleeve 60 are held tightly under compression with the mouth end of each cup not permitted to expand to its full dimension. These cups therefore function as a positive mold to aid in completing the forming of the cups forcibly deposited therein by the mandrel. With each successive movement of the mandrel, a cup la is forced out of the opposite end of the sleeve 60 into the body portion of the chute 59, where it is permitted by its own resiliency to expand to its full dimension, and thus it becomes loosely nested within the other cups, so that subsequently there will be no diillculty in dispensing the cups one at a time from a stack of nested cups.
The forceful nesting of a formed cup in the finished cups held under compression results in the proper formation of the apexial region of the cup and in a positive closing of this apexial region to properly seal the cup in the event it is to be used as a drinking cup. This forceful nesting also insures a positive securement of the overlapped marginal portions in the seam 1 by the adhesive 6, and the newly formed cup remains within the sleeve 60 a sufficient length of time for the adhesive to properly set.
From the foregoing, it is apparent that I have provided a novel method of making a paper container, such as a conical drinking or ice cream cup which, as above set forth, includes the steps of feeding a ribbon of stock, severing a blank from the end of the ribbon, holding the blank by suction during the application of an area of adhesive thereto, gripping the blank centrally and carrying it along a predetermined path. During the course of travel of the blank along the path, the side portions of the blank are elevated and then formed into conical shape with overlapped marginal portions held together by the applied adhesive, and then the blank is forcibly jammed into nested relationship with previously formed containers. This forceful nesting of the newly formed cup effects a proper formation of the apexial region of the blank and insures a proper securement of the overlapped marginal portions by the adhesive, the cup remaining in such a state of forceful nesting until the adhesive has had opportunity to set.
I am aware that many changes may be made and numerous details of the method may be varied through a wide range without departing from the principles of this invention, and I, therefore, do not purpose limiting the patent granted hereon otherwise than is necessitated by the prior art.
I claim as my invention:
1. The method of making a conical paper cup, including applying adhesive to a marginal portion of a blank of stock, shaping the blank into conical form with overlapped marginal portions held by said adhesive, forcibly nesting the shaped blank in a previously formed cup held under compression to tighten the apex and holding it there until the adhesive has set, and then adjusting the newly formed cup and the previously formed cup until they are in free loosely nested relationship.
2. The method of forming a conical paper cup, including holding a previously formed cup under radial compression against full expansion, nearly shaping a blank into cup form with overlapped marginal portions held by adhesive, and forcibly jamming the newly formed cup into the previously formed cup and relying upon the pressure presented thereby to seal the apex watertight.
3. The method of making a conical paper cup, including the steps of feeding a stock ribbon to cutting position, severing a substantially sectorshaped blank from the leading end of said ribbon, applying adhesive to" a marginal portion of the severed blank, holding the blank against rotation and moving it along a predetermined path, and partially shaping the blank into a conical cup with overlapping marginal portions held by said adhesive while the blank is continuously traveling along said path, and forcibly jamming the partially shaped blank into nested engagement with previously formed cups held against full expansion under compression to further and completely shape the blank into a substantial true cone with a tight apex.
4. In a method of making a paper drinking cup of substantially true conical shape, the steps of substantially shaping a blank into cup form, and then jamming the cup into a stack of previously formed cups in a manner to close and seal the apexial region until it is watertight.
5. In the method of making a paper container around a former, the steps of shaping a blank about a former, delivering the shaped blank while still on the former directly into tight nested engagement with a stack of previously formed containers, and turning the stack to twist the new container off the former.
6. In the method of making a paper container around a former, the steps of shaping a blank into container form around the former;- and then engaging the formed container and twisting itoff the former by setting up a relative rotation about its axis between the cup and former.
7. In the method of making a paper cup around a former, the steps of partially shaping a blank around the former, then with the former carrying the blank jamming the former and blank into a stack of previously formed cups held under compression with sufllcient force to complete the forming of the blank, and turning the stack to twist the new cup off the former.
8. In the method of making a conical paper cup about a generally conical former, the steps of shaping a blank into cup form around the former, engaging the blank on the former and setting up a relative turning movement between the former and the cup thereon to twist the cup free of the former.
9. The method of making a water-tight conical paper cup, including the steps of holding a plurality of previously formed containers under radial compression in nested relationship, applying adhesive to a blank to hold overlapping portions thereof together, partially shaping a blank to cup form, and forcibly nesting the partly formed cup in said previously formed containers to seal the apex of the cup watertight.
10. The method of making a water-tight paper cup of substantially true conical shape from a sector-like blank without winding of the blank, including the steps of firmly holding the blank in an intermediate location against rotation,
shaping the blank into conical shape from each side of the holding location, adhesively joining overlapping portions of the blank, and forcibly jamming the blank into previously formed cups to seal the apex watertight.
11. The method of making a paper cup of substantially true conical shape, including the steps of moving a substantially sector-like blank small end first along a straight course of travel from starting position to cup receiving position, holding the blank intermediately against rotation, and shaping the blank without winding into conical form frpm each side thereof about an apexial point spaced slightly inwardly from an intermediate portion of the smaller end thereof.
12. The method of making a water-tight paper cup of substantially true conical shape, including the steps of shaping a substantially sector-like blank around a conical former without winding by acting on each side of the blank, adhesively securing overlapping portions of the blank together, then forcibly jamming the nearly completed cup into previously nested cups held under compression to seal the apex watertight.
13. The method of making a water-tight paper cup of substantially true conical shape, including the steps of shaping a substantially sector-like blank around a conical former without winding by acting on each side of the blank, adhesively securing overlapping portions of the blank together, then forcibly lemming the nearly completed cup into previously nested cups held under compression to seal the apex watertight, and then turning the formed cup about its axis to twist it ofl the former.