US 2246735 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
June 24, 1941. B KLINE ErAL 2,246,735
METHOD OF PROCESSING THREAD Filed Oct. 24, 1958 7 Sheets-Sheet 1 FIG. 1- 5 I INVENTORS HAYDEN B. KLINE LOUIS 5. FRYER n/w ALDEN I'L'BURKHOLDER Junk: 24, 1941. H 3 mm; ET AL 312 43339 METHOD OF PROCESSING THREAD Filed Oct. 24, 1958 7 Sheets-Sheet 4 .FlliS HAYDEN B-KLINE LOUIS 5. FRYER mvn INVENTORS ALDE H. BURKHOLDER I BY am ATTORNEY June 24, 1941. B KUNE ETAL 2,246,735
' METHOD OF PROCESSING THREAD File d Oct. 24, 193a- Sheets-Sheet 5 Flu-1.6 v
' f INVEINI'I'ORS' HAYDEN B. KLINE LOUIS 5. FRYER mp ALDEN H. BURKHOLDER I l/l, 1
AT ORNEY H. B. KLIN E ETAL Y METHOD OF PROCESSING THREAD June 24, 1941.
Filed Oct. 24, 1938 7 Sheets-Sheeffi liwcu-rons HAYDEN B. KLINE Lows S. FRYER Mb ALDEN H. BURKHOLDER I Y B l'i L ATTORNEY Jime 24, 1941. v H. B. KLINE ElAL 2,246,735
METHOD OF PROCESSING THREAD Filed Oct; 24, 1938 '7 She ets-Sheet 7 205 R5354 15 14 e06 Rt'ELSJ l //5 v 305 REEL-5 5 km; 7v
I FEELS 9 REELS 2 7a R L: a 1 a4 INVENTORS HAYDEN B. KLINE LOUIS- 5. FRYER my ALDEN H. BURKHOLDER ATTRNEY Patented June 24 1941 Hayden B. Kline,
Louis S. Fryer, and Alden H. Burkholder,0leveland, Ohio,
asslgnors to Industrial Rayon. Corporation, Cleveland, Ohio, 2:.
' corporation of Delaware Application October 24, 1938, Serial No. 236,723
This invention relates to the processing of thread or the like, hereinafter referred to as thread; particularly, the continuous processing of multiple filament artificial silk thread.
In the manufacture, for example, of multiple filament artificial silk thread it is necessary to make as economical-use as possible of the various treating liquids employed in the processing of the thread, this because of the large quantities which must be employed and the comparatively high cost of the treating liquids. Even the cost of the water used in the manufacture of multiple filament viscose artificial silk thread is an important factor, not only because of the large quantities used for the several washing treatments but because it is often necessary to treat the water in order'to obtain the requisite purity and softness. Indeed, the cost of the water alone might in large measure determine the commercial success or failure of a given plant.
' In the ordinary discontinuous systems of manufacturing multiple filament viscose artificial silk thread; i. e., the pot-spinning. and spool-spinning systems, the thread is subjected to the action of the processing liquids while it is wound in the original spin cake or spool package. That is, the thread is treated with liquids while wound in a compact package containing thousands of yards of thread wound layer upon layer. Of a given amount of liquid applied to the thread package, most if'not al-l serves ,to process the thread; but it is known-that, due to difliculties 'of penetration of the processing liquid, all portions of thread in the package are not uniformly processed.
In the continuous processing of multiple filament viscose artificial silk thread, on the other hand, the thread is usually continuously but temporarily stored on one or more thread-advancingreels, being subjected to the action of processing liquids while wound in a helix made up of a large number of closely spaced turns.
As compared with discontinuous systems, the advantages of manufacturing multiple filament viscose artificial silk thread by a system involvv ing the continuous processing of the thread are so great as to have served in the past as an incentive for numerous attempts to devise a successful continuous processing system. It has long been recognized that a continuous system of manufacturing multiple filament viscose artificial silk thread would possess advantages over discontinuous systems in making possible savings in time and labor, this for the reason that the numerous processing treatments which must be applied to the thread may be performed continuously on a single machine. A continuous manufacturing system would possess great advantages as regards thoroughness and uniformity of processing because the thread is subjected to the processing treatment while wound in a 7 single layer and is not processed, as in the discontinuous processes, while wound in package form.
It has, however, been found that systems involving the continuous processing of the thread are often less economical in their use of processing liquids than discontinuous systems. This arises in part from the fact that in continuous systems the thread is processed while wound in a single layer. All of the liquid applied to the thread is not used in the actual processing of the thread; instead, part of the liquid runs off the reel and part passes between the turns of thread. Other disadvantages have been found to arise from the fact that in some cases intermixing of the processing liquids tends to occur.
The present invention eliminates difficulties arising out of the tendency of continuous processing systems to use more processing liquids to .process a given amount of thread than discontinuous systems. It provides an economy of consumption of processing liquids comparing very favorably with that of the discontinuous systems; indeed, in some respects the present invention makes possible greater economies in respect of the use of processing liquids than the ordinary discontinuous system. Among other things, the invention provides for the recovery and re-use of processing liquids of such nature that they can be re-used. It also provides for the re-use of processing liquids, such as washing water, in several different processing steps, in this way providing great economies in consumption. Intermingling of the various processing liquids'is prevented, so that the possibility of contamination of the treating liquids is obviated. 1
For purposes of illustration, the invention is described herein in connection with the manufacture by a. continuous system of multiple filament viscose artificial silk thread on apparatus I generally similar to that shown, described and claimed in copending application Serial No. 7,114, filed February 18, 1935, by Walter F. Knebusch and Alden H. Burkholder (Patent 2,225,642) It should, however, be understood that the invention is not limited thereto, but that it may be employed in the processing of thread produced by other methods, as, for example, from casein, cellulose acetate, cuprammonium cellulose solutions. etc. As already indicated, it is applicable not only to the processing of multiple filament artificial silk thread, but to the processing of thread-like articles generally.
In the drawings, in which is shown a preferred form of apparatus for the manufacture by a continuous system of multiple filament viscose artition, showing portions of two adjacent machines,
each of the type shown in Figure l, with common processing liquid-conveying means disposed therebetween, parts being broken away for the sake of clearness.
Figure 6 is a sectional plan of the liquid-conveying elements from line 8-8 of Figure 5, parts being broken away for the sake of clearness. Figure 7 is a sectional elevation through one of the constant head supply boxes along the line- 1--| of Figure 6. Figure 8 is a sectional elevation through one of the main return boxes on the line 8-8 of Figure or of Figure 9. Figure 9 is a sectional elevation through the return box on line 9-9 of Figure 8. Figure 10 is a sectional elevation through one of the junction boxes corresponding to line III-I0 of either Figure 4 or of Figure 11.
Figure 11 is a sectional elevation through the junction box from line I I-II of Figure 10. Figure 12 is a section through one of the collecting troughs corresponding to line I2I2 of Figure 5. Figure 13 is a sectional elevation of the coagulating liquid supply box for one of the machines, corresponding generally to line I 3-I3 of Figure 5. Figure 14 is a diagrammatic representation of the circulation system of the illustrated machine.
In the illustrated embodiment of the invention, two thread-processing machines generally of the side of ,the coagulating trough I3 on the side of the machine to which the threads pass. Thus a single coagulating trough, accessible from both sides, contains the spinnerets which form the threads processed on opposite sides of the machine.
The mass tubes II on each side of the coagulating trough receive the viscose through a conduit I! on each side of the machine and extend lengthwise thereof. The viscose is supplied to the side conduits I5 on each machine through pipes I5a from a conduit I5b which extends longitudinally of the machine, as shown in Figure 5. The conduit I ID for each machine is supplied from a pipe I5c disposed between the machines, as shown in Figures 2 and 5. The pipe I 50 for each machine passes through the floor and communicates with the viscose supply tank, not shown, in the basement.
A waste trough I6 extends lengthwise of the trough I3 along each longitudinal edge thereof, such waste trough being disposed between the trough and the trough apron. The primary purtype disclosed in application Serial No, 7,114 are located in end-to-end relation, being separated by a space in which are disposed the several supply and discharge elements for carrying the liquids necessary to process the thread. The supply and discharge elements, located in the space between the two machines handle the processing liquids delivered to and drained from the threadadvancing reels of each machine. Each of the machines is preferably double-sided; that is, each side of the machine not only provides means for forming the threads but includes the threadadvancing reels upon which such threads are processed.
Upon each side of each machine as many as fifty or more threads II may be processed, each on its own descending series of thread-advancing reels I to III, inclusive.
Each of the threads I I is formed by extrusion of viscose through a spinneret I2 disposed in a coagulating bath contained in trough I3. The trough I3 preferably extends throughout the entire length of each machine, having located in it the spinnerets II which form the threads II for both sides of the machine. The mass tubes I4 which supply the viscose employed in forming the threads to be processed on a given side of a machine are all mounted on and accessible from the pose of each of the waste troughs I6 is to receive any viscose which may be discharged from the mass tubes I4 after they have been swung out of the trough I3 to the retracted position indicated by the dotted lines I4','as for cleaning or replacement of spinnerets, etc. A stream of liquid; e. g., water, is passed continuously through said waste troughs I6 to carry away such discharged viscose or other waste matter.
The thread passes from each of the spinnerets I 2 to a corresponding thread-advancing reel I disposed above the trough I3, such reel being similar in construction and mode of operation to each of reels 2 to I0, inclusive.
As explained in application Serial No. 7,114, each of the reels I to ID, inclusive, comprises two rigid, rotatable sets of interdigitating bar members, the axes of said sets being located in offset and inclined relation to each other. As the reel rotates, the thread passing'to the reel winds on the reel and is advanced longitudinally thereof in a plurality of closely spaced substantially helical turns. In the illustrated apparatus, as in the apparatus of said prior application, the reel is of cantilever form in that itis supported from one end only. It advances the thread from its supported end to its unsupported end, so that the thread may be readily removed from the unsupported end of the reel.
In the illustrated apparatus, each reel I is disposed above the trough I 3 with its supported end over the trough in such manner that the path of the thread in passing from the spinneret to the reel is entirely within the confines of the trough. The unsupported end of the reel is located beyond the edge of the trough so that the thread may pass vertically downward, outside, the trough, to the succeeding reel. In the embodiment illustrated, a channel I! the upper end of which is located directly beneath the discharge point 01 the reel I is disposed at the edge of the trough l3 to provide a passage for the thread from the reel I to the succeeding reel 2.
Inasmuch as no processing liquid is applied to the thread on the reel I, the latter serves to provide an additional period of time for coagulation of the thread.
Reels 2 to I 0, inclusive, of each descending and its predecessor. The unsupported ends of all reels are thus presented to the operator. This arrangement of reels is disclosed in application Serial No."l,1 14, in which are described the many advantages made possible by such anarrangement.
Upon reel 2 the thread may be subjected to the action of a liquid intended to further the coagulation of the thread. In the illustrated ernbodiment of the invention, this solution is applied to thread, such as its "ieeP or "hand? is applied to the thread while it is stored upon reel 8. The finishing liquid thus applied to the thread is supplied through distributor 36 which communicates with a conduit 51 forming part of the trough 35. A trough 38 is disposed below the reels 8 to col-' lect the liquid used in the finishing operation. Upon reel 9, to which the thread proceeds from reel 8, no processing liquid is applied to the thread the thread on the reel 2 from a distributor I8 which communicates with a conduit II extendin lengthwise of the machine. The reels 2 in all series on the same side of the machine, as well as all corresponding reels on the opposite side of the machine. are disposed in corresponding positions, whereby the construction or reagent supply and collecting systems is greatly simplified. Thus the desired reagent may be supplied to all of the reels on one side of the machine from a common conduit I9 with which the distributors I8 communicate; while the same reagent, after use, may be collected from a plurality of said reels by the collecting trough 20 extending below the reels 2. The collecting trough2ll conveys the liquid to one end of the machine, from which the liquid may be removed. In the illustrated embodiment of 1 the invention, the used liquid in all troughs is collected at the end of the machine from which the processing liquid is initially supplied.
Reel 3, to which the thread next passes, serves to store the thread while'it is subjected to the succeeding treatment, which may be the application of a washing liquid, preferably a weak acid solution, through a distributor 2| connected to longitudinally extending conduit 22. The conduit 22 is disposed in the illustrated embodiment of the invention at the iorward portion of and is formed integrally with the collecting trough 20 underlying the preceding reels 2, as shown in Figure. ,12. The liquid leaving the reels 3 is collected in a trough 23 disposed below the reels.'
Reel 4, to which the thread passes from reel 3, stores the thread while it is subjected to the action of a desulphurizing liquid, such as sodium sulphide, employed for the purpose of removin the sulphur deposited in and upon the thread as part of the coagulation and regeneration reactions. The sodium sulphide solution is showered upon each reel'4 by a distributor 24 which receives the fluid from the longitudinally extending conduit 25 forming a part. of the collecting trough 23 below the preceding reel 3. The liquid is collected in a trough 26 beneath reel 4, from the unsupported end of which the thread passes to reel 5. Upon the latter. the thread is washed with water delivered from distributor 21 connected to longitudinal conduit 28 vforming an integral part of the collecting trough 26 beneath reels 4. A collecting trough 29 is provided to collect the liquid leaving the reels 5.
Upon reel 6, to which the thread next passes,
bleaching solution is applied to the thread by means of a distributor 31! connected to a longitudinal conduit 3| iorming part of the trough 29 below reels 5. A collecting trough 52 is provided 7 below reels 6. The thread is washed free of the bleaching solution as it passes over reel I, washing water being delivered to the reel through distributor 33 which is supplied with water by means of a longitudinal conduit 84 carried by the collecting trough 32 disposed below the reels 0. Collecting trough 35 is disposed below the reels I.
A soaping or oiling emulsion employed for the purpose oiimproving the characteristics of the from the conduit; instead, the reels 8 serve as a drip stage to permit the excess finishing liquid to drip from the thread betore it passes to the drying device. Trough 39 is provided below the reels 9 to catch and remove the liquid which drips i'rom reels 9. I
In the illustrated embodiment of the invention, each thread II is dried on a heated reel Ill. The reel I0 is preferably formed with an interior chamber (not'shown) through which hot water oisome other suitable medium is circulated by means of supply pipe 42 and return. pipe 43 (Figure 1). These'pipes communicate with suitable recirculating means (not shown) including heating facilities and such, it any, make-up tanks as may be necessary. Each reel I0 is preferably at least partially enclosed in a casing 44 which aids in maintaining constant drying conditions.
After leaving drying reels Hi the threads ll may be collected by any suitable means: for example, cap twisters 45 which may be rotated and reciprocated vertically in the conventional manner.
The actual installation and parts thereof for the liquid circulation system are shown in Figures l to 13, inclusive. Figure 14 is a diagrammatic representation of said system for the circulation of the processing liquids which shows the. paths of travel of the various liquids. While parts in Figure 14 bear the same reference characters as 1 is supplied to trough I3 through openings at intervals in pipes 46 which extend throughout the length of the trough I3. (Figures 1 and 5.) Pipes 45 communicate with coagulating liquid supply box 41 located above the upper surface of the coagulating bath in coagulating trough I3. (Figures 2 and 5.) The supply box 41 is divided into a central compartment 48 and opposite end compartments 49 by vertical partitions 5!. (Figures 2 and 13.) A weir notch 52 is formed in each partition 5|. Each of the coagulant pipes 46 is connected to one of the end compartments 45 through a vertical pipe 53. The central compartment 48 is supplied with coagulating liquid through a conduit 54.
As shown in Figures 2,- 5 and 14, the coagulant conduit 54 for the left hand machine in Figure 5 is connected by a cross-pipe 55 to the coagulant conduit 54 of the right hand machine, which conduit passes through the floor and is supplied with liquid from supply or make-up tanks 56 (Figure 14) One or more pumps 51 may be provided to force the coagulant from tanks 56 up through the pipes 54 to the supply boxes 41. Within the central compartment 48 of each supply box 41 may be located an overflow pipe 58 (Figures 2, 5 and 13), the upper end of which is well above weir notches 52 in partitions 5|.
Overflow pipe 58 discharges into a trough 59 liquid flowing into the coagulating tank II, can
be very accurately measured.
Trough 59 also receives the fluid discharged through conduits 62 from the waste troughs It on opposite sides of the coagulating trough l3. Trough 59 of each machine of Figure 5 discharges into a conduit 63. As shown in Figures 2 and 5, the conduit 63 for the left hand machine of Figure 5 runs vertically downward through the floor, while the conduit 83 for the right hand machine of Figure 5 communicates with the left hand conduit 63 through inclined conduit 84,
Trough 59 of each machine of Figure 5 is, as shown in Figures 2 and 5, also provided with an overflow emergency conduit 65.
The entrance of emergency overflow conduit 65 is above the entrance of conduit 63, which extends vertically alongside this machine.- The emergency overflow conduit 65 for the left hand,
machine runs vertically downward through the floor, lying in back of conduit 65 (Figure 5). The conduit 65 for the right hand machine of Figure 5 is connected by an inclined conduit 58 to the conduit 55 for the left hand machine, such conduits 65 and 66 lying directly in back of conduits 63 and 54 for the right hand machine. The discharges from the combined conduits it and from the combined conduits 85 may be emptied into a sewer or, if desired, the reagents contained in them may be recovered.
To maintain a constant depth of fluid in the coagulating trough it of each machine, elevated overflow pipes 61 are provided at intervals in the trough along the length thereof, as shown to advantage in Figure 1. These overflow pipes '1 discharge into a common conduit 68 extending lengthwise of the machine beneath trough II as shown in Figures 1, 2 and 5. As is apparent from Figures 2 and 5, on each machine conduit 68 is connected to a vertical return pipe 69. The return pipe 69 for the right hand machine in Figure 5 runs vertically downward through the floor to the storage and make-up tanks 58 below the floor. The return pipe 89 for the left hand machine in Figure 5 does not do so but is connected to theretum pipe 69 of the right hand machine by cross pipe 10.
On each machine, a bypass valve 12 may be provided, as shown in Figures 2, 5 and 14, to connect the return pipe 58 to the waste conduit 85 through pipe 13. A valve 14 may, as shown in Figures 2 and 14, also be disposed in each return pipe 69. By opening valve 12 and suitable adjustment of valve 14, part or all of the returned coagulating liquid is returned to the make-up tanks 56. However, at intervals it may be desired to remove a certain amount of coagulating liquid which may be spent and replace it with fresh liquid, in which case valves 12 and I4 are of use. Furthermore, in emergencies or whenever else desired, it is possible to pass all of the liquid to the sewer.
As shown in Figure 14, the coagulating liquid is forced by means of pumps 51 from storage tanks .the sewer through the bypass valve I2, by suitable adjustment of said valve and of valve 14.
The conduits I! which supply the desired reagent. which may be a coagulating liquid, to the distributor pipes It for the reels 2 on opposite sides of each machine are joined by a transverse conduit I5 as shown in Figures 3, 4 and 6. Each conduit 15 is connected by conduit 18 to one end of a constant head supply box 11. The reagent for reels 2 is supplied to constant head box 11, shown in enlarged scale in Figure '7, through conduit it from storage tanks 19 by means of one or more circulating pumps 8| (Figures 2 and 14). One of the sides of box 11 is provided with an overflow portion v82 having a weir plate II which may be adjustable to vary the head of liquid in the box.
Liquid somewhat in excess of the amount supplied to the reels 2 is supplied to the box 11, the excess flowing out of the box over the weir plate 83 into return conduit 84, so that a constant head is maintained in the box. By adjusting the height of the top surface of weir plate 83, the head of liquid in the box 11 may be regulated, as by placing a plate having suitable height in the slot adapted to receive the plate, and in this manner the volume of the liquid flowing. into conduits It on both sides of the two machines may be controlled. The constant head box 11 and particularly the top surface 01' weir plate 53 are sufllciently above the level of conduit; I I and distributing conduits It to provide a suincient head to supply the processing liquid to all reels 2 on both sides of both machines. Accurate control of the amount of and pressure of liquid supplied to conduits l9 and to the distributor pipes i8 is thus effected. This is extremely desirable, since thus the liquid can be economically used and the processing conditions on the reels 2 accurately adjusted.
Conduit 84 discharges into a return box 85, as is shown to good advantage in Figures 2, 5 and 14. Communicating with the bottom of return box 85 shown in enlarged scale in Figures 8 and 9 is a return pipe 86 which leads to the storage and make-up tanks 19. In this manner all of the excess liquid which flows over weir plate 83 oi. the constant head box 82 may be returned to the tanks 19 for re-use.
As is apparent from Figures 3, 4, 5 and 6, the processing liquid which has been applied to the reels 2 and has been collected in the troughs 20 below said reels on opposite sides of each machine is delivered by pipes 81 to a common junction box 88 fixed to such machine. The box 08 is shown in enlarged scale in Figures 10 and 11. From the bottom of the junction box 88 on each machine a pipe 89 carries the liquid to the return box 85. Thus the acid solution which has been applied to the thread on reels 2 on both sides 01' the two machines is caused to join the chine.
and as shown to advantage in Figures 8 and 9. the return box 85 is formed with an internal partition 9| the top edge of which is somewhat below the upper surface of the box but a substantial distance above the bottom of the box.
This partition separates the return box 85 Into compartments 92 and 93. The lower ends of conduits 69 lie rln notches 94 in opposite side walls of the return box and deliver into compartment 93, as does return pipe 84 from the constant headbox 11; Conduit 86 leading to the tanks I I8 is connected to compartment 93. Comparterationto free the thread of the coagulant bement 92 on the opposite side of partition 9| delivers through pipe 95 into inclined emergency discharge pipe 66. Therefore, ii for any reason the liquid is supplied to return box 85 at a greater rate than it can beremoved therefrom by return conduit 86, as because of clogging of the conduit 86, the liquid overflow partition 9| and passes into the sewer.
The flow of the liquid supplied to the reels 2 is apparentfrom Figure 14. The liquid is supplied from tanks 19, being forced by one or more pumps 8| through conduit I8 to the constant head box II. A constant head is maintained in said box by a weir, as explained above, the excess liquid passing through pipe 84 to the junc-' fore it passes to the succeeding alkaline desulphurizing operation. It has been found, howeve that if the washing liquid is weakly acidic, beneficial results are obtained because of the fact that the iormation of precipitates on the thread,
which tend to form because of the use of salts in the coagulating bath, is prevented. Yet, the treating liquid applied to the thread on reels 3 should be only weakly acidic, since an acid concentration greater than a very small amount would result in difliculties in the succeeding altion box 85, whence it passes-through return pipe 86 to the tanks 'i9. The liquid in the overflow box which does not pass over the weir passes through pipes I6 to the transverse pipes I5, one for each machine, which,,connect the conduits I9 extending longitudinally of the machine. The liquid is applied to the thread on the reels 2 and is collected in troughs 20. The collected liquid flows from the troughs 20 on opposite sides of each machine to a junction box 88 on the ma- The discharge from the return box 80 for two adjacent machines passes through pipes 80 to junction box 05, from whence it returns to tanks I9 through pipe 86.
The washing liquid applied to the thread on reels 3 is supplied from storage tanks 86 (Figure 14). By means of one or-more pumps 01, the liquid is delivered through conduit 98 to constant head supply box 99 which may, as shown. be disposed below and be substantially identical to constant head supply box II (Figures 2, 5 and 14). The overflow from this constant head box returns directly to the storage tanks 96 through a conduit I00. From each end of box 99, as shown in Figures 5 and 6, a conduit IN is connected by means of a transverse conduit I02 (Figures 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 14) to the conduits 22 extending longitudinally'along opposite sides of each machine. On each machine, the liquid which is supplied to the reels 3 through distributors 2I from conduits 22 is collected in'the corresponding collecting troughs 23. The liquid collected in the troughs on each machine passes through pipes I03 to a junction box I04 located immediately below junction box 88 as shown in Figures 3 and l. From'junction box I04 on each machine the liquid passes through a conduit I05 to a main return box I06.'
Return box I06 is similar in construction to main return box 85. In the illustrated embodiment, from the bottom of return box I06 the returning liquid flows through conduit IN to an overflow weir box I08 (Figure 14). The latter passes the excess part of the liquid to the sewer and returns the remainder to the storage and make-up tanks ,96. Return box I06, which is similar to the previously described return box 85, is also provided with a partition over which kallne des'ulphurizing stage.
The sodium sulphide solution for the desulphurizing operation, which solution is applied to the thread stored on reels 4, is contained in storage and make-up tanks I I2. Byfmeans of pumps I I3 this fluid is delivered through conduit IM to constant head supplyv box II5. A conduit H0 leads the solution from each end of box M5 to a transverse conduit II'I (Figures 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 14) which is connected to the two longitudinal conduits 25 on opposite sides of the corresponding machine.
The liquid applied to the reels t on each machine from the conduits 25 through the agency of the distributor pipes 20' is collected in the troughs 26. The liquid from reels 0 collected in the troughs on opposite sides of each machine is conducted through pipes M8 to junction box H9 (Figures 3.4 and 14). A. conduit I2I conveys the liquid from each junction box to a main return box 22 (Figures 5 and 14). Also discharging into return box I22 is conduit I23 leading from the overflow weir of constant head supply box II5. All of the fluid so delivered into return box I22 is returned through conduit I24 to the storage tanks H2, thus completing a closed circuit.
Any overflow of the liquid in return box I22 discharges through conduit I25 into emergency discharge conduit 66.
The washing liquid for reels 5 originates in make-up storage tanks I26, which, as will be described later, receive the liquid which has been used to wash the thread on reels I after the thread has been subjected to bleaching liquid on reels 5 (Figure 14) One or more pumps I2I deliver the liquid from said tanks through conduit I28 to constant head supply box I29 for the reels 5. The overflow. from box I29 passes through conduit I3I and is returned indirectly to the tanks I26, as will hereinafter appear. This return is for the purpose of re-supplying the overflowing washing liquid to the reels 5 before it is con-' 1 duit I33 is connected to conduits 28 which extend longitudinally of the machine on each side thereof and supply the liquid to the reels 8 through the Since the washing liquid, after use on reels 5,
is passed to a tank difl'erent from the tank in which the liquid originated, the liquid is not recirculated back through the same processing stage as was the case in connection with the processing operations previously discussed. This is desirable, among other reasons, because it prevents the cumulative concentration in the washing liquid of the desulphurizing liquid carried by the thread from the preceding processing stage. Such concentration, of course, would be undesirable in washing liquid, the purpose of which is to wash the thread free of such dasulphurizing liquid.
In the illustrated embodiment, the washing liquid after use on reels and after being collected in tank I29 is caused to flow by one or more pumps I42 through pipe I48 to the branched pipe I44, one branch of which passes to each machine and through suitable connections delivering the washing liquid to the waste troughs I8 on each side of each machine, as shown in Figures 2, 5 and 14. As has been indicated, the liquid passing through the waste troughs I8 passes through conduits 82 into box 59, from which it discharges to the sewer through conduit 89.
The bleaching solution to which the thread is subjected on reels 8 is contained in make-up and storage tanks I (Figure 14). By means of one or more pumps I48 this liquid is delivered through conduit I" to constant head supply box I48. A conduit I49 at each end or supply box I49 conveys the bleaching liquid to conduit I5I extending transversely of the corresponding machine as shown in Figures 2, 3, .4, 5, 6, and 14. On each machine, the transverse conduit I5I supplies the liquid to the conduits 2| which extend longitudinally of the machine on opposite sides thereof and supply liquid to the reels 8 through distributors 98, as is advantageously shown in Figure 1.-
The bleaching liquid collected in collecting troughs 82 disposed below the reels 8 on opposite sides of each machine is conveyed through inclined conduits I52 to a junction box I59 fixed to each machine as shown in Figures 3 and 4. The liquid from each junction box I53 is delivered through inclined conduit I54 to a main return box I55. The bleaching liquid which overflows the weir of constant head box I49 passes through conduit I58 to the main return box I55. All of the liquid thus collected in box I is delivered through conduit I51 to the supply tanks I45. Thus a circulation system for the bleaching liquid is provided. In case of an emergency overflow of liquid in the main return box I55, the liquid may pass through conduit 158 into the emergency discharge conduit 88.
For reasons which will be apparent hereinafter, the liquid applied to the thread on the next reels I is preferably fresh wash water. Water of the desired degree of purity and softness may be supplied from a suitable source, as through conduit I59- to constant head Supp y box I88. Since the source of .water is ordinarily outside the manufacturing plant, no water storage tanks are ordinarily necessary in association with the machines. If desired, the admission of water from conduit I59 into supply box I88 may be controlled by a float within the supp y box, but the supply may also be conveniently controlled as shown by a valve "I in conduit I59, the flow being in excess 01' that necessary so that some fluid always overflows the weir of the box- I88 into pipe I82, thus keeping a constant head on the distributors supp ying liquid to the reels.
The wash water is conducted to each machine from supply box I88 through a conduit I88 which communicates with a transverse conduit I84,
connecting with longitudinal reel supp y conduits 34 on opposite sides oi each machine as shown in Figures 2, 3. 4, 5, 6, and 14.
From the collecting troughs 85 disposed beneath reels 1 on the opposite sides of each machine, the wash water is conveyed through inclined conduits I88 to junction box I88 flxed to the machine as shown in Figures 3 and 4. A conduit I81 carries the liquid from each junction box I88 to the main return box I88, which communicates with storage tanks I28 through conduit I88. From tanks I28 the liquid passes to the supply box I29, and is used trfwash the thread on reels 8. as was previously explained and as is apparent from Figure 14.
According to the invention, the liquid which has discharged over the weir in the constant head supply box I29 for reels 5 into conduit Ill and the liquid which has discharged over the weir in constant head supply box I58 for the reels I and which passes through conduit I82 are combined and passed to the tanks I28 through return box I88 and conduit I89. In the illustrated embodiment of the invention, the overflow conduit I2I from the supply box I28 and the overflow conduit I82 from the supply box I88 join in the Y coupling III, as shown in Figure 5. Return box I88 may be provided with an overflow partition and communicate with the emergency discharge conduit through conduit I12, in a manner similar to other return boxes.
The nature of the contamination of the wash water which occurs after the water has been used to wash the thread on reels 1 is such that the water is entirely suitable for washing the thread on reels 5 after the desulphurizing operation on reels 4. This arises out of the fact that both the desulphurizing and bleaching liquids are alkaline, as a result of which is obviated the production of undesirable reaction products if the washing water from reels 1 containing a slight amount of alkaline bleaching liquid is used to wash the thread immediately after the des'ulphurizing operation, when it contains alkaline desulphurizing liquid. Moreover, the bleaching solution itself is very dilute, so that the liquid leaving the washing stage on reels 1 after the-bleaching stage on reels 8 is only slightly contaminated. It is because of these facts that the liquid in conduit I89 after leaving reels I is delivered to storage tanks I28 for use in washing the thread stored on reels 5. Because the liquid overflowing the weir of supply box I29 into conduit III is of the same character as the liquid in the storage tanks I28, since the liquid was pumped from tanks I28, conduit III is connected to return such liquid to storage tanks I28. The overflow from supply box I88 into conduit I82 serves to further dilute the originally very weak concentration of bleaching liquid in the wash water contained in tank I28 because such overflow liquid is fresh water;
The finishing liquid which is applied to the thread stored on reels 8 is contained in storage and make-up tanks I14. By means of one or more pumps I15 this liquid ls delivered through conduit I18 to constant head supply box I'll. For each machine, a conduit I18 leads from supply boxII'I to a transverse conduit I18, which connects with the longitudinal conduits 81 on opposite sides of the-machine as is shown to advantage in Figures 2, 3, 4, 5, 6,- and 14. The liquid collected in the troughs 88 on opposite sides of each machine drains through conduits I8l to junction box I82.
A conduit I83 carries the liquid from each junction box I82 to a common main return box I84. The liquid overflowing from over the weir of constant head supply box Ill is conducted through conduit I85 to the mainreturn box I 8|.
, The liquid so-collected in box I88 returns through conduit I86 to the storage tanks Ill thus com= pleting the cycle. As in the case of previously described return boxes, return box I88 provides emergency overflow through conduit I81 to emergency discharge conduit 68.
As has been pointed out, in the illustrated embodiment of the invention, each reel 8 serves as a drip reel. For this reason no liquid is supplied to longitudinal conduits 88. The liquid which is carried by the thread from reels 8 to reels 8 and which drips from the thread while stored on reels 8 is collected in troughs 38. Troughs 88 on opposite sides of each machine are connected through conduits I81 to a junction box I88 as shown in Figures 3 and 4.
From each junction box I88 a conduit I88 leads to a return box I9I (Figure illustrated, the liquid collected in return box I8I is discarded to'waste by connecting its outlet with the emergency discharge conduit 86. One suitable manner of causing the finishing liquid collected in return box I8I to pass into the emergency sewer pipe without substantially changing the construction of any part is to stop the outlet in the return box corresponding to the outlet from compartment 83 of the return box illustrated in Figures 8 and 9, so that the liquid will overflow the partition in the return box i8! and dischargev through conduit I82 into the emergency discharge conduit 88. Of course, the fin ishing liquid in return box I8I may be conducted to storage tanks I'll for re-use, if desired.
Thereafter, each thread passes from its reel 8 to the corresponding drying reel I8, after which it is collected on. the corresponding cap twister l5;
Thus it can be seen that the present invention makes possible the reuse and recirculation of such liquids as may advantageously be re-used'. In this way it provides great economy of con- In the machine liquid finishing step, which may be oiling or soaping. 1
Water collected after such use being slightly alkaline from the bleaching liquid washed from the thread, is employed to Wash the thread stored on reels 5 free of the alkaline desulphurizing liquid applied to the threads on reels 4. Thus the hydrogen ion concentrations of the treating liquids applied to the thread before both of said washing operations lie in ranges which are compatible: so that no undesirable reactions,
which, for instance, could cause the formation of salts'on the thread, can result. That is, in the illustrated apparatus the liquid which has been used to wash the thread free of an alkaline processing liquid is not used to wash the thread free of an acid processing liquid, or vice versa.
The washing water which has been used twice fordifle'rent washing operations is then used in the waste troughs alongside the coagulating troughs of the two machines before being passed to the sewer.
It is obvious, however, that under suitable circumstances, water which may have been employed to wash the thread after an alkaline treating stage may be employed to wash vthe thread after. an acidic treating stage or vice versa; indeed, it has been found possible to wash the thread with pure -water after the bleaching stage, to use this water for washing after the desulphurizing stage, thence to employ such twiceused water for washing after the acidic treating stage, and then to pass the water to the aforesaid waste trough .or to the sewer. The illustrated system, however, is preferable.
Thus a very economical use is made possible of the washing water, which ordinarily is expensive because of the degree of purity and softness which is required in the manufacture of artificial silk thread. Indeed, actual experiments have shown that when this feature of the invention is not employed and fresh wash water is applied on each of the washing stages, from two to three times as much water must be used to produce a given quantity of thread as isrequired when the water 'is recirculated according to the present sumption of processing liquids and thus elim- I invention. Actual experience has'revealed that if this feature of the present invention were not employed, the cost of the water required to wash the thread thoroughly might be so great as to impair the commercial feasibility of the continuous processing apparatus. According to the present invention, however, even less water may actually be required per pound of thread-than in the conventional discontinuous processes.
Preferably, a plurality of storage tanks is provided for each of the various liquids necessary in the manufacture of the thread. Likewise, it is preferable to provide a plurality of pumps to circulate such liquid. With a plurality of tanks and pumps it is possible to take one of the tanks or pumps out of commission if necessary, as for repairs, cleaning, or the like, without stopping the machine asa whole. In actual practice it is preferable that only one pump be employed while another pump is idle to serve as a standby unit.
In the illustrated embodiment of the invention an upper platform I 93 is carried by both machines so that an operator standing thereon can have access to the spinnerets I2 mass tubes I4,
spinning pumps, coagulating trough I3, reels I and the like. A lower platform I84 is provided along each side of each machine to permit an operator standing thereon to have access to the reels! to 8, inclusive, on which wet thread is 8 I a,aee,vss
stored. An operator standing on the floor below the production oi a like number threads, it v has been found desirable tosubdivide the proofequipment into sections say of 10. reels each. The various collecting troughs disposed below the reels can be long enough to extend un'-' der the corresponding reels in one section. Be: tween sections the corresponding collecting troughs may be connected by suitable couplings, such as those shown inFiguresS and dottheillustrated apparatus, for supplying and removing liquid'i'rom the collecting troughs. In the illustrated apparatus, flexibie couplings I" are provided tor connecting the collecting troughs to the drain pipes, and may be provided for conducting the collected liquid from the col-'- lecting trough for one section to the corresponding trough for the adjacent section. Such cou-' plings may be made of rubber if desired and be slipped over suitable boss portions on the troughs and clamped thereon. Similar couplings Ill may be provided as shown to connect the conduits formed in the troughs with the liquid supply pipes and may also be provided to connect the conduits in adjacent troughs. In the apparatus shown, an inclined channelled member I9! is also disposed on the frame of the machine below each row'of couplings. Said channelled member communicates with the sewer through conduit Ill and serves to collect any liquid which might leak from the couplings or be discharged from the troughs if, for instance, a trough is replaced for any reason.
The liquid thrown off the reels'on each side of the machine during rotation thereof tends to cause a current ,in the liquid collected in the troughs below the reels. If, as in the illustrated apparatus, the reels on both sides of each machine rotate in the same direction with respect to a person facing the free ends of the reels, this current is directed toward one end of the machine on one side oi the machine while it is directed toward the other end of the machine on the other side; whereas the collected liquid is withdrawn from the troughs only at one end of the machine. No particular difllculties occur 'with most of the processing liquids applied on the reels. However, it has been found that the liquids applied to the thread on reels 2, 3 and 4 have a tendency to 10am up at the end of the machine remote from the liquid collecting means on the side in which the artificial current induced by the liquid discharged from the reelsis directed away from the collecting means. It has therefore been found desirable to connect the far ends of the corresponding troughs on opposite sides of the machine together as by conduits I99 as shown in Figure 1.
In the illustrated apparatus, the constant head supply boxes 11, 99, II5,v I29, I48, I60, and I" are identical in construction and are disposed in stacked relation, the supply box for the flrst processing liquid applied to the thread being disposed at the top and the others below it in sequence. The boxes are shown as being supported by vertical uprights "bat the corners -oi the boxes, which uprights are supported by cross beams 20I carried by vertical beams 20! and Ill. The various junction boxes 88, I04, 9, I35, I53,
m, m, and m for each machine may be disposed asshown in Figures 3 and 4 inverticsl arrangement. The Junction boxes for each machine may be identical, as shown. Each of the boxes may be fastened to the end of its corresponding 5 machine by bolts through lugs I, which are shown to advantageinl 'igures and 11.
. The main return boxes ll, I08, I22, I31, I", 4, I. and III are, in the illustrated embodiment, mounted on an inclined beam 205 so that 10 they are in eflect in stepped relation. The top of each-return box is disposed alongside of and below the top of the proceeding box. Each of the return boxes, has been indicated, has an emergency discharge conduit connected to the inclined conduit It which extends between the two ma- I me'mm arrangement of the main return ,boxes is advantageous for several reasons. The
tops oi the boxes are all readily accessible to an 2 operator and hence conduits discharging therein can befeasily removed. "Moreover, the return boxes are readilyaccessible to an operator deairing to; test the composition of the various processing liquids. It is a simple matter'i'or him to withdraw from the corresponding return box a sample of the liquid. 11 any of the liquid is found to'be too weak or too strong, a strengthening addition or a dilution might be supplied to the corresponding makeup storage tank or even,
ii desired, to the return box itself. It is desirable to check at frequent intervals the composition 0! the coagulating liquid, the acid applied on reels 2, the washing liquid applied on reels 3, the desulphurizing liquid applied on reels 4, the bleaching solution applied on reels I, and the emulsion solution applied on reels 8. Such liquids, with, of course, the exception of the coagulating bath liquid, can be readily checked in the corresponding return box.
As has been explained above, the weir plates in each of the constant head supply boxes may be i made adjustable to secure the desired pressure on the reagent distributors with which said constant head supply box is empl y In t 118- trated apparatus, provision has also been made for adjusting the amount of processing liquid flowing into each constant head supply box. By means oi valve 2 in the conduit supplying liquid to each constant head supply box the quantity of liquid flowing into the box may be accurately controlled, or entirely shut 01!, it desired. Any ad- Justment oi the flow of processing liquid into the constant head supply box should preferably result in a flow of liquid sufllcient'to cause overflowing at the weir associated with the box, so that a constant head of liquid can be maintained in the,
As is apparent from the drawings, the apparatus illustrated as embodying the invention makes possible'a compact, eflicient arrangement 0! conduits tor the circulation of the numerous processing liquids which it is necessary or desirable toappiy to the thread. Because the conduits and other parts of the liquid conveying the apparatus are disposed between the two ends of the machines, considerable economies in floor space are provided. The same holds true as to economies in construction, since various parts such as the constant head supply boxes and the return boxesmay be used in common for both machines'and thus save the cost of duplication.
The above-described embodiment of the invention is purely illustrative and various changes may be made therein without departing from the spirit of the present invention. The conduits and made of hard rubber or Bakelite because of their lightness. The reels are conveniently oi Bakelite with the exception of the drying reel, which is preferably of aluminum; but other materials may be employed, if desired.
In the appended claims, the term thread" is intended to include, besides thread per se, materials such as filaments, bundles of filaments from which staple fiber is formed, artificial horsehair, artificial straw, artificial ribbons, and other materials capable of being processed according to the teachings of the present invention. It is intended that the patent shall cover, by suitable expression in the appended claims, whatever features of patentable novelty reside in the invention.
What is claimed is:
i. The method of continuously processing freshly spun viscose thread comprising continuously passing the thread endwise in the form of a traveling helix made up of a large number of closely spaced generally helical turns through each of a plurality of spaced treating stages; continuously applying processing liquid to the thread in each of said treating stages, said processing liquid being collected after it has been applied to the thread in such stage; and continuously employing the processing liquid that has been collected in a later one of said treating stages to process the thread in at least one of the earlier of said treating stages, said earlier treating stage continuously collecting the washing medium applied to the thread in at least one of said succeeding treating stages; and continuously applying the collected washing medium to the thread in an earlier of said succeeding treating stages.
4. The method of continuously processing freshly spun viscose thread comprising continuously passing the thread endwise in the form of separated from said later treating stage by at least one intermediate treating stage in which a difierc-nt processing liquid is applied to the threa 2. '1'? .e method of continuously processing fresh y spun viscose thread comprising continuously passing the thread endwise in the form of a traveling helix made up of a large number of closely spaced generally helical turns through each of a plurality of spaced treating stages; continuously applying processing liquid to the thread ineach of said treating stages, said processing liquid being collected after it has been applied to the thread in such stage; and continuously employing the processing liquid that has been collected in a treating stage which tends to contaminate such liquid to a lesser extent to process the thread in at least one other treating stage which tends to contaminate the processing liquid to a greater extent but which is separated therefrom by at least one intermediate treating stage in which a difierent processing liquid is applied to the thread.
3. The method of continuously processing freshly spun viscose thread comprising continuously passing the thread endwise in the form of a traveling helix made up of a large number of closely spaced generalLv helical turns through a plurality of spaced treating stages succeeding each of which is at least one other treating stage;
continuously applying a liquid to the thread in each of said spaced treating stages and in each of said succeeding treating stages, the thread being subjected in at least two of said spaced treating stages to treatment with separate ionica traveling helix made up of a large number of closely spaced generally helical turns through each of a plurality of spaced treating stages;
continuously applying a processing medium to the thread in each of said treating stages, the processing media applied to the thread in said treating stages including in sequence desulphuriz'ing, washing, bleaching and washing media; and continuously employing the washing medium which has been used to wash the thread after the bleaching stage to wash the thread after the desulphurizing stage.
5. The method of manufacturing artificial sill: thread by a continuous process comprising forming the thread in a longitudinally extending coagulating trough having adjacent thereto a waste trough extending longitudinally thereof in which waste trough a stream of liquid is employed to wash away waste material; continuously passing the thread from said forming means endwise in the form of a traveling helix made up of a large number of closely spaced generally helical turns through each of a'plurality of treating stages; continuously applying a processing liquid to the thread in each of said treating stages, similar processing liquid being applied to the thread in at least two of said treating stages; continuously employing processing liquid which has been used to process the thread in a later treating stage to process the thread in at least one of the earlier treating stages separated from said later treating stage by at least one intermediate treating stage in which a different processing liquid is applied to the thread; and thereafter continuously supplying the same processing liquid to said ally active processing media having hydrogen Q ion concentrations falling in a compatible range and in the treating stages succeeding said spaced treating stages to treatment with washing media;
waste trough for the purpose of washing away waste material.
6. The method of manufacturing artificial silk thread by a continuous process comprisingforming the thread in a longitudinally extending coagulating trough having adjacent-thereto a waste trough extending longitudinally thereof in which waste trough a stream of liquid is employed to wash away waste material; continuously passing the thread from said forming means endwise in the form of a traveling helix made up of a large number of closely spacedgenerally helical turns through each of a plurality of treating stages; continuously applying a processing liquid to the thread in each of said treating stages; continuously employing processing liquid which has been used to process the thread in the stage which tends to contaminate suchliquid to a lesser exsuch re-use of the processing liquid, continuously sup lying such processing liquid to said waste trough for the purpose of washing away waste material.
7. The method of manufacturing viscose artificial silk thread by a.continuous process comprising iorming the thread in a longitudinally extending coagulating trough having adjacent thereto a. waste trough extending longitudinally thereof in which waste trough a stream oi liquid is employed to wash away waste material; continuously passing the thread from said forming means endwise in the form ,of a traveling helix made up of a large number 01 closely spaced generally helical turns through each of a plurality of treating stages; continuously applying a processing liquid to the thread in each oi said treating stages, the processing liquids thus applied to the thread including in sequence desulphurizing,
mamas washing, bleachingand washing liquids; continuously employing washing liquid which has been used to wash the thread aiterthe bleaching stage to wash the thread after the desulphurizing stage; and, after such re-use of the washing liquid, continuously supplying such washing liquid to said waste trough tor the purpose of washing away waste material,
' HAYDEN B. KLINE.
LOUIS S. FRYER.
ALDEN H. BURKHOLDER.
' CERTIFICATE OF CORREGTION.
' Patent No 2,2u6,755. June at, 191m.
HAYDEN B. KLINE, ET AL.
It is hereby certified that error appears in the printed specification of the above numbered patent requiring correction as follows: Page 2, sec 0nd column, line 75, for the word "opposite" read "appositepage 5, first column, line 9'8, for "return" read -jun'ction--; line 14.0, for "Junetion", read --return--; same page, second column, line [1,5, for the reference numeral "22" read --l22--; page 6, first column, line for "machne" read -1 nachine--; and that the said Letters Patent shouldbe read with this correction therein that the same may conform to the recordof the case in the'Patent Office.
Signed and sealed this 25rd day of September, A. D. 191 11.
7 Henry, Van Arsdale, (Seal), Acting Commissioner of Patents.