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Publication numberUS2246504 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateJun 24, 1941
Filing dateAug 12, 1937
Priority dateAug 12, 1937
Publication numberUS 2246504 A, US 2246504A, US-A-2246504, US2246504 A, US2246504A
InventorsWilliam D Clement
Original AssigneeFriedberger Aaron Mfg Company
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Woven elastic fabric
US 2246504 A
Abstract  available in
Images(1)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

UHTD STATES Patented June 24, 1941 Friedberger-Aaron Manufacturing Company, Philadelphia, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania Application August l2, 1937, Serial No. 158,634

Claims.

This invention relates to the production of an elastic woven fabric simulating in appearance leather and, more particularly, suede, which fabric is designed primarily for the formation of portions of shoes which should match in appearance the portions thereof formed of real leather.

In the manufacture of shoes, it is desirable to improve the fit by incorporating in certain portions thereof elastic sections adapted to yield for the insertion of the foot into the shoe and thereafter adapted to contract to hold the shoe in a neatly fitting condition. Leather is relatively inelastic and is not satisfactory for such purpose. Elastic fabrics heretofore used have an appearance sharply contrasting with that of the leather portions of the shoe and are generally unsatisfactory for that reason, and have not been adopted to any extent for bedroom slippers or the like Where appearance is a minor consideration.

In accordance with the present invention, there is provided for use, particularly in shoes made of leather, an elastic woven fabric the appearance of which may be made to match very closely the appearance of leather, so that the portions formed of such elastic fabric will be substantially indistinguishable from the leather except on very close inspection, which is, of course, not normal in connection with shoes. The invention in its most satisfactory form provides an elastic fabric having the appearance of suede, although, by a slight variation in its method of production, the fabric may be made to closely simulate kid or other leathers.

The attainment of the above `indicated objects, as well as others relating primarily to details of the invention, will become apparent from the following description, read in conjunction with the accompanying drawing, in which:

Figure 1 is an elevation showing diagrammatically a shoe embodying the fabric of the present invention;

Figure 2 is a diagram illustrating the arrangement of warp threads for the production of the fabric and, in particular, showing the arrangement of the warp threads in the harness; the threads in any given horizontal row being woven similar to each other throughout the fabric.

Figure 3 is a diagram illustrating the Jacquard layout, and hence illustrating the arrangement of threads in the fabric;

Figure 4 is a diagram showing the arrangement of the threads in a central portion of the fabric illustrated in the central portion of Figure 2; and

Figure 5 is a vertical sectional diagram illustrating one step in the process of forming the fabric.

The improved elastic fabric is shown incorporated at 4 in a shoe 2 providing an elastic gusset adapted to yield to permit the insertion of the foot into the shoe and then contract to provide a neat fit. The elastic fabric at 4 is shown in Figure 1 with lines indicative of the direction of the Warp (in which direction the fabric is elastic), but it will be understood that so far as appearance is concerned, the direction of the warp is only observable on close scrutiny, and the face of the elastic fabric appearing on the outside of the shoe has substantially the same appearance as the adjacent leather portions thereof. This is most particularly true when the leather is suede and the elastic fabric is made to imitate suede.

The nature of the elastic woven fabric will be best understood from Figures 2, 3 and 4. It will be noted from the legend accompanying Figure 2, which legend also applies to the lower portion of Figure 3, that the fabric consists of four types of warp threads, namely, face, back, elastic and binder threads. Each of the face threads consists of count Z-ply cotton in the preferred embodiment of the invention. The binder threads may be, and preferably are, the same. The back threads may be somewhat heavier, for example, 6U count Z-ply cotton, inasmuch as these backing threads do not appear on the face and form, in effect, a separate ply joined to the face by the binder threads.

The elastic threads are preferably threads consisting of strands of rubber covered with cotton, such threads being well known under the designation Lasten Other rubber or elastic threads may, of course, be used, though the type just mentioned appears to stand up best under ordinary use, particularly since the elastic portions of shoes are subject to moisture and dirt and require frequent cleaning.

The improved fabric has somewhat different arrangements of the warp threads at the edges and central portions thereof. At one edge, for example, the group of threads indicated at A preferably occurs. This group comprises two differentially movable backing threads I2, four pairs of facing threads, indicated at ID, one pair of binder threads, indicated at It, and an elastic thread, indicated at H5. The elastic thread is preferably along the edge of the fabric, as indicated. The order of arrangement of the warps is indicated at Figure 2, as Well as their groupings in the harness. Similarly, there is indicated at B the arrangement at the other edge of the fabric. It will be noted that the grouping B includes two elastic threads.

Between these edge groupings occur a number of intermediate repeated groupings, indicated at C, the number of which depends upon the width of fabric to be produced. With warp threads of the types indicated above, a half inch fabric may, for example, have eleven repeats of the grouping indicated at C, while a three inch width of fabric may have seventy-six repeats of such groupings.

The warps are preferably woven with a single filler, indicated at it. The specific weave illustrated repeats on eight picks and is of the type which will be clear from the diagram of Figure 3 and the showing of somewhat more than a single repeat of the fabric in the direction of the warp in Figure 4. It will be noted from Figures 3 and l that the backing is formed by an ordinary weave of the two backing threads with alternate picks. On the face of the fabric each facing thread goes over three and under the next one of the alternate picks. The elastic thread l5 is incorporated between the facing and backing plies, while the binder is connected to the two plies, as indicated in these gures. It will be noted that the diagram of Figure 3, representing a repeat of the weave, has its successive picks numbered to correspond with those in Figure 4. During the weaving the elastic thread is fed under tension, with the result that in the finished fabric contraction will occur, crowding the picks together and causing some looseness of the facing threads, tending to project them outwardly. The application of tension will stretch the fabric to an extent limited by the straightening out of the relatively inelastic warps. Preferably using threads as indicated above, and a filler thread comparable in weight with the backing threads, the fabric as it cornes from the loom will have about 220 picks to the inch. During the subsequent iinishing process, further shrinkage takes place, and in the final fabric there may be about 300 picks to the inch.

As it comes off the loom, the fabric has a very fine surface weave which is substantially indistinguishable at any moderate viewing distance.

However, the surface appears comparatively hard i and does not have the appearance of suede.

The next step in the production of a fabric having the appearance of suede is illustrated in Figure 5. The fabric 2f as it cernes from the loof-.n is face downwardly alternatelyv over and under a series of stationary rods 26, serving to tension it as it is pulled through them. From these rods it passes in tensioned condition over a roller faced with carborunduni or sirnilar abrasive and rotating in a direction opposite to the direction of travel of the fabric. The abrasive, acting en the stretched fabric, tends to cut the cotton facing threads, partially opening them to form fuzz. The result of this step is, accordingly, a fabric having a rather high fuzz which tends to substantially hide the woven appearance of the front of the fabric. Such hiding is obtained not by reason of any considerable height of fuzz, but because the fuzz is associated with a very fine weave.

Following the abrading step, the fabric is dyed with a dye chosen to sinuilate the color of the leather with which it is to be After dyeing, the fabric is passed over drying drums and is then passed between steel rollers, pressed together with considerable pressure, which rollers straighten the fabric and, at the same time, tend to press the raised fuzz downwardly into the interstices of the fabric, with the result that in the finished product the fuzz extends outwardly considerably less than in the product illustrated in Figure 5.

The final product thus secured resembles suede very closely. For example, it is subject to a modification of appearance on rubbing to the same extent as suede and is substantially indistinguishable therefrom from any ordinary viewing distance, the woven appearance being lost in the fuzz. Because of the fact that there is no noticeable appearance of the weave, the direction of the warp need not be taken into account from the standpoint of appearance, but the fabric may be used in a shoe with its warps extending in the direction in which maximum elasticity is desired. Not only may the fabric be used, therefore, to provide inserts, as indicated in Figure 1, in the more obvious locations for such inserts, but it may be used as well to form comparatively large areas of the shoe, being stitched directly to the leather which it resembles.

While the process is particularly desirable for the formation of an imitation suede, the process is also useful for the production of elastic fabric imitating smoother leathers such as kid. In such case, the step of Figure 5 is omitted, with the result that the fabric retains its harder surface appearance without the presence of fuzz. rIlhe ne weave of the fabric nevertheless hides the woven appearance to a satisfactory degree, so that such appearance is unnoticeable from any normal viewing distance.

It may be noted that departures are possible from the specic fabric described. Desirably, however, the face is so woven that by the concentration of very light face threads on the face of the fabric the appearance of any definite direction of warp or filler is substantially lost. This result may be attained by staggering in various ways the similarly handled facing warps so as to lose any appearance of a pattern. Instead of engaging the facing warps with the filler in their order of sequence across the fabric, as shown, the facing warps may be engaged with the filler in non-sequential order, thereby attaining an even greater irregularity of weave. Preferably, the size of the facing threads should not be much larger than those indicated, otherwise, the individual threads contribute to the appearance of a definite woven pattern. If the face threads float over too few picks there arises more and more the appearance of a woven fabric, whereas if the facing threads iioat over too many picks the surface becomes too soft and a high fuzz is obtained which no longer substantially resembles suede when abraded. Such variations in appearance are, of course, related to the number of picks in the finished fabric and the size of the facing threads, so that by a balance of one against the other a satisfactory appearance may be attained despite departure from the preferred arrangement herein disclosed.

What I claim and desire to protect by Letters Patent is:

1. A woven elastic fabric comprising facing, backing, elastic and binder threads in the warp joined by at least one filler, said backing threads being interwoven with filler to provide a backing ply, and said facing threads being interwoven with filler to provide a facing ply, the binder threads joining said plies, and the elastic threads extending between the plies and binder threads, said facing threads being of light weight cotton, floating over a plurality of picks between each engagement by the filler, staggered in such engagement, and provided with a fuzzy surface characteristic of abrasion of cotton substantially hiding the woven array of the facing threads and simulating the appearance of suede.

2..A woven elastic fabric comprising facing, backing, elastic and binder threads in the warp joined by at least one filler, said backing threads being interwoven with filler to provide a backing ply, and said facing threads being interwoven with ller to provide a facing ply, the binder threads joining said plies, and the elastic threads extending between the plies Iand binder threads, said facing threads being of light weight cotton, floating over a plurality of picks between each engagement by the filler, staggered in such engagement, and provided with a fuzzy surface characteristic of abrasion of cotton substantially hiding the woven array of the facing threads, the fabric in unstretched condition having at least two hundred picks to the inch, and the face of the fabric simulating the appearance of suede.

3. A woven elastic fabric comprising facing, backing, elastic and binder threads in the warp joined by at least one filler, said backing threads being interwoven with ller to provide a backing ply, and said facing threads being interwoven with filler to provide a facing ply, the binder threads joining said plies, and the elastic threads extending between the plies and binder threads, said facing threads being of light weight cotton, floating over a plurality of picks between each engagement by the filler, and staggered in such engagement, the fabric in unstretched condition having at least two hundred picks to the inch, and the face of the fabric simulating leather and being suitable to match the material of shoes when used for elastic portions thereof.

4. A woven elastic fabric comprising a facing, elastic threads, and binding threads securing the elastic threads to the facing, said facing being formed by light weight cotton warp threads floating over a plurality of picks between each engagement by filler, staggered in such engagement, there being at least four facing threads in each repeat of the interengagement pattern of the facing threads and ller, and the fabric in unstretched condition having at least two hundred picks to the inch, and the face of the fabric simulating leather and being suitable to match the material of shoes when used for elastic portions thereof.

5. A woven elastic fabric comprising a facing, elastic threads, and binding threads securing the elastic threads to the facing, said facing being formed by light weight cotton warp threads floating over a plurality of picks between each engagement by ller, staggered in such engagement, there being at least four facing threads in each repeat of the interengagement pattern of the facing threads and ller, and the fabric in unstretched condition having at least two hundred picks to the inch, said cotton warp threads being provided with a fuzzy surface characteristic of abrasion of cotton substantially hiding the woven array of the facing threads, the face of the fabric simulating the appearance of suede.

WILLIAM D. CLEMENT.

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US3189972 *Jun 20, 1960Jun 22, 1965Paul Vernier Valentin & Fils SProcess for the manufacture of elastic fabric
US3231042 *Jun 28, 1961Jan 25, 1966Mohasco Ind IncFoldable sound insulating material and partition
US3252410 *Oct 28, 1963May 24, 1966Thomas A StephensonMethod for producing printed relief impressions on paper
US4714096 *Dec 3, 1985Dec 22, 1987George C. Moore Co.Elastic fabric provided with a looped gripping surface
Classifications
U.S. Classification428/91, 428/95, 428/97, 139/423, 428/904
International ClassificationD03D15/08
Cooperative ClassificationY10S428/904, D03D2700/0103, D03D15/08
European ClassificationD03D15/08