|Publication number||US2252788 A|
|Publication date||Aug 19, 1941|
|Filing date||Jul 14, 1938|
|Priority date||Jul 15, 1937|
|Publication number||US 2252788 A, US 2252788A, US-A-2252788, US2252788 A, US2252788A|
|Inventors||Sparr Nils Axel|
|Original Assignee||Sparr Nils Axel|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (19), Classifications (14)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Aug. 19, 1941. sPARR 2,252,788
VANE ROTOR Filed July 14, 1938 Patented Aug. 19, 1941 VANE- ROTOR Nils Axel Sparr, Stockholm, Sweden Application July 14, 1938, Serial No. 219,137
In Sweden July 15, 1937 4 Claims.
The present invention relates to improvements in rotors actuatable by flowing media, such as air or water, and having cup-shaped vanes, substantially in the shape of geometrical calottes oi curve-shaped contour, in which rotor the. power obtained may be used for various purposes.
The chief object of the invention is to make sure that changes of the angle at which the medium hits the rotor do not cause cessation of the working of the same but that the medium in spite of this still actuates the vanes of the rotor to impart a rotary motion to the same. In such a manner it is possible to keep the efficiency almost constant at all flowing directions of the medium from the case in which the medium flows on perpendicularly to the axis of the rotor to the case in which it flows parallel to the same.
Another object of the invention is to arrange the inner edges ofthe vanes in such a manner relatively to each other and to the center that the medium may be allowed to pass from. the concave surface of one vane on the pressure side to the concav surface of another vane on the lee-side to cause primary and secondary work of the medium. Further the vanes are to be arranged in such a manner that the medium, by the inner central convex surface of each vane, may be guided towards the concave surface of that vane located next ahead in the direction of rotation at all directions of flow of the medium.
Stil1 another object of the invention is to provide the vanes in such relation to the axis of the rotor as to increase the effect at the flowingon of themedium parallelwith the axis of the rotor. i l
The invention is particularly advantageous in a rotor working in air, for example, as a wind motoror as a wind wheel, since sudden changes in the direction of the wind do not'disturb or cause interruptions in the work ofv the rotor and the rotor may be mounted in vertical or horizontal or in any other position without the action of the wind on the same being changed.
The invention is illustrated in two embodiments on the accompanying drawing, in which Figure 1, in perspective, shows a rotor having two vanes. w
Figure 2, in perspective, shows a rotor, provided with three vanes, and
Figure 3 the last mentioned rotor in cross section.
Figures 443, diagrammatically, show different embodiments of the vanes and special guiding means, only one vane being, for simplicity, shown in Figures 4-11, the other vane or. vanes being omitted but arranged substantially as shown in Figures 1-3.
Figures 4 and 5 show an ellipse-shaped vane from the front and from above, the major axis being perpendicular to the axis of the rotor.
Figures 6 and '7 show similar vanes, the major axis being parallel with the axis of the rotor.
Figure 8 shows an ellipse-shaped vane in front view, the major axis inclining to the axis of the rotor.
Figures 9 and 10, in front views, show vanes of semi-pear shape in differentlpositions.
Figure 11, in section, shows a vane having the shape of a bowl of a spoon.
Figure 12 shows a diagrammatical section through a rotor having, extra guiding means pro vided between the vanes and,
.Figure 13 is a view from above, diagrammatically, of arotor having two vanes inclining in either direction relatively to the axis of the rotor.
The rotor according to Figure l is provided with two vanes l, diametrically located and formed as cups of half-spherical shape, and according to Figures 2 and 3 with three vanes 6, symmetrically distributed and likewise formed as cups,
rounded on both sides, i. e. with'an arched profile in all cross sections. According to Figure 1 those edges 2 of ,thevanes which are next to the center of the rotor extend past the axis 4 of the rotor and past each other a short distance. According to Figures 2 and 3 the vanes are with their inner edges fitted on a central drum 8 provided with openings 1 towards the concave surfaces of thevanes.
Irrespective of the number of vanes, which may be two, three or more, the same may at the center be fitted either directly to each other or also united in connection with an abovementioned drum,,which encloses the centre, the provision in both cases being such that one or several passages are obtained for the medium to flow through from one vane or aplurality of vanes towards the concave working surface, i. e. flowing-on and flowing-off surface, of the other vane or of the other vanes. In the embodiments the passages are indicated by 3 and 1' respectively. In the embodiment according to Figures 2 and 3 the rear edges 9 of the vanes '6 may be bent out a little.
The vanes may be arched as geometric calottes of approximately spherical, ellipsoidal, pear shape or other shape with curved contour, see Figures 1, 4-10. In section the major axis may in case of ellipsoidal shape be perpendicular to, or parallel with the axis of the rotor or inclined'more or less to the same, in which case the broader portion of the cups may be displaced in the same direction or in opposite directions, see Figures 4-10. In other respects the cups maybe of different shapes as compared with each other and have a slight curve-shape; thus, for example, they may have the shape of scoops or bowls of spoons with a curvature decreasing towards the center of the rotor as shown in Figure 11. In case of a small number of vanes more or less cup-shaped screens ill, see Fig. 12, may be provided between them for guiding the driving medium, see Figure 12.
If the rotor is provided in a flowing medium, it is rotated in the direction of the arrow according to Figures 1-3 by the action of the medium on the vanes or on the concave working surface 5 of the cups. In such a case the medium works directly on the said surface, the flowingon surface, of the cup, or cups, on one side of the center. It is then partly guided along the convex surface of the vane following next in the direction of flow. It is also guided indirectly on the concave working surface, the flowing-off surface, of the cup, or the cups, respectively, following next on the other side of the center by the medium in this case flowing over, either directly between the cups according to Figure 1 or by means of the central passage according to Figure 2 or 3.
By shaping the vanes as cups a driving action is obtained, both when the flowing-on direction is perpendicular to the plane of rotation and when it forms a more or less acute angle thereto. If the medium is flowing on more or less constantly parallel with the axis of the rotor, a rotary actuation is also obtained, when the medium along the arched outer surface of the cups at the center, where overpressure arises, is led inwards to the concave surface of the cup running ahead. This is particularly due to the vacuum arising there, and from there the medium is led over to the corresponding concave working surface, or surfaces. If the vanes in axial direction are arranged somewhat obliquely to the axis of the rotor, as shown in Figurelii, the effect is increased at the last mentioned flowing-0n direction of the medium, as the vanes will, during the rotation, have. a diverging position, in which they always catch the flow. If the rotor works, for example, as a wind wheel there is the further'condition, that, when the air flows on parallel with or approximately parallel with the .axis of the rotor, each vane, during the whole revolution, is permanently actuated by the magnus effect contrary to wind motors of the Savonius and Penton type having radially curved but vertically straight vanes where the magnus effect is effective only when the driving fluid hits the vanes practically normal to the axis of the rotor and which are not operative at all if the incoming direction of the driving fluid is more or less parallel to said axis.
The present device, however, is fully operatable at all directions of the instreaming driving fluid. It does not stop automatically and therefore the magnus effect is always obtained; It must be assumed that an underpressure or vacuum constantly arises at the'concave side 'of the vanes and an overpressure at the concave side of the van'es facing the direction of the flow,
when the fluid flows more or less parallel to theaxis of the rotor. Thus, the fluid passing the cavity of the vanes'will be deflected in the direction towards the lower part of the concave surface of the vanes. Furthermore, the fluid which meets the upper part of the convex surface of the respective vane will partly be deflected in a direction perpendicular to the rotor axis, i. e. parallel in a direction from the axis and partly and substantially in a direction towards the axis thus towards the concave surface of the adjacent vane due to the underpressure produced therein. A corresponding overpressure arises at the upper part of the convex side. The part of the convex surface of the vanes which lies adjacent to the centre consequently acts as a guiding member for the fluid towards the concave surface of the adjacent vane also in an axial flow of the fluid. With gas as the fluid the magnus elfect acts in the same way for a direction of the flow of the gas parallel to the rotor axis as for a direction vertical to the rotor axis. The underpressure at the convex side of the lower end of the cups cannot neutralize or even less counteract the torque of the vanes in the same direction. If the rotor works in water, the vanes are set into a rotary motion at all flowing-on directions, from vertical to horizontal ones. Thus, a rotating effect on the vanes is always obtained on any sudden changes in the direction in which the medium is caused to act.
The effect may be increased by placing several rotors adjacent to each other on a common axis. Having now described my invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Patent is:
1. A rotor of the reactive type and actuatable by a driving fluid comprising an axis, a vane assembly rotatable about said axis, each vane having a cup-like shape, said vanes overlapping each other with their inner ends and each of said inher ends extending past said axis and to a point adjacent to and within the circle of the opening of the adajcent cuplike vane in such a manner as to form a connecting passage for leading the driving fluid from the flowing-on face of one vane to the flowing-off face of the adjacent vane whereby a driving effect is obtained at all inflowing directions of the driving fluid irrespective of the position of the axis and at any time during the entire revolution of the rotor.
2. A rotor of the reactive type and actuatable by a driving fluid, comprising an axis, a vane assembly rotatable about said axis, each vane having a cup-like shape, said vanes overlapping each other with their inner ends and each of said inner ends extending past said axis and to a point adjacent to and within the circle of the opening of the adjacent cup-like vane, said inner ends being provided with an inwardly bent edge in such a manner as to form a connecting passage for leading the driving fluid from the flowing-on face of one vane to the flowing-off face of the adjacent vane whereby a driving effect is obtained at all inflowing directions of the driving fluid irrespective of the position of the axis and at any time during the entire revolution of the rotor.
3. A rotorof the reactive type and actuatable by a driving fluid comprising an axis, a vane assembly rotatable about said axis, each vane having a cup-like shape, said vanes overlapping each other with their inner ends and each of said inner ends extending past said axis and to a point adjacent to and within the circle of the opening of the adjacent cup-like vane in such a manner asto form a connecting passage for leading the driving fluid from the flowing-on face of one vane. to the flowing-off face of the adjacent vane,
the planes of the openings of the vanes being arranged in an oblique direction to the axis and having a diverging position during rotation, whereby a driving effect is obtained at all infiowing directions of the driving fluid irrespective of the position of the axis and at any time during the entire revolution of the rotor.
4. A rotor of the reactive type and actuatable by a driving fluid comprising an axis, a vane assembly rotatable about said axis, each vane hav ing a cup-like shape, said vanes overlapping each other with their inner ends and each of said inner ends extending past said axis and to a point adjacent to and Within the circle of the opening of the adjacent cup-like vane in such a manner as to form a connecting passage for leading the driving fluid from the flowingon face of one vane to the flowing-off face of the adjacent vane and cup-shaped screens between said vanes, whereby a driving effect'is obtained at all infiowing directions of the driving fluid irrespective of the position of the axis and at any time during the entire revolution of the rotor.
NILS AXEL SPARR.
|Citing Patent||Filing date||Publication date||Applicant||Title|
|US2579311 *||Jul 7, 1949||Dec 18, 1951||Fairey Charles Richard||Wind-driven power generator|
|US3677166 *||Apr 30, 1970||Jul 18, 1972||Whirlpool Co||Adjustable speed air drive-air sweep for air conditioner|
|US3930750 *||Apr 8, 1974||Jan 6, 1976||Schultz Wilderich C||Wind power plant|
|US4355958 *||Sep 18, 1981||Oct 26, 1982||Cornick Roy C||Rotary impeller for fluid driven machine|
|US4359311 *||May 26, 1981||Nov 16, 1982||Benesh Alvin H||Wind turbine rotor|
|US4362470 *||Apr 23, 1981||Dec 7, 1982||Locastro Gerlando J||Wind turbine|
|US5246342 *||Jul 9, 1992||Sep 21, 1993||Bergstein Frank D||Wind rotor apparatus|
|US5333996 *||Aug 27, 1993||Aug 2, 1994||Bergstein Frank D||Dual fluid rotor apparatus|
|US5656865 *||Sep 20, 1995||Aug 12, 1997||Evans; Franklin T.||Wind conversion unit having cup shaped flow through blades and a centrifugal speed regulator|
|US6247897||Jun 11, 1999||Jun 19, 2001||Dinesh Patel||Vane system|
|US7896608 *||Jun 28, 2007||Mar 1, 2011||Circle Wind Corp.||Three-vaned drag-type wind turbine|
|US8317480 *||Jul 30, 2009||Nov 27, 2012||Scarpelli Tadd M||Turbine assembly and energy transfer method|
|US20090003999 *||Jun 28, 2007||Jan 1, 2009||Art Whitworth||Three-Vaned Drag-Type Wind Turbine|
|US20090246027 *||Apr 1, 2008||Oct 1, 2009||Carl Johnson||Wind/fluid turbine|
|US20110027089 *||Jul 30, 2009||Feb 3, 2011||Scarpelli Tadd M||Turbine assembly and energy transfer method|
|USRE28650 *||Oct 19, 1973||Dec 16, 1975||Adjustable speed air drive-air sweep for air conditioner|
|DE3728145A1 *||Aug 13, 1987||Feb 23, 1989||Richter Karl H||Wind motor for alternative energy generation|
|EP0965753A1 *||Jun 8, 1999||Dec 22, 1999||Dinesh Patel||Fluid rotor with spherical vanes|
|WO1997011272A1 *||Sep 18, 1996||Mar 27, 1997||Evans Franklin T||Wind conversion unit|
|U.S. Classification||416/197.00R, 416/197.00A|
|International Classification||F03B3/00, F03B3/12, F03D3/06, F03D3/00|
|Cooperative Classification||F05B2240/216, Y02E10/223, F05B2240/213, F03D3/065, F03B3/125, Y02E10/74|
|European Classification||F03D3/06E4, F03B3/12C|