US 2247905 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
July 1, 1941'. J. w. BRYcE APPARATUS FOR PREPARING STATISTICAL RECORDS Filed July 25, 1939 3 Sheets-Shawl 1 NmzON,
m mzON INVENTOR ATi'oRNEY July 1, 1941. .1. w. BRYCE APPARATUS FOR PREPARING STATISTICAL RECORDS Filed July 25, 1939 3 Sheets-Sheet 2 INVENTOR ATTDRNEY July A1, 1941. 1 W, BRYCE 2,247,905
APPARATUS FOR PREPARING STATISTICAL RECORDS Filed July 25, 1939 s sheets-sheet :s
Patented July 1, 1941 APPARATUS FOR PREPARING STATISTICAL RECORDS James W. Bryce, Glen Ridge, N. J., assignor to International Business Machines Corporation, New York, N. Y., a corporation o! New York Application July 25, 1939, Serial No. 286,441
'I'he present invention pertains broadly to statistical systems and relates more particularly to apparatus'for preparing records which are suitably adapted for controlling the operations of statistical machines.
It is now suggested to provide the control records with magnetic impressions or recordings for representing the statistical data, which recordings are formed by subjecting the records to magnetic iields of varying intensities. Due to the characteristics of the records, which are formed from suitable magnetizable materials, the magnetic impremions formed thereon can be retained for any desired period and utilized for controlling the operations of suitable statistical machines.
In the present application provision is made for forming the recordings magnetically on the records by subjecting them to magnetic fields, the lines of force of which are varied at different frequency rates so that the impressions retained thereon are formed in different frequency ranges for representing the different data. The magnetic impressions are similarly positioned on the records with respect to each other so that differentiatlons of the data designations is not made (as is customary in the Hollerith system) 'by the disposition thereof at different relative positions on the record. The novel record just referred to is claimed in a co-pending application Serial No. 286,440, filed July 25, 1939.
In order to illustrate and describe the instant invention briefly, provision is made whereby recordings of the impressions in different frequencies are made to represent the different data values. For example, a magnetic recording in a frequency of the order of fP' may represent the numerical data one, a recording in frequency "f2 may represent the number two, etc. It is to -be understood that the control records when thus conditioned are adapted to be presented subsequently to suitable machines for converting the magnetic recordings into electrical impulses or oscillations of different frequencies corresponding to the frequencies of the recordings for effecting the desired statistical operations in accordance with the magnetic data indications. A disclosure is not made in the instant case of machines adapted to utilize the records referred to, this subject matter is described and claimed in a co-pending application Serial No. 286,443, led July 25, 1939.
Accordingly, an object of the present invention resides in the provision of magnetic recording means for forming on magnetizable records recordings of different frequencies for representing statistical data.
Another object of the present invention resides in the provision of means for forming the recordings in different frequencies to represent the dilerent values of the statistical data.
Another object of the present invention resides in the provision of means for forming the different magnetic recordings in similar positions on the records. In this manner it is obvious, that differentiation of the data values of the magnetic impressions is not made .by the diierential positions of the data representations on the records. as is customary in the present statistical systems.
Other objects of the invention will be pointed out in the following description and claims and illustrated in the accompanying drawings, which disclose, by way of example, the principle of the invention and the best mode, which has been contemplated. of applying that principle.
In the drawings:
Fig. 1 is a partial view of a fragmentary section of a control record.
Fig. 2 is a vertical longitudinal section of the machine.
Fig. 3 is a detail of the driving clutch.
Fig. 4 is a detail sectional view through the keyboard section of the machine.
Fig. 5 is a detail sectional View of the keyboard showing the motor bar and associated elements.
Fig. 6 is a wiring diagram showing the circuit connections of the control elements of the machine.
Fig. 7 is a timing chart of certain elements of the machine.
Before describing the operation of the machine, the control records will be first described followed by a description of the different control units of the machine.
Control records Referring now to Fig. 1 a preferred type of control record is shown to comprise a record card 20 which is similar to the well known type of record cards adapted for use in the Hollerith statistical system. The record card may comprise a sheet of suitable non-magnetic material, such as paper, which is impregnated with granular magnetic material such as iron filings; or, if preferred the record card can be made by depositing finely divided metal powder in the paper pulp so as to be incorporated therein before the manufacture of the magnetiza-ble paper stock. Another type of record card which can be used is one which comprises a multi-ply card having a wafer or foil of magnetic material formed between two layers or plies of suitable paper stock. This type of record is fully described and claimed in a co-pending application Serial No. 145,031, led May 27, 1937.
The record card shown in the instant application is a three zone record so that the data designations can -be formed in any of the zones desired. The individual zones are indicated in Fig. 1. Each zone is sub-divided into individual fields or columns which are designated by the' reference characters a, b, c, etc. It is noted that the said fields or columns extend vertically across the entire zone. During recording operations the magnetic fields are directed to the desired fields to subject these portions of the zones to the varying lines of force initiated by the recording magnets. The different magnetic impressions or recordings formed on the records are then retained in the particular fields designated in Fig. 1. In order to represent different data the recordings are formed in different frequenies, for example, for the numerical data 1 to 9 the recordings in the individual fields are formed in individual frequencies fI to f3 to extend vertically across the zone to represent the different numerical values. The different data designations are indicated generally in the figure by the representations fI to fIU which allude to the frequencies of the recordings or impressions formed in the related columns. The number represented in zone I by the magnetic recordings indicated is 39521, in zone 2 the number represented in 67890, and in zone 3 the number represented is 12345, thus it is seen that a record card is provided with three individual records or groups of recordings.
Record feeding and recordm'g means Referring now to Fig. 2 the card feeding means shown is similarv to well known types of card feeding mechanisms. For this reason the abbreviated disclosure and description is believed sufficient. For detailed structural disclosure reference may be made to U. S. Patents No. 1,741,985 and No. 1,741,992. The cards 23, disposed in the magazine 2 I, are fed singly from the stack by the card picker 2Ia to be advanced successively to suitably disposed pairs of feed rolls 22, 23, and 24 respectively and thence to the discharge hopper 25. The card picker is actuated by the reciprocating arm 26 which is positioned by the disk 2l (secured to shaft 28) by means of the connecting link 29, one end of which is eccentrically mounted on the disk. The shaft 28 is driven by the main shaft 30 by 4means of worm gearing secured to both the said shafts and indicated generally by the reference character 3I. The said pairs of feed rolls 22, 23 and 24 are also rotated by the main shaft 30 by means of the individual worm gears 32 secured to theindividual feed rolls and individual worm drives 32 secured to shaft 30. In this manner the cards are advanced from the magazine past the wipe-out magnet 34 and recording magnets 35 at a constant rate of speed. It is seen as the cards are fed from the magazine to the feed rolls they first pass under the wipe-out magnet 34 (which is sufficient in length to extend along the full length of the card). The said wipe-out magnet is provided for the purpose of conditioning the card for recording and for erasing or neutralizing any previous recording on the record cards. As the cards are advanced they are fed past the recording station whereat the recording magnets 35 are disposed, one magnet for each columnar position to be recorded. It should be noted that just before the cards pass under the recording magnets they are effective to actuate the card lever 35 and cause the contacts 31 to be closed.
Means for driving the main shaft 30 is shown in the form of the drive belt 38 and pulley 33 adapted to be driven by the motor 43 (Fig. 6). Electromagnetically controlled clutch means are provided to control the driving of the main shaft and comprise a well known type having a clutch drive disk 45 (see Fig. 3) which is secured to the drive pulley 3l. A pawl member 4I pivotally mounted on the drive plate 42 (which plate is secured to shaft 30) is held out of engagement with the disk 40 by means of the latch lever 43 which is shown as an integral part of the armature of control magnet 44. Upon energizetion of the said magnet the latch lever is displaced to release the pawl and drive plate thus permitting the pawl and drive disk to be engaged and rotated by the drive pulley thereby rotating the main shaft to which the drive plate is secured. Contacts 45 are arranged and suitably disposed o that they are closed by the pawl member 4I when in the position shown in Fig. 3, and opened when the pawl and drive disk are engaged.
It should be stated that a group of cam controlled contacts CCI to OC3 are provided (see Fig. 6) one of which isshown suitably positioned so that the operation thereof is controlled by the associated cam 45 which is secured to shaft 41 and rotated by shaft 28 by means of the gearing generally designated 48.
Keyboard section Referring now to Figs. 4 and 5 the keyboard section which is a well known type and illustrated in U. S. Patent No. 2,147,626 will be described briefly. The keyboard is of the' typical 81 key type having nine keys in each denominational order. lThe keyboard need not be limited to nine orders of keys but is provided with as many orders as there are columnar positions on the record cards. Provision is made (as is usual in the B1 key type) whereby upon depression of the individual keys 5l against the action of the associated springs 5I they are held latched in the depressed positions by the related latch bars 52 (of which one for each order of keys is provided). In addition thereto an individual control or zero bar 53 is provided for each order of keys so that upon depression of any key in the selected denominational order the related bar 53 is cammed to the right as viewed in Fig. 4 by suitable camming edges provided on the key Shanks to open the associated contacts 54. For each zero bar an auxiliary positionable control lever 55 is provided for the purpose of opening the related zero contacts 54 in the order or column desired, the reason of which will be understood as the description progresses. Each keybar is provided with a V-shaped conducting portion 56 adapted to engage, upon depression of the associated key, the related contact 51.
The recording operations of the machine are initiated by the manual operation of a motor bar 58, the depression of which causes the contacts 58 to be closed. By means of a latch lever 63a the depressed bar is maintained so, due to the engagement of the stem Bla of the bar with the said latch lever, Upon completion of the recording cycle means are provided, such as solenoid 52, to be energized to restore the motor bar to its normal position. It is seen that energization of the solenoid causes pivoted latch member Sla to be partially rotated in a clockwise direction upon displacement of the solenoid plunger by means of the link 83 thereby releasing the latched stem ila of the motor bar.
During the said rotation of latch member 53a and after the release of the motor bar the link i4 causes lever 85a to be partially rotated and in turn to rotate the shaft a in a counterclockwise direction. Rotation of shaft 55a effects displacement of the arm 61 (secured to said shaft) and transverse bail 68, which bail, upon being rocked, thrusts the latch bars 52 forwardly (to the left as viewed in Fig. 4) releasing any depressed keys which have been latched down. Also during the latter movement of latch member 60 the associated contacts 69 are closed for purposes to be described presently.
Operation of the machine Referring now to Fig. 6, two groups of keys 50 are shown to represent two orders or columns of the keyboard section. It is obvious that as many additional orders or columns of keys may be connected to the frequency generators 60, amplifier units 6i, and recording magnets 35 as desired in the manner shown. It is not deemed necessary to repeat the circuit connections of such additional orders. 50 for each digit of each order are connected in multiple and joined by common conductors 65 to the anode circuits of the corresponding frequency generators 60. The contact portions 51 of the keys of each order or column are connected to a common conductor 66 which is connected to the grid circuit of the corresponding amplifier unit 6I. The grid circuit of each amplifier unit is connected to the output circuits of all the frequency generators 60 so that upon operation of any one key in each order or column the related amplifier unit 6| is coupled to the related frequency generator. A frequency generator 60 is provided for each digit from zero to nine, for example, the frequency generator 60 having an output frequency of fi may represent the digit 1,
frequency generator ,f2 represents digit 2, etc. The generators 60 shown are of a well known electronic type but obviously can be any other suitable type of generator such as the Well known rotary frequency generator type. Since the generators per se are not claimed as the subject matter of the present invention further description thereof is deemed unnecessary. It is understood now that upon closure of the nine key in column one, the contacts 56, 51 thereof connect the generator 19 to the amplier 6I having the recording magnet for column I of the different zones of the record card connected in its output circuit thereby impressing the oscillations of frequency f9 upon the amplifier unit 6| and recording mag- Anet 35, which magnet is effective to produce a magnetic recording upon column l of the selected zone of the record card as it passes the said magnet.
Now assume that the magnetizable cards are properly positioned in the magazine, that the levers 55 (Fig. 4) are positioned so that the zero contacts 54 for the desired columns are open, and that the switches SI are closed to complete a circuit from conductor 10 to normally closed contacts 45 (see Fig. 3), contacts Rza and the key release solenoid 62 to conductor 1l, energizing said solenoid. Energization of the solenoid tends to release the depressed keys, but at this movement no keys of the keyboard section have been held depressed, and effects closure of the associated contacts 69. Closure of the said contacts connects relay R2 across the power supply con ductors to energize this relay and cause contacts RZa to be opened and contactsR-2b to be closed. Opening of contacts RZa causes solenoid 62 to be deenergized. Closure of contacts R2b establishes a holding circuit for the said relay through contacts CCZ and B2b until the former are opened. It is to be noted that the wipe-out mag- The conducting portions 56 of the keys net 34 is' connected across the power supply and constantly energized so that each zone of the card is properly conditioned as it passes the said magnet during its travel to the recording magnets.
It should be mentioned that in the event recording of data in certain columns is not desired, for such columns levers 55 of the keyboard section are positioned so as to maintain the associated zero contacts 54 open. It is understood from the description hereinabove for those columns in which the levers 55 are retained in a position so that the contacts 54 are normally closed, whenever the keys of the said columns are depressed, the related zero contacts are opened automatically. Due to this provision, whenever the keys of the said columns are not depressed, zeros are recorded automatically.
The machine is now conditioned for card feeding operations. Since the cards are shown to comprise three distinct zones, the machine is arranged so that card feeding operations are effected to advance the cards a distance equivalent to four card zones each card feed cycle because the spacing between the cards fed to the machine is equivalent to one card zone. A card feed cycle in the instant application refers to a complete cycle of operation of the card picker mechanism, or can be stated to represent one revolution of the gear 3l and shaft 28. The gearing of the machine is arranged so that the driving clutch mechanism (see Fig. 3) can be latched at four points during the card feed cycle, namely at the 90, 180, 270 and 360 points of the said cycle.
Now, in order to feed the iirst zone of the first card up to the recording position it is necessary to depress the motor bar 58 which is the start key in the present case thereby closing the contacts 59. It is remembered upon depression of any of the keys 50 or motor bar 58 they are held depressed until the release solenoid 62 is energized. A circuit is then completed from conductor 10 to contacts 59, Bla and clutch magnet 44 to conductor 1|, energizing said magnet. The main shaft 30 is now driven to cause a card to be fed'to the machine. As the card is advanced by the feed rollers to the recording position it passes under the Wipeout magnet 34 to be conditioned for recording purposes, and upon further advancement thereof causes the card lever contact 31 to be closed which occurs at approximate ly the 315 point of the cycle (see Fig. 7). Contacts CCI close at this time in the cycle (as well as the 45 and 135 points) thereby completing a circuit from conductor 10 to contacts CCI, 31 and relay RI to conductor 1i, energizing said relay causing contacts Ria to be opened and contacts Rlb to be closed. Closure of the latter establishes a brief holding circuit for the relay by means of the contacts 59 and Rlb until the release solenoid is energized. Opening of contacts Ria effects deenergization of the control magnet 44 thereby causing the main drive shaft to be latched up at the 360 point of the cycle. A card is now fed so that the first zone thereof is just ready to be advanced under the recording magnets. When the clutch mechanism is latched the contacts 45 are closed to cause the key release solenoid to be energized releasing the motor bar and causing contacts 69 to be closed to energize relay R2 for the purpose described hereinabove.
The machine is now conditioned for recording during the next cycle of operation. The data to be recorded in the different columnar positions on the card is now set up on the corresponding keys 50 so as to couple the corresponding frequency generators to the proper columnar recording magnets. The recordings are impressed upon the entire columnar area of each zone since the generators are coupled to the amplifiers and magnets all during the zone feeding cycle due to the latched keys 50. After setting up the data to be recorded cn the keyboard section the start key 58 is depressed to close its contacts 5l to start the card feeding operations as described. As the card passes under the recording magnets the statistical data is recorded in the various columns in different frequencies to correspond to the frequencies of the generators coupled to the amplifiers and recording magnets. At the 45 point of the card feed cycle contacts CCI close to energize relay RI and effect deenergization of the clutch magnet M thus causing the mechanism to latch up and stop at the 90 point of the cycle. 'I'he described operations are repeated for recording in the second and third zones of the card, the card feeding means being latched up at the 180 point of the cycle after recording in the second zone. Depression of the start key initiates the card feeding operations for recording in the third zone of the card, but it is to be noted that during this recording operation contacts CCI are not closed to energize the relay RI and effect deenergization of the clutch magnet for interrupting the card feed operations. Thus the card feed mechanism is not latched up at the 270 point of the cycle but instead continues to feed the following card so that its first zone is fed up to the recording position when the mechanism is stopped and latched at the 360 point of the cycle. In this manner the machine is conditioned each cycle to feed the different zones of the record cards past the recording magnets thereby effecting recording of the selected data set up on the keyboard section.
Provision is made for last card operations by means of cam contacts CO3. Upon the feeding of the last card through the machine contacts 3l are opened at about the 270 point in the cycle to prevent energization of the relay RI upon closure of the CCI contacts. However, contacts CC! are closed at the 315 'point to effect energization of relay RI, thus causing the magnet M to be deenergized and causing the machine to be latched up at the 360 point as described hereinabove.
While there has been shown and described and pointed out the fundamental novel features of the invention as applied to a single modification, it will be understood that various omissions and substitutions and changes in the form and detalls of the device illustrated and in its operation may be madefby those skilled in the art without departing from the spirit of the invention. It is the intention therefore to be limited only as indicated by the scope of the following claims.
What is claimed is:
l. A device of the character described for recording statistical data in different columns upon a sheet comprising a plurality of recording magnets, one for each column of data to be recorded, a plurality of alternating current sources of different frequencies, the frequencies of which being different for the diiferent data to be recorded, means for selecting different alternating current sources for representing the different data and different recording magnets for effecting the recording of the selected data, means for maintaining the said selection and impressing the said alternating current sources selected upon the selected recording magnets, and means for presenting a magnetizable sheet to said recording magnets to receive magnetic recordings, in different columns thereon, in accordance with the selected frequencies of the alternating current sources impressed upon the recording magnets.
2'. A device of the character described for recording statistical data in different columns upon a sheet comprising a plurality of recording magnets, one for each column of data to be recorded, a plurality of alternating current sources of different frequencies, the frequencies of which being different for the different data to be recorded, a plurality of columns of operable keys, corresponding to the data to be recorded, there being one column of keys for each column of data to be recorded, means controlled upon depression of the selected keys for coupling selectively the alternating current sources of different frequencies to the recording magnets in accordance with the data selected to be recorded in predetermined columns on the record, means for maintaining the said selected coupling of the alternating current sources and recording magnets, and means for presenting a magnetizable sheet to the said selected recording magnets to be influenced thereby whereby magnetic recordings are formed in predetermined columns on the record for representing the selected data in accordance with the different frequencies of the alternating current sources impressed on the recording magnets.
3. The invention set forth in claim 2 wherein means are provided for restoring the said selected alternating current sources and recording magnets to an uncoupled condition after effecting recording of the data upon the said sheet.
4. A device of the character described for recording statistical data in different columns upon individual sheets at a recording station, comprising means for feeding magnetizable sheets past the recording station, a plurality of recording magnets disposed at the recording station, one magnet for each column of data to be recorded, a plurality of sources of oscillations of different frequencies, and means for coupling selectively the oscillation sources to the said magnets for influencing the'n in accordance with the frequencies of the selected sources thereby forming magnetic recordingsln accordance therewith in the columns upon the sheets fed past the recording station.
5. A device of the character described for recording statistical data in different columns upon individual sheets at a recording station comprising means for feeding individual sheets past the recording station, individual recording means at the said station, one recording means for each column of data to be recorded, a plurality of sources of oscillations of different frequencies, and means for coupling selectively the said oscillation sources to the individual recording means for influencing the recording means in accordance with the frequencies of the oscillations impressed thereon thereby fcrming individual recordings thereon in different columns and in different frequency values corresponding to the frequencies of the said sources influencing the recording means.
JAMES W. BRYCE.