US 2247614 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July l, 1941.
J. D. LINGENFELTER BUILDING BLOCK Filed Jan. 2. 1940 2 Sheets-Sheet 1 INVENTOR A-TTORNEYS July 1, 1941- J. D. LINGENFELTER y BUILDING BLOCK Filed Jan. .2,.1940
2 Sheets-Sheet 2 ATTOR NEYS Patented July l, 1941 "nulieosrares PATENT OFFICE Application January 2, 1940, Serial No. 312,117
(Cl. 'l2- 42) 4 Claims.
My invention relates to building structures, particularly walls, and includes among its objects and advantages the provision of an improved building block.
An object oi my invention is to provide a building block fashioned in such marmer as to provide a structurally sound, weather-tight wall without the necessity of using a troWel or mortar bed and head joints, so that an eicient wall may be laid successfuilyby anyone possessing ordinary mechanical skillv in contradistinction to prior types of building blocks which require a skilled mason to properly erect the wall.
Another object is to provide a building block so contoured as to provide a .wall of rigid and Weatherproof properties solely because of the contour of the block and in which an efficient masonry wall may be erected without the use of trowel, the usual bed and head mortar joints. Another object is to provide a building block designed to provide cheaplyerected Wall structures for farm buildings, `garages and other small structures, with the building blocks in the wall so interconnected and arranged as to afford ample strength and durability for the purpose intended, with the building blocks interconnected in such manner as to reinforce the wall against lateral displacement, together with novel tying means for effectively interconnecting the blocks in each wall into a unitary structure as well as to effectively interconnect joining Walls.
. A further object is to provide a building block fashioned to facilitate erection of the wall about window frames and the like, in which certain of the blocks in the wall structure may be so arranged as to form a pier for stifi'ening a long wall, and in which other blocks in the wall structure may be arranged to provide complete masonry jarnb blocks as well as self-supporting, reinforced lintels.
In the accompanying drawings:
Figure 1 is a cross-sectional View of a portion of a wall illustrating the manner in which the building blocks are arranged in interconnected relation in the form of a wall structure;
Figure 2 is a perspective view of one of the building blocks;
Figure 3 is a perspective view of a companion building block; A y
Figure 4 is a perspective view of a corner building block;
Figure 5 is a top plan View of a portion of two walls and their interconnecting corner as well as a sectional view of one side of a window frame and the adjacent Wall structure;
Figure 6 is a cross-sectional View of a head jamb and blocks arranged to provide a reinforced lintel;
Figure 7 is a plan View of a portion of a Wall illustrating the manner in which certain of the blocks may be arranged to provide a pier for stiffening a long wall;
Figure 8 is a perspective view of a portion of a building corner;
Figure 9 is a cross-sectional view of a fragment of a siloI wall illustrating blocks particularly designed for such walls;
Figure l0 is a cross-sectional View of a portion of a culvert structure illustrating a block particularly designed for such purposes;
Figure 11 is a cross-sectional view of a portion of a wall illustrating a diierent form of block structure;
Figure 12 is a cross-sectional view of a portion of a Wall illustrating another form of block structure; and
Figure 13 is a cross-sectional view of a portion of a partition illustrating a block particularly designed for such wall structures.
1n lthe embodiment selected to illustrate my invention, Fig. 2 illustrates a building block l0 of hollow formation, as illustrated at I2, with an interlocking or key element I4 extending longitudinally of the block and projecting laterally of its otherwise iiat face I6. Block I0 has ends I8 arranged in parallelism and at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the block, in addition to a ii-at bottom face 2l) and a top face 22, which top and bottom faces are arranged in parallelism. Fig. 2 illustrates the key element I4 as having a top face 24 paralleling the top face 22 but located at a slightly lower level to provide a Wall area 26 extending the full length of the block, which is also true of the key element I4.
Key element I4 includes a flat face 28 vparalleling the face It, and the end faces 3l) of the key element lie in planes common to the end faces i8 of the block, and the key element is hollow, as illustrated at 32. I fashion the key element I4 with a face 34 arranged at an angle to the face It to provide a rer-entering angle 36.
Fig. 3 illustrates a companion block 38, which block it made hollow, as-at 40, and the block has parallel end faces 42V arranged at right angles to the longitudinal axis of the block, with the latter of the sameV length as the block II).y I provide the block 38 with bottom and top faces d4, and 46, respectively. Y I
Projecting laterally of the inner face 48 of the block 38 is a keyY or anchor element 50 of hollow formation, as at 52. The general configuration of the key element 58 is identical with the key element I4 in that it includes a face 54 paralleling the face 48 and a face 56 angularly arranged with respect to the face 48 to provide a re-entering angle 58', and the contour and area of the face 56 is identical with the face 34. Face 56 has the same degree of angular relation to the face 48 as the face 34 has; to the face I6 of the block illustrated in Fig. 2.V The end faces 68 of the key element 50 `lie in planes common to the faces 42, and the wall 62 of the key element is o-f such thickness as to provide a lug 64 projecting below the bottom face 44 and characterized by a narrow face 66 extending the full length of the block y 38, but in a plane substantially common to the face 48. Y g
Fig. l illustrates the manner in which the blocks I and 38 are assembled in the wall. The blocks I0 lare arranged in superposed courses exteriorly of the Wall structure, While blocks V38 are similarly arranged in superposed courses interiorly of the Wall. The outer faces 68 of the blocks IllA lie in ya vcommon plane, which is also true of theouter faces 'I0 of the blocks 38. The wedgelike` projection 'I2 defined by the faces 28 and 34 of the key element I 4 extends into the re-entering angle 5-8 of the block 38, and the face 34 of the key element I4 lies in parallel engagement with the face 56 of the key element 50. Accordingly,
the wedge-like p-rojection 14 defined by the faces 54 and 56 of the key element 50 extends into the re-entering angle 36 of the block I0, with the face 28 of the key element I4 lying snugly against the face 48V of the blo-ck 38. In the same manner, the face 540i the key elem-ent 50 lies snugly against the facewl of the block I8.v
The bottom faces 2|] of the building blocks I0 are `adapted to rest Von the upper faces 22 of their respective building blocks, while the lower faces 44 of the building Iblocks 38 are adapted to rest on the top faces 46 of their respective building blocks. With the building lblocks so arranged, as illustrated in Fig. 1', the lower margins of the faces 54 ofthe keyV elements 50 lie in partly overlapping-relation with the faces 26 of the building blocksID, an-d thefa'ce 66 of each lug 62 lies in overlapping relation with a limited area of the face 4-8of the underlying building block 38, but the lugs-'62 have their faces 64 spaced slightly from the associated faces 24 on the key elements I-4 forjthe' accommodation of a cementing g-rout 16; Y M
"lhe building blocks I0 in the lowermost course in the'wall 'structure have their faces 20 resting on faces 'I8 on a concrete foundation 80, which foundation is formed with a'shallow trough 82 of suflicient Vdepth to house the lugs 62 and to providev accommodation for a thin body of cement-ing grout 84,' The cementing grout I6 and 84"may be poured from suitable containers or forced into position through the medium of flexible tubes and suitablepressure. In any event, the building blocks' I0 and 38 'are shaped to nest in a well balanced manner and effectively interconnected by reason of the'key elements I4 and 50', aswell as the lugs 62. Bonds' 'I6 and 84 supply' all necessary or desirable mortar or cemented joints; ,sof 'that a Wall structure erected` inaccordan'cewith Figjl will'produce a structurally sound and Weather-'tight Wall. j
Fig: 5- illustrates fragmentary Wall runs 88 and 88 and an interconnecting corner I9U. The corner 90-is erected from corner blocks 82' such 'as that illustrated in Fig. 4.- The block-of Fig. 4 ris hollow,
as indicated at 94, and the block includes an end face 96 arranged to lie against the end face I8 of the adjacent building block I0 in its respective course. Face 96 is identical in configuration and area with the face |-8 an-d the vertical length of the block is identical with the Vertical length or 86 and 88, respectively. Fig. 4 illustrates theV block 92 as being provided with vertical channels Fig. wbest illustrates the arrangement of the building blocks I0 and 38 and the corner blocks 92. -Th-ecorner 90 illustrated in this View is provided with a vertical reinforcing rod |08,which rod is continuous throughout the full height of thewall structure and is anchored in the concrete Ibody Il which fills all the space inside the corne-r structure, as well as the Vchannels |06. body I I0 is pouredone course ata time.
Between each course of building blocks I0 and 38 I .provide a horizontal tie rod lI| 2, which tie rodr is twisted at I|4 about theY vertical rod |08, and? the rod is located in the bonds 16,- as best illus-'Y trated in Fig. 1. In actual practice, I prefer to locate the4 rods |I2, supply the bonds 'IBby'pou-ring the cementing material into the channels! formedv by the building blocks |0 and 38,- and then place the succeeding blocks in position which brings the lugsY 62 into pressure relation with their respective bonds- 'I6. Thus Vthe-bonds 'I6 provide a 4seal in addition toan-chors for'the rods II2. Rods |I2 restrain the buildingY blocks I0 and 38 from relative movement horizontally, and
the rods |08, after the concrete-bodies ||0 vhave set, provide effective interconnecting means be? tween the different runs oftherod II2 passing through the different wall runs.
Fig. 5 villustrates the building blocks I0 as being shifted horizontally with respect to .the
building blocks 38 in that course so that each block I0 will have half its length overlapping half the lengths`V of twocom'panion blocks 38.'
Corner block 92 of Fig. 5,' is so fashioned `as to l permit thelnecessary offset shifting of the blocks I0 and 38 inl the wall run v86, andthe wall run- 88 `is provided vwith a shortV buildingblock ||6 embodying all the structural features of the ad`` jacent building block 88V Wit-h the exception of its length. Key elements A|4 and 50 have interlocking connectionA and' constitute effective connections between the outer `half of the wall made up of the blocks I8 and theinner half made'up In addition, the key elements? I4 and 58 operate to interconnect the-blocksin of the blocks 38.
alignment *for load supporting purposes'nasf well as maintaining therbjocks in theiroriginali-Lpml sitions. y. y
Fig. 5V illustrates afragmentof a lwi'jiuiciw frame,
I|8Has being incorporated in thewall runr88.
The wall is similarly constructed about door and` window frames so that the descriptioni ofY one willapply to all. The woodvjamb vIZ/flies infp'artly overlapping relation face 4520i ,thefad jacent buildingblockB-,fand a rllrnloclgf 0f'ils` arg' ranged on end to I'bring its face I6 partly innover# The lapping relation with the frame member |22,an`d the face 26 of the block abuts the outer face 68 of the adjacent block I in the wall run 88, with the face 24 of the key element I4 abuttingthe end face I8 of the adjacent block I0 inthe wall run.
Fig; illustrates the rod I|2v as being threaded through a staple |24 driven into thevjamb |20, and the wire is looped about aA vertical rod |26 located within the re-entering angle 36 of the vertically positioned block I0. The space between the grouped blocks and the jamb is iilled with concrete |28 so vthat a weather-tight construction is provided and the block |0.is effectively anchored in the wall structure. Concrete |28 will, of course, extend' as a continuous column throughout the full height of the frame ||8. Rod II2 as well as that portion of the rod threaded through the staplev |24 and looped about the rod |26 will be firmly anchored in the concrete column |28, which column is poured one course at a time in the same manner as the concrete column ||0 associated with the corner structure 90.
Fig. 6 illustrates the head jamb of the frame ||8 at |30 with a block I0 reversed and incorporated in the inside half of the wall structure to bring its face 26 into overlapping relation with the shoulder |32 on the head jamb, and the face 22 of the block I0 rests on the face' |34 of .the head jamb. Block I0 so far described in connection with Fig. 6 is turned upside down for association with the frame I I8, which brings its face I6 partly into overlapping relation with the face 66 of the lug 62 associated with the adjacent block 38. Face 44 of thel block 38 rests directly on the face 20 of the block I0.
A second block I0 is turned upside down to bring its face 26 into overlapping relation with the outer face of the frame member |36, so that the second block IIJ, with the exception of its key element I4, will lie bodily outside the outer face 68 of the block I6 in the wall run 88. Second block I8 provides a reinforced lintel and its key element I4 faces :the key element I4 of the first block I0, with the two key elements spaced for the reception of a reinforcing rod |38. Reinforcing rods |40 are located in the re-entering angles 36 of the key elements I4, and all the space between the grouped blocks is filled with a concrete body |42, which also surrounds the rods |38 and |40. Concrete of the body |42 completely fills the space between the opposing key elements I4, and a concrete bond or seal |44 is provided between the faces 24 of the key elements I4 and the face |46 of the head jamb |30. Thus the two blocks I0 will be effectively anchored in the wall structure and the frame ||8 will be effectively secured to the blocks. Concrete body |42 is fashioned to provide a lug |48 which abuts the face 54 of the lug 62, while the lug also abuts the first block |0 so that the interconnected blocks and the body |42 provide a unitary structure which eiectively holds the blocks in line.
Fig. 7 illustrates the manner in which relatively long walls may be reinforced by a pier |50, which pier comprises two blocks I0 in each course, with the blocks arranged on end to bring the faces 24 into engagement with the faces I8 of the blocks I0 in 'the wall |52. The space between the wall blocks I0 adjacent the pier |50 is iilled with a concrete column |54, which column is lled course by course and provides a key structure for the key elements I4 so that the vertically arranged blocks I0 in the pier |50 will be firmly in- 75 terconnected into the wall structure proper Vertical rods |56 are located within the re-entering angles of the vertical blocks I0, and the horizontal reinforcing ortie rod ||2 is looped at |58 about the rods |56 so as to reinforce the concrete column |54 as well as the general pier structure. Y
Fig. 9v illustrates blocks particularly designed for the construction of silo walls. The two blocks of Fig. 9 are illustrated in crosssection but the blocks may be curved in conformity with the curvature of the silo wall to rbe erected. In Fig. 9, .the block |60 includes a key element |62 identical with the key element I4, and the block is made hollow, as at |64. Similarly, block |66 is provided with a key element |68 identical with the key element 50, and the block is made hollow, as at |10, with the block provided with an angular face |12 opposing a similar angular face |14 on the block |68. Both key elements |62 and |68 are made hollow in the same manner as the key elements I4 and 50. 'Ihe lug |16 of the block 66 is tapered at |18 to engage the tapered faces |12 and |14 of the blocks |60 and |66 below the lug, and the latter is provided with a shoulder which underlies the face |82 of the block |60. The wall of Fig. 9 is provided with a bond |84 between the lug |16 and the face |86 of the block |60, with reinforcing rods |83 embedded in the bond |84.
Fig. 10 illustrates a block construction primarily designed for culvert purposes, wherein the block |90 is provided with a longitudinal trough |92 having angular side walls |94. The block is provided with a lug |96, yand the lug is provided with angular side faces |88 arranged to lie in engagement with the side walls |94 of the block thereunder. The lug |96 is spaced from the trough face 200 of the lower block to provide accommodation for a bond 202, including reinforcing rods 204. The block is made hollow, as at 206. In Fig. 11, the block 208 is provided with a key element 2|0 corresponding to the key element I4, and the block is provided with a V-groove 2|2 for the reception of a V-rib 2| 4 located von the bottom face 2|6 of the block 2|8. V-groove 2|2 is deeper than the received rib 2| 4 so as to provide space for a bond 220. In other respects, the blocks 208 and 2|8 are respectively similar to the blocks I0 and 36.
Fig. 12 illustrates blocks 222 and 224 wherein the blocks are provided with key elements 226 and 228, respectively, with the block 222 provided with a V-groove 230 and a V-shaped rib 323 aligned vertically underneath the V-groove, softhat the rib 232 of one block will lie inside the groove 230 lof the block thereunder, with the unlled space provided with a bond 234. Block 224 is provided with a V-notch 236 located vertically underneath a V-rib 238 on the upper face of the block, so that the rib 238 of one block will lie in the V-groove 236 of the next higher block with the space between the walls of the groove and the rib provided with a bond 240. In other respects, blocks 222 and 224 are similar to the blocks I0 and 38.
Fig. 13 illustrates ya block primarily designed for partition purposes, wherein the block 242 is made hollow, yas at 244, and the upper side o-f the block is provided with a channel 246. The lower side of the block is provided with a lug 248, and the lug is adapted to be positioned in the groove 246 in the next lower .block 242, with the space between the walls of the groove and the lug provided with a bond 250 in which I embed areinforcing rod 252. Y Y
'In all the forms disclosed, the blocks in the wall structure are effectively interlocked or keyed against lateral bending so that the Wall is Vso constructed as to remain perfectlyV .straight` Corner blocks 92 may, of course, be reversed end 4for end and need not all be positioned in the same general direction. The blocks may "be assembled into a wall structure in simple and easy steps, and construction of the Wall does not require the services of a skilled mason. All the blocks are so fashioned as to permit offsetting :ofthe blocks'in one course with respect to the `adjacent course or courses, with the 'interkeying means so devised as to cooperate withthe offset arrangement of the blocks to eliminate all `continuous joints through the building wall.
Having thus described certain embodiments of my invention in detail, it is, of course, understood that I do not desire to limit the `scope thereof to the exact details set lforth 'except linsofar as those details may be defined in the aplpended claims.
I claim: Y
.1. In a masonry Wall, blocks adapted to be 'arranged in contacting superposed courses in the wall, the blocks in each course having Vtop andl bottom key formations respectively interlocking with the corresponding bottom and top key formations of the next higher and lower courses, said key formations being in the nature of a channel extending longitudinally of the Wall along the tops of the blocks in yeach course and lugs extending longitudinally of the Wall at the bottoms of the blocks in each course yfor reception within the channels of the next lower courses, said channelsbeing deeper than 'the lugs disposed therein to receive a bonding material and reinforcing rods.
A2. In a'masonry wall, blocks adapted to be arranged in contacting superposed courses in the Wall, each course comprising a series of first blocks arranged end to end and a 'series of Iseoond blocks arranged end to end, said rst blocks in each course having hook-like keys, hook-` like keys on said second blocks in eac-h course adapted for hooked connection with 'the hooklike keys on said ii'rst blocks in 'that course, the joints .between the abutting ends of said nrst blocks being offset with respect to the joints between the abutting ends of the second blocks, 'all said hook-like keys extending longitudinally of their respective first and second blocks 'and being coextensive in length therewith, to bring each key of the YKfirst vblocks in each rcourse into overlapping relation with tworkeys on the second blocks in that course, the hook-like keys on Vsaid first blocks being located beneath the upper edges of their respective 'first blocks and abute tin'gthe second'blo'cksfin their respective courses to provide channels, and said second blocksin each course being provided with lugs arranged -tobedi'sposed in the channels in the next .lower course.
3. In a masonry Wall, blocks adapted to be arranged 1in contactingsuperposed courses in the wall, each coursetcomprising a series of rst" blocks arranged :end to `end and a series ofA second blocks arranged -end to end, said rst blocks vin each course having hook-like keys.,` hook-like. keys on 4said second blocks in each course adaptedfor. hooked connection with the hook-like keys on said-first blocks in that course, the joints between -the abutting ends of said first blocks being Solset Withrespect to thejoints between'the abutting ends ofthe second blocks,
all said hook-*like'keys extending longitudinally of their respective first and second blocks and being' coextensive vin length therewith, to bringL each key of 'therst blocks in` each course into arranged in contacting superposed courses inthe Wall, each coursecornprising a series of rst 'blocks arranged. end to end and a series of second blocks arranged end to end, said firstblocks in each course having hook-like keys, :hook-like keysv ons-aid second blocks in each course adapted for hooked connection with the hookdike keys -on saidrst blocks in that course, the joints between the labutting ends of said rst blocks being offset with respect Vto the joints be,- tween the abutting `ends of the second blocks, all .said hook-like keys extending -longitudinally of their respective firstand second blocks and being coextensive in length therewith, to bringv each key of the first blocks in each course into overlapping relationv with two keys on the second `blocks in that course, the hook-like keys on Vsaidfirst blocksbeing located beneath the upper edges of theirrespective rst blocks `and abutting the second blocks in their respectiveV courses to 'providechannels 'and said second4 blocks in "ea-ch course being provided with lugsk arranged Vto be disposed `in the channels in the next lower course, said. channels being deeper than saidlugs to provide space for a bond ma.- terinl and -reinforcing rods.
JAMES D. LIrreiaiivrsarrsit.V