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Publication numberUS2251918 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 12, 1941
Filing dateMar 15, 1939
Priority dateMar 15, 1939
Publication numberUS 2251918 A, US 2251918A, US-A-2251918, US2251918 A, US2251918A
InventorsDawson Horace W
Original AssigneeDawson Horace W
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Antiaircraft projectile
US 2251918 A
Abstract  available in
Images(2)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Aug. 12, 1941. H. w. DAWSON ANTIAIRCRAFT PROJECTILE 2 Shee'ts-Sheet 1 Filed March 15, 1939 -/NVN 70R Horace IMDa wsoxz HTTORNEY 1941- H. w. DAWSON ANTIAIRCRAFT PROJECTILE Filed March 15, 1959 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 //2-VENTOR Horace WDawson ATTORNEY Patented Aug. 12, 1941 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE 4 Claims.

(Granted under the at: of March amended April 30, 1928; 370 0. G. 75'?) This invention described herein may be manufactured and used by or for the Government for governmental purposes, without the payment to me of any royalty thereon.

This invention relates to a new and useful improvement in anti-aircraft projectiles, more particularly it is directed to a device of this character which provides a whirling net, designed to entangle aircraft.

One of the objects of the invention is to provide an anti-aircraft projectile adapted to burst into a whirling net near anaircraft for entangling the aircraft and which when it bursts and a fragment of the projectile has hit the aircraft other fragments will be directed to the aircraft by the action of wires or cables connecting the shrapnel fragments with each other.

Other objects of the invention are to provide an anti-aircraft projectile with wires or cables connecting certain fragments of the projectile and designed to damage the aircraft as a result of the combined momentum of the wires or cables and the speed of the aircraft when contact with each other is made, which will allow adequate observation of the effect of the shot after the burst of the projectile has taken place near the aircraft, and to design the projectile in such a manner that the projectile may be fired from a conventional firing piece without the necessity of providing special equipment thereon.

With the above and other objects and advantages in view the invention consists of certain features of construction and operation of 'parts which will hereinafter appear and in which:

Fig. 1 is a diagram showing a practical application of one form of the invention;

Fig. 2 is a similar diagram as shown in Fig. l, and showing the practical application of a modified form of the invention;

Fig. 3 is a longitudinal sectional view, partly in elevation of a projectile embodying the invention;

Fig.4 is a cross-sectional view of the projectile taken on the line 4-4 of Fig. 3, and

Fig. 5 is a cross-sectional view thereof taken on the line 5-5 of Fig. 3.

In carrying out the invention the improved anti-aircraft projectile indicated generally by A is adapted to be fired from any suitable firing I piece such as the gun B, illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2. The projectile A comprises a hollow shell or casing l which is closed at its lower end by an integral base portion 2 and at its upper end by a head 3'having a time fuse 4 mounted thereon, as illustrated in Fig. 3. v

The casing l is provided with an externally conventional rotating band 5 and is internally provided with an upwardly and outwardly inclined tapered surface 6 and with a rounded lower end portion 1 in which a base charge 8 of any suitable explosive material is provided. The base charge 8 is separated by a diaphragm 9 from a shrapnel chamber l0 containing a plurality of elongated shrapnel fragments II. In the present case the chamber I0 is illustrated as containing four shrapnel fragments, each having an open ended recess l2 formed in the lower portion thereof for the reception of any suitable illuminating means such as a chemical material l3 of white phosphorus. The recesses l2 of the shrapnel fragments H are provided with projections l4 to aid in holding the chemical illuminating material within the recesses.

The shrapnel fragments H are adapted to engage the tapered surface 6 on the interior of the casing I, whereby they are caused to lie in an outwardly slanting position from the base portion 2 within the shrapnel chamber In. The outer lower peripheral edges of the shrapnel fragments II engage the upper surface of the diaphragm 9 and the lower inner peripheral edges thereof snugly engage each other and also engage with the lower end of a flash tube 55, as illustrated more particularly in Fig. 5. The lower end of the flash tube l5 extends through a central opening I6 which is formed in the diaphragm 9, and leads into the explosive chamber 1 containing the base charge 8. By this arrangement of the shrapnel fragments ll within the casing l, the shrapnel fragments may spread upon the bursting of the projectile and balance at the base of the projectile is provided. In order to hold the shrapnel fragments I l in a fixed and spaced balanced position within the shrapnel chamber l0 prior to pouring a matrix M as in conventional shrapnel projectiles, a spacing member in the form of a template I! is fitted in the upper end of the shrapnel chamber ll] of the casing.

The template l1, shown in Figs. 3 and 4, is made of any suitable light fibrous material and is provided with a central opening l8 through which the upper end of the flash tube l5 projects and also with a plurality of spaced tabs or ears l9 formed integral with the template I! and having fluid openings 20 provided therein through which the matrix M may be poured into the shrapnel chamber ill for filling up the interstices between and around the shrapnel fragments ll. Between the tabs or ears l9 are U-shaped cut-out portions 2| which fit around the upper ends of the shrapnel fragments l l whereby the shrapnel fragments I I are held in a fixed spaced and outwardly slanting position within the fragment chamber I6 prior to pouring the matrix M and interference of the template II with the shrapnel fragments upon the bursting of the projectile is prevented.

The casing I is provided with an upper end portion 22 which is internally increased in diameter from the upper end of the inclined surface- 6 of the casing whereby a shoulder 23 is provided for the reception of a shoulder 24 formed on the lower end of the head 3. A reduced internally rounded diametered portion 25 is provided on the lower end of the head 3, said portion 23 engaging around the upper end of the tapered inner surface 6 of the casing. The head 3 is also reduced in diameter at 26 for engaging the inner surface of the end portion 22 of the casing. By reducing the head 3 in diameter at 26, a shoulder 21 is provided which contacts against the upper end portion 22 of the casing. The outer surface of the end portion 22 of the casing is partially curved to conform to the curvature of head I adjacent thereto. A recess 28 is machined around the reduced diametered portion 26 of the head, said recess 28 being filled with a soft metal 23 such as copper for providing a gas tight seal between the jointure of the casing I and the head 3 to thereby prevent a premature blast of the projectile. The end portion 22 of the casing contacts against the head 3 which also aids in providing a gas tight seal between the head 3 and casing I. To prevent the casing I from twisting relatively to the head 3 during the passage of the projectile through the barrel of the gun B, pins 30 are provided between the head 3 and easing I.

The head 3 of the projectile is provided with a cylindrical hollow portion 3| which terminates in enlarged threaded openings 32 and 33 at its upper and lower ends respectively. The lower end of the cylinder 3| which leads into the threaded opening 33 is rounded for a purpose which will hereinafter appear. The upper threaded opening 32 of the head is provided for the reception of the lower threaded end of the time fuse 4 and the lower threaded opening 33 of the head is provided for threaded engagement with a base 34 having a tubular extension 35 integral therewith, which extends vertically upward from the base to within the time fuse 4. The base 34 is also provided with a depending portion 36 at its bottom which is adapted to seat on the upper ends of the shrapnel fragments II. The opening 31 in the tubular extension 35 on the base 34 extends throughout the entire length thereof and through the base to the depending portion 36 where it is increased in diameter at 38 for the reception of the upper end of the flash tube I5 leading into the base charge 8 at the bottom of the projectile, whereby a passageway is formed throughout the projectile from the explosive charge 8 to the time fuse 4.

The tubular extension 35 on the base 34 in addition to acting as a part of the flash tube I5 also provides a spindle for a reel 39 carrying a plurality of flexible members 40 in the form of wires or cables, the inner ends H of which may be permanently secured to the reel 33, as illustrated in Fig. l or may be detachably connected thereto, as illustrated in Fig. 3, depending upon the effect desired when the projectile is fired from the gun B. The flexible wires 43 extend into the shrapnel chamber I0 through a plurality of apertures 42 provided in the base 34 of the tubular extension or spindle 35. The apertures 42 provide passageways for the wires and are bored in the base at a suitable angle so that the wires are only required to bend a minimum amount in passing therethrough. One of each of the ends of the wires 43 which extend into the shrapnel chamber III is firmly imbedded in the upper end of one of each of the shrapnel fragments II at an angle as shown, to eliminate the danger of the fragments shearing the wires upon the bursting of the projectile. The depending portion 36 provided on the base 34 of the extension which contacts with the upper end of the shrapnel fragments, also aids in eliminating the danger of the shrapnel fragments shearing oi! the wires upon the bursting. of the projectile.

To provide for the shock of the propelling explosion and sudden twisting motion of the projectile when fired from the gun B, the wires 43 are made of a heavier gauge where they are attached to the shrapnel fragments II continuing so for the first three or four turns around the reel 39. The wires 40 should be wrapped around the reel 39 in such a manner that they will tend to tighten against the rotation of the projectile and therefore the reel should be fitted to the tubular extension 33 in such a way that there will always be tension on the wires. In order to accomplish this any suitable means such as soft solder applied at 43 to the first turns of the wires on the reel may be employed.

To assemble the various parts of the projectile, the base charge 3 is placed in the bottom of the casing I, the diaphragm 3 is then fitted in the casing on top of the base charge, and the lower end of the flash tube II is inserted in the diaphragm. The shrapnel fragments II are then placed in the shrapnel chamber III with the wires 4'0 attached. The template I! is then placed over the upper ends of the shrapnel fragments to flx a balanced position of the shrapnel fragments within the shrapnel chamber III, following which the matrix M is poured through the fluid openings 23 in the template into the shrapnel chamber I0 to fill up the interstices between and around the shrapnel fragments II as in conventional shrapnel projectiles. The upper end of the flash tube I5 is then inserted in the depending portion 36 at 33 at the lower end of the opening 31 in the base 34. The base 34 of the tubular extension 36 is then screwed into the enlarged opening 33 in the bottom of the head 3, with the upper end of the extension 35 projecting into the time fuse 4 and the wires 40 passed through the apertures 42 formed in the base 34. The head 3 of the projectile is then pressed into place on the casing I. Next the wires or cables 40 are wound around the reel 33 maintaining a uniform tension. The reel 33 is then slipped over the tubular extension 35 and wound down tight, whereupon a suitable amount of solder 43 may be applied to the first turns of the wires to insure the stability of the reel until the wires are unreeled aflter the burst of the projectile. The time fuse 4 is then screwed into place on the head 3 of the projectile.

In operation the improved anti-aircraft projectile acts in the same manner as conventional projectiles until after it bursts, in other words the projectile A is carried by the force of the propelling charge in the gun B, as illustrated in Figs. 1 and 2, to a predetermined point in the air, which point is fixed by the time fuse 4 of the projectile. .At this point the base charge 3 explodes forcing the diaphragm 9 toward the front end of the casing I which pushes everything in front of it and the head 3 of the projectile separates cleanly from the. casing I as provided. As soon as the shrapnel fragments II are clear of the casing I, they are immediately until they are completely unwound therefrom.

At the same time as the explosion of the projectile the white phosphorus l3 in the recesses I! of the shrapnel fragments II is ignited by the percussion produced by the explosion of the base charge 8 against the diaphragm 9. The phosphorus l3 after it is ignited continues to burn until after the fragments l l have spread to their limit, whereby adequate observation of the effect of the shot is attained.

If the wires 40 are permanently attached to the reel 39 the speed of the fragments will form a whirling conical net, as illustrated in Fig, 1, which will continue to fly through the air. If any part of the net is contacted by the aircraft C or other object the tendency of the wires 40 is to pull all the fragments II in concentration on the aircraft. The spread of the net depends only upon the room that may be allowed in the projectile for wires, and the relative weights of the head 3 of the projectile and the shrapnel fragments II. The net will be effective on its return journey to the earth, as well as on its flight from the gun which will allow for more latitude to anti-aircraft batteries in firing upon aircraft.

In a projectile where the wires or cables 40 are not permanently attached to the reel 39 a different effect is accomplished, as illustrated in Fig. 2. In this case each shrapnel fragment H becomes a spiraling projectile after its complete release from the projectile with a long trailer of wire, which in itself would cause suflicient damage to the aircraft C to put it out of commission.

It will thus be seen that there is provided a highly novel and useful improvement in antiaircraft projectiles, which is well adapted for all the purposes indicated. Even though there has been herein shown certain features of construction and operation of parts, it is nevertheless to be understood that various changes may be made therein without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention.

Having described my invention, what I claim as new and wish to secure by Letters Patent is:

1. In a projectile of the type described comprising a casing including a closure member and containing an explosive charge, a plurality of shrapnel fragments carried by the casing, above the explosive charge, a template mounted within said casing, said shrapnel fragments projecting through and supported by said template in a fixed spaced balanced position within said casing, a spindle including a base containing apertures and a time fuse adapted to ignite the explosive charge at a fixed time carried by the closure member, a reel mounted on said spindle, a plurality of lines carried by and connected to said reel and with said shrapnel fragments through the apertures in the base of said spindle and means including an opening in said spindle and base providing a passageway from said explosive charge to said time fuse whereby the projectile may be caused to burst at a predetermined distance in fiight to free the reel, shrapnel fragments and the lines connected thereto from the projectile for engagement with an airplane or other object.

2. In a projectile of the type described comprising a casing including a closure member, an explosive charge and a plurality of shrapnel fragments carried by the casing above the explosive charge, an illuminating material carried by each of the shrapnel fragments and adapted to be ignited by an explosion of the explosive charge, a template, said shrapnel fragments projectin through and supported by said template in a fixed spaced balanced position within said casing, a spindle including a base containing apertures and a time fuse adapted to ignite the explosive charge at a fixed time carried by the closure member, a reel mounted on the spindle, a plurality of wires wrapped on and connected to the reel and to the shrapnel fragments through the apertures in the base of said spindle, and means including an opening in said spindle and base providing a passageway from said explosive charge to said time fuse whereby the explosive charge may be caused to explode by the time fuse to burst the projectile at a. predetermined distance of the projectile in flight and free the reel, shrapnel fragments and the wires connecting the shrapnel fragments to the reel from the projectile for engagement with an airplane or other object and the efifect of the projectile may be observed by the illuminating material ignited by the explosion of the explosive charge.

3. In a projectile of the type described comprising a casing including a closure member and containing an explosive charge, a diaphragm above the explosive charge and a plurality of shrapnel fragments resting on said diaphragm, a recess in each of said shrapnel fragments, an illuminating material in each of said recesses adapted to be ignited by an explosion of the explosive charge, a template, said shrapnel fragments projecting through and supported by said template in a fixed spaced balanced position within said casing, a time fuse adapted to ignite said explosive charge at a fixed time and a reel carried by the closure member of said casing, a plurality of wires wrapped on and connected to said reel, and to said shrapnel fragments and a passageway leading from said explosive charge to said time fuse, whereby the explosive charge may be caused to explode by the time fuse to burst the projectile at a predetermined distance of the projectile in fiight and free the reel, shrapnel fragments and the wires connecting the shrapnel fragments to the reel from the projectile for engagement with an airplane or other object and the effect of the projectile may be observed by the ignited illuminating material carried in the recesses of the shrapnel fragments.

4. In a projectile of the type described comprising a casing including a closure member, an explosive charge carried by said casing, a plurality of shrapnel fragments above the explosive charge, a recess formed in each of said shrapnel fragments, an illuminating material in said recess and adapted to be ignited by an explosion of said explosive charge, a template, said shrapnel fragments projecting through and supported by said template in a fixed spaced balanced position within said casing, a spindle including a base containing apertures and a time fuse adapted to ignite said explosive charge at a fixed time mounted on said closure member, said spindle extending from its base to within the time fuse, a reel mounted on said spindle, a plurality of wires wrapped around and connected to said reel and with the shrapnel fragments through the apertures in said base and means including an opening through said spindle and base providing a passageway from said explosive charge to said time fuse, whereby the explosive charge may be caused to explode by the time fuse to burst the projectile at a predetermined distance of the projectile in flight igniting the illuminating material in the recesses of the shrapnel fragments HORACE W, DAWSON

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4712753 *Feb 11, 1987Dec 15, 1987Howard Thomas RSatellite retrieval apparatus
US4750692 *Apr 7, 1987Jun 14, 1988Howard Thomas RSatellite retrieval apparatus
US5583311 *Mar 17, 1995Dec 10, 1996Daimler-Benz Aerospace AgIntercept device for flying objects
US5750918 *Oct 17, 1995May 12, 1998Foster-Miller, Inc.Ballistically deployed restraining net
US5898125 *May 30, 1997Apr 27, 1999Foster-Miller, Inc.Ballistically deployed restraining net
US5988036 *Jan 13, 1999Nov 23, 1999Foster-Miller, Inc.Ballistically deployed restraining net system
US7765911 *May 31, 2007Aug 3, 2010Omnitek Partners LlcDeployable projectile
US8122810 *Apr 9, 2008Feb 28, 2012Cpi Ip, LlcRocket propelled barrier defense system
US8399816Jul 1, 2008Mar 19, 2013Cpi Ip, LlcRocket propelled barrier defense system
WO1998054538A1 *May 14, 1998Dec 3, 1998Foster Miller IncBallistically deployed restraining net system
WO2012013312A1 *Jul 19, 2011Feb 2, 2012Rheinmetall Air Defence AgBreak-up projectile
Classifications
U.S. Classification102/504
International ClassificationF42B12/66, F42B12/02
Cooperative ClassificationF41H11/04, F42B12/66
European ClassificationF42B12/66, F41H11/04