US 2248477 A
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July 8, 1941. c. F LOMBARD I 2,248,477
METHOD AND APPARATUS FOR ADMINISTERING OXYGEN Filed Feb. 27, 1940 Patented July 8, 1941 UNITED STATES PATENT} OFFICE METHOD Ann APPARATUS non anmmsraamo OXYGEN- Charles F. Lombard, Alhambra, Calif. Application February 2'1, 1940, Serial No. $1,028.
This invention relates to amethod and apparatus for conserving gas being administered to a patient, and while the, invention may be employed in administering anaesthetics in the form of a gas, it is intended to be particularly useful when employed as an oxygen mask for administering oxygen to a patient, thereby avoiding the necessity of employing a. relatively expensive oxygen tent.
In the usual hospital practice, when employing an oxygen mask the entire exhalation from the patient 'is permitted to escape'into the atmosphere, and of course when a patient is being administered this oxygen, a considerable quantity of oxygen is expelled from the patients body with the vitiated oxygen that has passed from the patients lungs.
The principal object of the present invention is to provide a method and apparatus, the practice of which will result in a considerable saving in the amount of oxygen gas consumed in administering the same to a patient. 1
A further object of the invention is to provide an apparatus of very simple construction, which can be applied over the patient's mouth and/or nose, and which will operate in such a way that when the patient exhales, the first portion of the gases exhaled will pass back toward the oxygen supply, while the remaining portion of the exhalation will be expelled or permitted to escape into the atmosphere. In this way the volume of oxygen that was filling the patient's trachea and bronchial tubes, and which is unvitiated, will be conserved and pass back into the oxygen supply, after which the vitiated portion of the exhaled gases will escape or pass out into the atmosphere.
Further objects of the invention will appear hereinafter.
The invention consists in the novel steps and novel elements of construction and combinations thereof, which cooperate to produce an eflicient method and apparatus for administering oxygen.
A preferred embodiment of the invention is described in the following specification, while broad scope of the invention is pointed out% the-appended claims.
The drawing is a vertical section through an inhalating apparatus embodying my invention,
' and with which I prefer to practice my method.
In practicing my invention, I confine an accumulated volume, or quantity of the gas that is being administered to the patient in the vicinity of-the patient's respiratory outlet, either his nose, mouth, or both; and at the same point I confine the first unvitiated portion ofthe gas exhaled by the patient from his trachea or bronchial tubes; V after which I permit the remainder or vitiated portion of the exhalation to escape.
My novel apparatus for practicing this method preferably comprises a body with an outer chamher into which the gas is admitted, and an inner chamber that is in gaseous communication with the outer chamber. This gaseous communication may be effected by means ofone or more perforations, but preferably by employing a porous wall between the inner chamber and the outer chamber. The inner chamber is of course locatedadiacent the patient's nose or mouth, or
both, and. the operation of the apparatus is such that as the first portion of the patient's exhalation passes into the inner chamber, a considerable portion of this exhaled gas which is unvitiv 'ated, will pass from the inner chamber to the; outer chamber, mixing with the gas'supply; and
at some point during the patient's exhalation,
the pressure in the outer chamber will rise con-- siderably, and this higher pressure will be communicated to the inner chamber, and the portion of the exhalation after this moment is reached, is permitted to escape preferably in the' atmosphere around the edge of the inhalator where the same is in contact with the patient's face. Referring more particularly to the parts, I indicates the body of the inhalator, which contains an outer chamber 2, which constitutes an inlet chamber into which the gas such as oxy en is admitted through a supply tube 3.
When the inhaling apparatus is in use, of course it is applied over the patient's respiratory outlet, or outlets, as indicated by the dotted lines that indicate the relation of the patient's head and face with respect to the inhaling apparatus.
' The inhaling apparatus is so. constructed that .when applied to the patient's face, it cooperates an inner with the patient's face to form chamber I. I
The inhaling apparatus is constructed so that the inner chamber 4 is in gaseous communication with the outer chamber 2'. This may be accomplished in any manner, for example, by providing a wall having one or more ducts through which the communication is established, but I prefer to employ for this purpose a wall I that is pervious to the gases. For this purpose I prefer to employ sponge rubber or similar material to form this wall, the said rubber being-- of a porous nature and capable of permitting gas to pass through the pores between the two chamhers. Furthermore this material (sponge rubber) is admirably adapted forv making contact with the patient's face, and for this reason the outer wall or sack 6 that forms the outer wall of the chamber 2. is preferably attached at its edge I to the outer face of the wall I, which wall operates as a mask applied over the nose and mouth of the patient.
"The inhaling apparatus is removably held in place by any suitable means such as a headgear or harness 8, that includes two forwardly exa small drain valve l2 that may be opened at will to drain oil moisture collecting at the lowest point of the chamber 2.
At the point of contact between the mask wall and the patients face, the mask wall 5 is preferably provided with a rounded lip l3 to insurethat it will be comfortable when worn by the patient; and while this lip should fit reasonably closely to the patients face, it is not necessary that it should form an absolutely gas-tight contact with'the same. If, however, the lip I3 is so constructed as to fit gas-tight throughout its entire length, then I prefer to provide one or more small grooves It in the face of the lip, for I a purpose that will appear hereinafter.
In the operation of this inhaling apparatus, of course when the gas such'as oxygen is admitted to the chamber 2, this gas immediately passes in to the inner chamber t where it is inhaled by the patient. When exhalation occurs,
' the immediate effect of the exhalation is to slightly raise the pressure in the inner chamber 4, which causes a flow of the oxygen within the same outwardly through the wall 5 into the chamber 2. The inlet 3 for the oxygen being relatively small, insures that arise in pressure in the chamber 2- will occur, and this rise in pressure in the outer chamber 2 is communicated back into the inner chamber 4. When this point in the act of exhalation occurs, most of the volume of the oxygen that occupied the patient's trachea and bronchial tubes, will have passed the wall 5, and the chamber 4 will commence to fill with vitiated oxygen carrying a large amount of carbon dioxide picked up from the patient's lungs, and as the exhalation continues, a large portion of this vitiated gas or oxygen from the patient's lungs, will escape at any points along the lip I3 where the mask does not fit tightly to the patient's face, or at the grooves I4 if it happens that the mask does fit gas-tight throughout the entire length of the lip. In considering the mode of operation described above, it should behnderstood that it is not intended to state that, a complete separation of the unvitiated exhalation from the vitiated portion of x the exhalation can be accomplished. However,
this is of relatively slight importance. No harm will be done if some of the carbon dioxide passes through the wall 5 into the inlet chamber 2, and no great harm is done either if some of the exhaled unvitiated oxygen escapes along the lip I3 or at the grooves M in the first portion or stage of the exhalation. The practice of the invention will evidently result in a considerable saving in the amount of oxygen that would be consumed in administering oxygen to a patient.
Many other embodiments of this invention may be resorted to without departing from the spirit of the invention.
What I claim is:
1. An inhaling apparatus to be applied to a 2,248,477 l 1 5i p I patient's respiratoryooutlet, comprising body with an outer chamber into which the gas is first admitted, and aninnenchamber in gaseous communication with zthefouter chamber, located 5 adjacent the patients respiratory outlet, and
into which the gas flows from the outer chambet, and operating so that the first portion of the patient's exhalation passes from the inner chamber to the outer chamber; said inhaler.ap-
paratus constructed so as to effect the escape of the vitiated latter portion of the exhalation.
2. An inhaler apparatus for administering gas to a patient, having an inlet chamber through which the gas it, first admitted to the inhaler apparatus and havingra masktwallktmbe applied to the respiratory outlet ointhelpatient' and cooperating therewith to 1 forms an sexhalatioif'lchambar, with means forlpermittingrscommunicatlon through the mask wall into? th'ninlet chamber, the parts of said inhaler-apparatus cooperating so that the first portion; ofnth'e 'gas exhaledlby the patient passes baclcthrough the"said' wallfinto the inlet chamber, the latter portion of theT-jexhaled gases, escaping. into tn'e atmospherew 3. An inhaler apparatus for administering gas to a patient, having an outer' 'walh'fand liavinga mask wall cooperating with th'e first-named wall to form an inlet chamber2 saijd rnask'walibonstructed to be applied bver therespiratory outlet of the patient and capablel of pennitting gases to pass through the same, the parts oi" said inhaler apparatus cooperating when applied to the patient to permit the-"firstportioii f-- gas to pass through tlie wall-o the gas inlet chamberandop'ra n to permit the escapeof thelat tei exhaled gases 'into'thc atmosphere adjacent the edge of said mask. 1
4. An inhaler apparatus for administering gas to a patient, havingarifouteri'wallfand havirig a mask connected adjacentlit sfedges withfthe outer to pass therethrog operating so the, exhaled by the'p wall into the gas inl t chambe portion of the sa'f between the surfa the edge of the mas 5. In an inhalat' 1 8 r and the latter "the atmosphere LI ui e t w ich. isa l k and tively laden witl ig carbon oxide rad r tag tientis lungs, operating; Ito jescape ,i'rorn ltl e e halation chamber intothe atmosphere] 1o V cma as nLoM Aapifi