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Publication numberUS2252999 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 19, 1941
Filing dateApr 13, 1938
Priority dateMay 24, 1937
Publication numberUS 2252999 A, US 2252999A, US-A-2252999, US2252999 A, US2252999A
InventorsRoger Wallach
Original AssigneeSylvania Ind Corp
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Article and process for the manufacture thereof
US 2252999 A
Abstract  available in
Images(8)
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

ing operations.

Patented Aug. 19, 1941 ARTICLEAND PROCESS FOR THE MANU- FACTURE THEREOF Roger Wallach, Briaroliff Manor, N. Y., assignor to Sylvania Industrial Corporation, Fredericksburg, Va., a corporation of Virginia No Drawing. Application April 13, 1938, Serial No. 201,851. In Great Britain May 24, 1937 11 Claims.

The invention relates, in general, to textiles and, in particular, to a yarn and to a process for its production, and to correlated improvements designed to enhance the quality, structure and properties of textiles sons to extend their use.

It is frequently desirable to modify the natural properties of textiles so as to improve certain characteristics, and adapt the textile to other uses. Heretoiore attempts to modify flexibility, permeability, resistance to abrasion and laundering, shrinkage, stretching, untwisting, unravelling and the like have consisted in applying an ex-- ternal coat to the yarn or thread. While this has attained some of the objects, nevertheless such compositions have adversely afiected or destroyed desired features as appearance, texture, surface absorptivity and handle. Further, the textile no longer appeared to be the same material, and it was difficult, at times even impracticable, to dye, print, and carry out other finishaltering processes.

The general objects of the invention include, among others, to permanently increase the strength of textiles by increasing the frictional resistance of the fibres one upon another; to improve the appearance, handle," flexibility and other physical characteristics; to increase the resistance to wear and laundering; and to permanently increase the tensile strength and resistance to untwisting of yarns, threads and cords of all kinds.

The specific objects of the invention are, inter alia, to provide a tire cord characterized by a superior strength, a lower stretch and shrinkage andan increased scorch resistance; to provide a sewing thread having permanently increased strength, less shrinkage and decreased tendency to untwist; to prevent distortion of fabrics as by "laddering and running of the yarns; to utilize in thefabrication of yarns shorter fibres than those heretofore employed, while maintain ing or increasing the strength; and to provide collar cloth characterized by an increased stiffness and improved resistance to wear, abrasion and laundering.

The surprising discovery has been made that novel textiles, such as yarns, threads, cords, fabrics, and the like can be produced by commingling non-adhesive fibres with potentially adhesive fibres, forming a yarn, thread, cord, fabric or other textile structure from said mixture, activating the potentially adhesive fibres to render them These methods are all surface ing the adhesive whereby to modify the properties of the textiles, such as the strength, shrinkage, stretch, flexibility, appearance, feel, durability, resistance to wear and laundering.

The invention provides improved textiles, such as yarns and threads, cords and fabrics, comprising yarns made from certain dissimilar types of fibres and in which, depending upon the extent of activation, the frictional resistance be tween fibres is substantially increased by an adhesive resulting from activation of one of the types of fibres, or in which fibres are so bonded together by such adhesive that fibres are substantially fixed in position in the yarn, or in which the fibres of one type are fixed in position by adhesion to the activated fibres of another type.

In the present specification, it is to be understood that the expression -textiles includes yarns and threads whether twisted or untwisted, cords whether single or plied, fabric of all kinds, garments and fibrous structures having sufficient form to render them useful in the textile and allied arts. The expressions fabric or cloth include textiles made by any mode of associating yarns, such as weaving, knitting,braiding, netting, lacing, crocheting, and the like. The expression textile fibre includes natural-occurring or artificial fibres of textile making length. and includes continuous filaments or cut staple fibres formed of natural or synthetic materials. The expression singles yarn designates a continuous fibrous strand consisting of a multiplicity of fibres and/or filaments associated together as by spinning or twisting, and the expressions thread and cord designate a continuous compound strand comprising two or more single yarns-associated as by spinning, twisting or plaiting; adhesive includes sticky, cementitious, agglutinous, tacky, and the like conditions.

It is to be understood that the expressions potentially adhesive substance in fibrous form or "potentially adhesive fibres designate natural or artificial fibres which are capable of being rendered adhesive by treatment with suitable physical and/or chemical agents including heat and irradiation; and the expression non-adheadhesive, preferably compacting theifibres while a they are in an adhesive condition and deactivatsive fibre designates textile fibres which are resistant to such agents under the conditions of treatment which render the other substance adhesive.

The present invention provides a yarn comprising an admixture of at least two types of fibres, the types being dissimilar with respect to their tendency to be renderedadhesive by suitable treatment after mixing as hereinafter described; that is, at least one of the materials comprises fibres adapted to be rendered adhesive, while the other material comprises fibres which, under such treatment-no not become adhesive.

For the non-adhesive fibre there may be used any suitable natural or synthetic fibres of textile making length, for example, cotton, flax, jute, hemp, ramie, sisal, kapok, straw, wood and other vegetable fibres; wool and hair of all kinds, silk, and other animal fibres; asbestos, glass, rock wool and other mineral fibres; also artificial fibres formed of cellulose compounds, such as regenerated cellulose or cellulose hydrate of all kinds, cellulose derivatives, such as the esters, the ethers, whether soluble in water, alkali or organic solvents, mixed ester-ethers, oxy-ethers. hydroxy-ethers and xanthates of the cellulose ethers, cellulose thiourethanes, cellulose xanthofattyacids (as prepared by treating cellulose xanthate with a mono-halogen fatty acid), cellulose hydroxy-mono-carboxylic acids; and synthetic resins, such as phenol-aldehyde, sulphurphenol, urea-aldehyde; polymerized vinyl, styrene, coumarone, indene, aldehyde, ketone and like compounds; and resins obtained by condensing poly-carboxylic acids with poly-hydroxy compounds; natural or synthetic rubber and rubber derivatives, alginic acid, casein and other plastics; and fibres and filaments made by slitting, cutting or shredding sheets and films of non-fibrous materials, in particular, waste cellulose films. or in admixture.

For the potentially adhesive fibres, there may be employed any of the fibres above described which can be rendered adhesive by suitable treatment; also, fibres not commonly employed in the textile arts because of'lack of strength, such as fibres formed ofglue, gelatine, gums, as well as fibres not commonly employed because of shortness of fibre length, such as wood fibres, cotton linters, silk fioss, wool combings, and the like; modified natural or synthetic fibres which have been rendered potentially adhesive by suitable pre-treatment before mixing and/or bytreatment in situ which effects a change in their chemical nature, for example, cellulosic fibres may be modified without destroying their fibrous form, by esterification, etherification, xantlhation and/or conversion to cellulose hydrate; also, fibres modified, before or after mixing with the other fibres, but before fabrication into yarn, thread or fabrics, by coating with or depositing thereon an adhesive or potentially adhesive substance, such as glue, resin, a cellulose derivative,

casein, and the like. The potentially adhesive fibres may be formed in situ in the mixture, or textile by conversion of a part of the fibres therein into an adhesive or potentially adhesive condition by esterifying, etherifying, xanthating or other treatment. Such fibres, it will be realized, may individually be partially potentially adhesive and partially non-adhesive.

The articles of the invention are fabricated from singles yarns made of or consisting of a mixture of at least two dissimilar types of fibres at least one of which is potentially adhesive.

For example, a singles yarn may be formed of a mixture of natural and artificial fibres, of which the natural or the artificial fibre is potentially adhesive; or of at least two kinds of natural fibres, at least one of which is potentially adhesive and at least one of which is non-adhes1ve; or ofat least two different types of artificial These fibres may be employed singly.

fibres, at least one of which is potentially adhesive and at least one of which is non-adhesive; or of a mixture of at least two types of fibres,

' both of which are potentially adhesive; or of a single type of fibre, part of which has been modified as above described to render them potentially adhesive. The invention further contemplates textile structures fabricated in whole or in part of singles yarns of one or more of the above mentioned classes.

The mixing of the dissimilar fibres may be carried out in a suitable manner such, for example, as by blending suitable quantities of at least two types of fibres before, during and/or after carding, combing, drafting or spinning; and before and/ogduring twisting, doubling and other yarnformin'g operations. Thus the two types of fibres are mixed and fed together into a carding machine, or slivers are made from each type independently and the slivers combined by spinping into a yarn. Mixing includes also forming potentially adhesive fibres in situ. For example, cotton fibres swollen with an alkali, such as a quaternary ammonium hydroxide are mixed with dry cotton. The mixture is treated with a gaseous etherifying agent, such as ethylene oxide under conditions which produce an alkali-soluble cellulose oxy-ether, which may be rendered adhesive by treatment with alkali.

The relative proportion of the non-adhesive and potentially adhesive textile fibres may be varied in accordance with their properties; the nature oftreatment; the intended use of the finished product and the characteristics desired therein. In a preferred embodiment, the nonadhesive fibres constitute the major portion. For most textiles the potentially adhesive fibres comprise preferably from 2% to 15% by weight of the mixture, without limiting the invention by this range. The mixture may be worked up into .textiles, such as yarns, threads, cords, fabrics, and the like; also coverings for wires, cables, elastic rubber threads and the like.

The textile containing the mixed fibres is treated to activate potentially adhesive fibres, that is, to render them adhesive. In the speci- ,fication and claims, the expression activating is intended to designate treatments by which a potentially adhesive fibre component is rendered adhesive. The nature and extent of the activating treatment will depend, inter alia, upon the nature of the potentially adhesive fibre, upon its proportion in the textile and upon the properties and characteristics desired in the product.

The invention-contemplates activating one or more of the types of fibres and the activation may be in predetermined areas or uniformly throughout, depending upon the effect desired also, the textile may be subjected to two or more activatingtreatments either in sequence or separated by other treatments and textile operations. Among the methods which may be used for activation are the following, taken singly or together in appropriate combinations.

1. By applying to the textile a solvent or swelling agent or mixtures thereof with diluents, under such conditions of concentration and temperature as to render the fibres tacky. For example, fibres of cellulosic materials may be rendered adhesive by use of inorganic alkalies, in particular, quaternary ammonium bases; solutions of cuprammonium, zinc chloride, alkali metal perchlorates, alkali-metal thio'cyanates, and the like. Organic cellulose derivatives, such as cellulose deposited on the fibres.

esters may be rendered adhesive by solvents, such as acetone, ethyl acetate, butyl acetate and the like.

2. By the use of chemical agents which convert the potentially adhesive fibres into an adhesive condition. For example, cellulose fibres may be treated with alkali and etherifying agents to convert the cellulose to a cellulose ether which is adhesive in the presence of the alkali. By appropriate treatment, cellulose fibres may be converted to an ester, a xanthate and other derivatives which are adhesive in their swollen freshly formed state.

3. When the potentially adhesive fibres are thermoplastic, they may be activated by heat and/or irradiation, especially ultra-violet and infra-red. For example, a textile madeof yarns containing non-adhesive fibres and pure rubber fibres is subjected to ultra-violet irradiation to render the rubber fibres adhesive.

4. The fibres may be rendered adhesive by the activation of a potentially adhesive substance For example, fibres of non-adhesive material may be coated individually with glue which can be dried on the fibres before they are commingled with the other uncoated or non-adhesive fibres. The glue can be activated by water and deactivated by treatment with formaldehyde and then dried. In place of glue, there may be used a resin which is adhesive in one state of polymerization and which deactivate (if necessary) the single yarns before plying or doubling them so as notto decrease substantially the flexibility of the plied thread or cord.

Simultaneous with or subsequent to compacting, the textile may be treated to deactivate the can be deactivated by change in state of polymerization as by heating.

5. A latent activating agent may be combined with the potentially adhesive fibres and/or with thenon-adhesive fibres by impregnating them prior to mixing the fibres. Such agent may be rendered active by a subsequent treatment, such as chemical agents, heat or irradiation, thus producing a simultaneous activation of the fibres. For example, fibres may be impregnated with a liquid which, at room temperature, is a nonsolvent therefor but which, at a higher or lower temperature is a solvent sufiiciently active to render the fibres adhesive.

Activation may be carried out at any time after the mixing of the fibres, for example, during and/or after carding, roving, drafting and spinning thereof into yarns, threads, cords, and the like, and/or before, during and/or after doubling, weaving, knitting, braiding, netting, lacing, and the like and/or before, during and/or after bleaching, mercerizing, dyeing, printing, delustering, weighting, sizing, embossing and other textile operations. Except in special cases, it is preferred to dye and print after activation because this permits wider choice of colors. The activation of the fibres in the textile may take place during. and/or after. formation thereof, or partly on the yarns or threads and partly on the cords, fabrics and garments formed therefrom.

While the fibres are in an adhesive condition, the fibres may be subjected to a compacting treatment to promote a partial or complete adhesion and/or fusion of the associated fibres at their points of contact. For example, mechanically applied pressure or centrifugal force may be exerted on the activated structure during and/or after activation, or deactivation, and/or during calendaring, embossing, printing, drying and other operations involving the use of rollers.

Compacting may be accomplished by twisting the yarns, threads, cords and the like with or without application of additional external presadhesive, that is, to render the adhesive nontacky so as to fix the new relationship of the fibres. The nature and extent of the deactivation treatment will depend, inter alia, upon the nature and extent of the activating treatment and upon the proportion and kind of potentially adhesive fibres used. If activation has been accomplished by heat, deactivation may be accomplished by heating to a higher temperature or by cooling; if by chemical agents, deactivation may involve evaporation, extraction, neutralization or coagulation of the chemical agent, fixing, precipitation, decomposition and transformation to a non-adhesive condition; and if partly or completely dissolved by a solvent, deactivation may involve extraction of the solvent as by washing, evaporation, decomposition and/or coagulation. The removal of the activating agent depends upon whether its presence in the product is desirable or objectionable.

The activating, compacting and deactivating treatments herein described may be carried out independently of, or simultaneously with, various treatments common to the fabrication and finishing of textiles. Such treatments may be combined with an external sizing operation to proyide a product, the structure of which is both internally and externally sized. The external sizing composition may comprise starch, casein, a cellulose derivative, a resin, viscose, rubber latex and the like, with or without fillers, pigments, dyes and textile assistants, or decorative effect materials, and'the external size may be chemically similar or dissimilar to the potentially adhesive fibres whose solution provide the internal sizing and may be applied before, during or after activating the potentially adhesive fibres. Forexample, if the potentially adhesive fibres are more or less soluble in organic solvents they may be admixed with insoluble textile fibres and formed into a yarn which is subjected to an external sizing with a resin dissolved in an organic solvent which is also a solvent of the potentially adhesive fibres. The solution of these fibres impregnates the yarn internally. The yarns may be led between pressure rolls to compact the fibres, then dried at an elevated temperature to remove the solvent and thus 'deactivate the internal and external sizes.

Warp yarns may be sized, as with starch, before or after activation, but preferably before, since the adhesive resulting from the. activation serves to anchor the size of the yarn.

Further, the textiles of the invention may be embossed, calendared, moulded or otherwise shaped to deform the surface while the adhesive fibres are still tacky and then subsequently deactivated to set them with a desired form or surface condition. Such moulding and deformation may take place before, during or after activation,

compaction and/or deactivation and/or during and after drying, to produce various surface effects such as grain, lustre, smoothness, designs, and to imitate various natural or artificial textures, such as the grain of leather and wood, the sheen of silk, the glaze of chintz, and the like. Such deformations may be produced in pro-determined areas or over the entire surface by pressure rollers, friction calendars, embossing rollers, and the like, which may be used hot or cold and with or without the aid of agents which soften, swell, plasticize or otherwise modify the material acted on.

Various fillers, pigments, particles and fibres of effect materials may be added to the textiles during their manufacture or combined therewith while the adhesive fibres are in a tacky condition to form decorative products. Novel effects may be obtained by printing on the textiles before, during or after activation, compaction and/or deactivation, with inks containing pigments or dyestuffs which are resistant to such treatments. If desired, the activating agent or the deactivating agent may be added to the printing ink. Moreover, the activating agent may have potentially adhesive fibre, as an alkali-soluble cellulose ether, dissolved therein. During activation, this condition retards or prevents solution of such ether. It, also, leads to a deposition of ether, relative to the non-adhesive fibre, thus effecting a sizing thereof.

Part or all of the non-adhesive fibres may consist of fibres or filaments of metal or metallic appearance. For example, continuous or short metal wires, tinsel and filaments made by slitting metal foil or sheets of metallized material may be admixed with potentially adhesive fibres and the mixture formed into a yarn adapted for various uses, such as lame fabrics.

A mixture of dissimilar types of fibres may be formed into a covering by twisting, braiding or winding them about a core, such as a wire or elastic rubber thread and the covered core then subjected to activation. For electric cables, the activation is preferably sufficient to form a waterand gas-impermeable sheath which serves both to cover and insulate the core.

The potentially adhesive fibres, and/or the activating and/or deactivating agents may comprise suitable textile assistants such, for example, as wetting agents, to promote diffusion of the agent, also agents for coloring, waterproofing, fireproofing, bleaching, softening, plasticizing and the like.

The activating and/or deactivating agents, when liquid, may contain dissolved or dispersed therein a quantity of material similar or identical in chemical composition with the potentially adhesive fibres contained in the structure to be treated. When the activating or deactivating agent is applied to the textile, such material will be deposited on the fibres of the textile structure andassist in laying the nap, binding the yarns together and. thus increasing the frictional resistance between the yarns.

The properties of the finished product depend upon various factors, such as the nature and proportion of potentially adhesive fibres; the extent of the activation thereof, and the adhesive condition of the fibres during compacting and the nature of the deactivation. The extent of activation, compacting and deactivation may be varied considerably, depending upon the relative proportions of the types of fibres; the properties of the potentially adhesive fibre, and the effect desired in the product. The potentially adhesive fibres may be rendered superficially adhesive; or swollen throughout and made adhesive without losing their fibrous form; or readily deformable as well as tacky, or disintegrated partly or completely to form in situ an adhesive which unites the remaining fibres. If the potentially adhesive fibres are-rendered only slightly tacky, the frictional resistance between fibres will be increased and the strength improved. If the potentially adhesive fibres are rendered substantially adhesive, they will cohere to each other and adhere to the other fibres to fix the position thereof to give a product having increased tensile strength and lower stretch. If the potentially adhesive fibres are partly or completely dissolved, the adhesive resulting therefrom will bond together the remaining fibres and produce a textile which has a greater stiffness and strength. The expression adhesive designates the substance resulting from the activation of the potentially adhesive fibres and it may exist after deactivation in the form of fibres, particles or amorphous masses.

Among the textiles which may be produced are yarns, single or plied, threads and cords of all kinds which may be used as warp or as'filler (weft) in making fabrics, or in association with other yarns of like or unlike character, in weaving, knitting, netting, lacing and other -textile constructions, and when doubled or twisted with other yarns, for the preparation of threads and cords of all kinds. Also, fabrics may be made from singles yarn of mixed fibres by suitable process, for example, weaving, knitting, netting, lacing, braiding, crocheting and the like, such fabrics being adapted for various uses such as collar cloth, shirting, garments, garment liners, bedding, table covers, book cloth, artificial leather, balloon and airplane fabrics, and many other uses. There may be produced also sewing threads, fishing cords, tying cords" and, in particular, cords for purposes requiring high abrasion resistance.

By way of illustrating, but not by way of'limiting the scope of the invention, there may be given the following examples. It is to be understood that the invention is not limited to these examples, to the precise proportion or ingredients, the times and temperatures and sequence of steps set forth. The parts are by weight. Other modes of operation and applications of the invention will be obvious to anyone skilled in the art, following the principles of the invention as herein set forth and without transcending the scope of the present invention.

Example 1.The yarn may comprise .a mixture of two or more kinds of natural fibres. For

example, of hair fibres can be admixed with 10% of staple fibres made of benzyl cellulose, formed into a singles yarn and the yarn treated with ethyl acetate at 30 C. whereby the benzyl cellulose fibres are rendered adhesive, the hair fibres not being so altered. The yarn is then compacted, deactivated by evaporation, and otherwise finished in accordance with theinvention to make a strong yarn adapted for making hair cloth.

Example 2.--'I'he yarn may be made of a mixture of 50% cotton fibres, 46% staple linen fibres cellulose ether. The finished yarn has a greater tensile strength both wet and dry and a stifiness and abrasion resistance. which are substantially greater than in the untreated yarn; also it resists unwinding and unravelling.

Example 3.--A solution of an ethyl cellulose in organic solvents is extruded into filaments by dry spinning and cut into staple fibre lengths. 3% ofthe staple fibres are mixed with 97% cotton fibres and carded to a uniform mixture. The mixed card band is then spun into a finished yam of desired thickness which,,in turn, is woven into cloth. Before or after scouring, the cloth is treated with a suitable organic solvent. The cloth is passed between pressure rollers and the solvent evaporated, after which it is subjected to finishing, such as keering, bleaching, dyeing, scouring, washing and drying in the usual manner.

Example 4.Wool fibres are mixed with 6% of a staple fibre formed of a resin. The mixture is spun into a yarn which is made into a cloth and the cloth treated with a solvent of the resin, so that the resin fibres are rendered adhesive. The cloth is then passed through pressure rollers and the solvent evaporated. The yarn is more compact, has less nap, a better hand and greater strength than a yarn of the-same size made entirely of wool.

Emample 5.-A mixture of 93% asbestos fibres and 7% fusible glass fibres is formed into a yarn which is fabricated into an insulating fabric. The fabric is heated to a temperature sufiicient to cause the glass fibres to soften and coalesce with each other and with the asbestos fibres at their points of contact. Upon cooling, there is formed a still, strong, non-inflammable fabric.

Example 6.Cel1ulose acetate dissolved in a suitable solvent is applied to flax fibres, either by spraying or by applying the solution while centrifuging so as to coat the individual fibres. The mass is carded to loosen the treated fibres, then spun into a yarn and the solvent evaporated. After or during dry or "wet spinning, plying, twisting, cabling, weaving, knitting, lacing, braiding or other textile operation, the cellulose acetate coating on the fibres is rendered adhesive by a solvent with or without heat, but with sufiicient twisting or applied pressure to cement the fibres together. After the evaporation of the solvent, the yarn has a greater tensile strength and less nap than a yarn or the same sizemade of flax fibres alone.

Example 7.-Simuitaneous activation of a latent agent and waterproofing may be illustrated by impregnating fibres of nitrocellulose with a mixture of butyl alcohol, toluene, ethyl acetate and paraffin wax, mixing 6% of such fibres with 94% of another type of fibre, such as hemp or jute, and forming the mixed fibres into a yarn at room temperature. When the yarn is heated above the melting point of the wax, the residual butyl alcohol and ethyl acetate render the nitrocellulose fibres adhesive and the parafiin is rendered molten. After evaporation of the solvent,

the yarn is cooled to deposit the wax on the fibres to render the yarn water-repellent. The

yarn is suitable for making waterproof cordage, tent canvas, and the like.

Example 8.--A yarn made of a mixture of glass fibres and 15% viscose staple fibre is treated with 1% sodium hydroxide solution at room temperature; the excess is pressed out, and the yarntreated with 10% ethylene oxide (on the weight of the viscose fibre) in a closed vessel for 24 hours at room temperature, preferably under 15 pounds gauge pressure. By this treatment the viscose staple fibres are converted to an alkali-soluble oxy-ether of cellulose which can be rendered adhesive by treatment with adilute solution of sodium hydroxide at 4 C. The yarn is squeezed and treated with 4% sulphuric acid to neutralize the alkali and deactivate the adhesive. By this treatment the glass fibres are bonded together and the yarn prevented from untwisting.

Example 9.--From 2% to 30% of staple fibre made of an alkali-soluble cellulose ether are mixed with from 98% to 70% cotton fibres and the mixture spun into a suitable yarn. The yarn, as such or after incorporation in knitted, woven, netted or braided cloth, or in laces, cords, belting or other textile structures, is treated with a solution of caustic soda of a concentration (such as 8%) and at a temperature (for example 0 C.) such that the cellulose ether fibres are rendered adhesive and preferably also so that the cotton fibres are softened (by hydration and/or mercerization) and then pressed to coalesce the fibres permanently at their points of contact. Thereafter, the yarn is maintained under pressure and/or tension, and the caustic soda removed by neutralization and/or washing. The product has an increased tensile strength, a higher resistance to abrasion, decreased shrinkage and stretch, and an increased stiffness unless suitably plasticized.

Example 10.-A mixture of suitable proportions of difierent kinds of natural and/ or artificial fibres is prepared and at least one of the fibres activated to render it adhesive as hereinbefore disclosed. The activated fibres are tumbled about to cause adherence of the tacky fibres to each other and to the non-activated fibres. after, the mass is deactivated so that the fibres are bonded, or adhere, at spaced points. The mass is dried if necessary, and then carded (and/or combed) under such conditions that the adhering fibres are broken apart so as to leave rough projections or short strands on the unbroken fibres at the points where the fibres were joined. The carded (and/or combed) fibres have a rough handle like wool and may be formed into various textile structures having increased dry and wet tensile strength.

Example 11 .A cloth made of yarns comprising a suitable mixture of cotton and an alkalisoluble cellulose ether staple fibre, without previous activation, is subjected to a subsequent coating with alkaline viscose, the alkali effecting activation of the cellulose ether fibres. The viscose coated fabric is passed through pressure rollers, and then through an acid bath which coagulates the viscose and deactivates the cellulose ether fibres. The cloth may be finished in the usual manner for viscose treated goods. The anchorage of the viscose is greatly improved by the simultaneous coating and activation, so that a compact fabric suitable for book cloth or artificial leather may be obtained.

Example 12.-A mixture of non-adhesive fibres and 10% thermoplastic cellulose acetate Therefibres is made into a yarn and the yarn fabricated into cloth. The cloth is passed between a pair of pressure rollers at a sufiicient temperature to cause the thermoplastic fibres to become soft and tacky; one of the rollers moving at a peripheral speed greater than that of the other to effect a wiping or smoothing of the surface, which imparts a gloss to the fabric. Thereafter, the fabric is cooled to deactivate the thermoplastic fibres, and finished as desired.

Example 13.A cloth suitable for mens shirting is made from yarns comprising a mixture of 92% cotton and 8% alkali-soluble cellulose ether and fabricated into a mans dress shirt having a front panel. The area comprising the panel only is treated with caustic soda at a suitable low temperature for a sufiicient time to render the cellulose ether fibres adhesive and thereafter the entire shirt is immersed for a short time in a 6% caustic soda solution at 10 C. to render the cellulose ether fibres in the remainder of the shirt only slightly tacky. The treated shirt is passed through a wringer and then through a solution of 5% sulphuric acid to coagulate the cellulose ether. After drying and finishing, it will be found that the front panel is stifier than the remainder of the shirt, because the extent of activation of the fibres in that area was greater.

Example 14.-A mixture of 90% jute fibres and 10% unvulcanized rubber fibres is carded and formed into a yarn which is treated with a swelling agent for the rubber, such as toluene, and/or the yarns are heated to render the rubber fibres tacky, and while in this condition the yarn is pressed to cause a bonding of the fibres. Thereafter, the yarn is vulcanized to render the rubber non-tacky and the yarn finished as desired. The product is adapted to be used alone or in combination with other or similar yarns in the preparation of cords, cable coverings, belting and fabrics for products requiring high abrasion resistance.

Example 15.6% of an acetone-soluble cellulose acetate fibre is mixed into 94% natural silk floss, spun together and woven or knitted into hosiery. In the case of full-fashioned hosiery the piece, and in the case of knitted hosiery, the finished hose is then subjected to heat and/or a solvent such as acetone, with application of pressure to cause the cellulose acetate to become adhesive. The evaporation of the solvent interlocks the yarns and makes the hose run-resistant.

Example 16.Mineral fibres of glass, mineral wool and asbestos, in fibrous form, are mixed with 7% of a hydroxy-alkyl cellulose ether, the mixture spun into a yarn and the yarn woven or knitted into a fabric. The fabric is then treated with an 8% solution of sodium hydroxide at a suitable temperature and for a suitable time to dissolve the cellulose ether fibres. The fabric is treated with 4% sulphuric acid whereby the cellulose ether is rendered insoluble and deposited on the mineral filaments thereby binding themsevered, they will stand up better than pile Example 18.A pile fabric is made in which i the backing or binding threads are yarns consisting of a mixture of dissimilar types of fibres, at least one of which can be rendered adhesive. Before or after severing the pile threads, the backing is treated to activate the potentially adhesive fibres. Upon deactivation, the adhesive resulting from the activation serves to anchor the pile threads to the backing and prevents slippage and displacement of the pile threads.

\ Example 19.-T0 make an improved sewing thread, a mixture of 96% staple cotton fibres and 4% alkali-soluble cellulose ether fibres is carded and spun while dry, with less than the usual twist, into singles yarn which is treated with dilute alkali at a sufficiently low temperature to render the cellulose ether fibres adhesive. The yarn is given a slight additional twist, or passed through a constricted orifice to press the thread,

and is then passed into a bath of 6% sulphuric acid to insolubilize the cellulose ether which fixes the fibres in position and increases their frictional resistance. Two or more singles yarn are now washed, doubled and twisted in the wet state to form a thread. The product, which may be bleached, dyed and otherwise finished in a known manner, shows a higher tensile strength, less stretch and shrinkage, and has an improved appearance.

Example 19-A.--As an alternative to the procedure illustrated in Example 19, the invention contemplates that the singles yarns formed of mixtures of dissimilar fibres, at least one of which is potentially adhesive may be first spun dried or doubled in a known manner and then activated with or without stretch or additional twist, thereafter squeezed and deactivated as above illustrated. Activation after spinning and doubling tends to cause the piles to adhere and may produce a slightly stiffer product. If such stiffness is undesired. there may be added to the activating and/or deactivating agents, when liquid, or by the use of a separate fiuid composition, a suitable plasticizer for the yarn such, for example, as Turkey red oil, soaps, olive oil, vaseline, emulsions, and the like, by which the flexibility of the finished thread may be controlled.

Example 20.-A novel suit cloth is prepared fromyams comprising a mixture of 94% viscose staple rayon and 6% acetone-soluble cellulose acetate staple fibre. The singles yarns are plied, scoured and then treated with acetone substantially to dissolve the cellulose acetate fibres. The fabric is passed through pressure rollers and the acetone evaporated to deposit the cellulose acetate on the viscose fibres. The fabric may be dyed, washed and finished in a known manner. The product will show less stretching in water and a higher wet and dry tensile strength than similar fabrics made entirely or yarn of viscose rayon.

Example 21.For making a superior fabric, such as organdieand the like, a yam comprising a mixture of cotton and 10% alkalisoluble cellulose ether is woven into cloth of suitable construction which is singed, secured and treated on a padder with 8% sodium hydroxide at such a temperature as to render the cellulose ether fibres adhesive. The sodium hydroxide may be applied at atmospheric or room temperature, and the temperature of the cloth then reduced suificiently to dissolve the cellulose ether,

for example, by passing over a refrigerated roll. The cloth is tentered and passed through a bath of sodium hydroxide of such concentration and temperature as to mercerize the cotton fibres and to coagulate the cellulose ether, a concentration of 17% at 0. being suitable. The fabric is squeezed between rollers and brought back to its initial width, washed, bleached, scoured. washed and dried in a known manner, for exampic, on a swinging tenter frame.

tained a cloth of fine linen-like appearance and superior tensile. strength and a high resistance to wearand laundering.

Example 22.--To make a wash-resisting denim, a yarn comprising a mixture of dissimilar fibres, at least one or which may be rendered adhesive, is dyed and used as the warp in a denim weave with a filler yarn of similar composition or one made entirely of cotton. If the warp is sized with starch or other warp size, before activation, such size will be retained by the adhesive resulting from the activation. The cloth is then treated to activate the adhesive fibres, passed through pressure rolls and deactivated, and then washed and otherwise finished in a known manner.

Example 22-A.-As an alternative to the procedure illustrated in Example 22, the invention contemplates that the warped yarns comprising a mixture of dissimilar fibres may be activated, compacted and deactivated, prior to incorporating them by weaving, into a denim fabric. In this case, the filler yarns may be formed likewise of two dissimilar types of fibres and may be activated, compacted and deactivated prior to or after weaving. The denim so produced may be externally sized by treatment with an alkali solution of an alkali-soluble cellulose ether, with or without the addition of starch, after which the fabric is treated with dilute acidto insolublize the cellulose ether which will bind any starch present, and thereafter washed and finished in a known manner. The activation, compaction and deactivation of the individual yarns, before weaving, gives a higher wash-resistance without substantial decrease in flexibility, while the additional external sizing lays the nap and improves the abrasion resistance.

Example 23.-A tire cord can be made by forming a yarn of a; mixture of dissimilar types of fibres at least one of which potentially adhesive, the mixture then being carded, drafted There is oband spun into singles yarn. The potentially adhesive fibres are activated before, during or after the forming of such yarn un r suitable tension, twist and/or pressure and th yarn then deactivated. A plurality of the wet or dry deactivated singles yarn fibres are twisted together to make, a plied cord and three or more of the plied cords are twisted together to make a cable, which is finished and formed into a suitable tire cord or fabric. When the activating, twisting and deactivating are carried out on the singles yarn, the fibres of the singles yarn are fixed in position, which reduces heating resulting from internal frictionbetween fibres. But since the yarns in the plied cords are not bound together, except through twist, the frictional resistance between yarns in the plied cords is decreased through the smoothness of their surfaces which permits necessary relative movement of theyarns. Thus is obtained a more compact cord which has a higher scorch resistance, decreased stretch, decreased internal heat generation and superior tensile strength and gives a longer life to the tire in which it is incorporated.

l l l i By the present process there is obtained a textile comprising a singles yarn in which there is an increased frictional resistance between fibres,

thus increasing the tensile strength and reducing twist in yarns and the like twisted structures; for

preventing the untwisting of singles yarns; and for making a strong yarn with a lower degree of twist. Moreover, the coalescing of the textile fibres may be used to prevent unravelling of the free ends of a yarn.

Further, if a textile structure is sized externally with a composition of similar chemical character as that of the internal sizing produced by the solution of the potentially adhesive fibres,

the internal sizing will afford a substantial anchorage for .the external sizing, particularly if the external sizing is applied while the adhesive is tacky or if it renders the fibres adhesive.

Accordingly, the present process provides a novel method for varying in textiles such properties as strength, flexibility, permeability, shrink age, stretching, resistance to wear, abrasion and laundering, untwisting, unravelling and the like, without, however, adversely affecting the physical attributes thereof, such as the handle, appearance and texture; on the contrary, while enhancing the attributes and, if desired, without adversely aifecting the dyeing, printing or other finishing characteristics.

Moreover suitings and similar fabrics are featured by a marked resistanceto undesired creasing which renders them especially adapted to such uses.

Further, cloth and the like is distinctive due to its property'of not-readily wrinkling, and wrinkles which are formed, are not permanent but rather draw or smooth out with ease, as by simply hanging.

I claim:

1. A process of making a textile which comprises commingling before completion of spinning non-adhesive textile fibres and a minor propor-' tion of at least one type of potentially adhesive fibres, spinning the commingled fibres into a singles yarn, activating potentially adhesive fibres sumciently to render them adhesive but not sufficiently to render the yarn formed therefrom non-porous, and compacting the fibres of the yarn while fibres are in anadhesive condition so that they adhere to each other at points of contact wherebya textile is obtained having increased tensile strength and resistance to wear and laundering, and untwisting prevented without substantially altering the original appearance and porosity.

2. A process of making a textile whichcomprises commingling before completion of spinning non-adhesive textile fibres'and a minor proportion of at least one type of potentially adhesive fibres, spinning the commingled fibres into a singles yarn, activating potentially adhesive fibres sufficiently to render them adhesive but not sufficiently to render the yarn formed therefrom non-porous, and subsequently deactivating whereby a textile is obtainedhaving increased tensile strength and resistance to wear and laundering, and untwisting prevented without substantially altering the original appearance and porosity.

3. A process as described in claim 2 in which the commingled fibres are of dissimilar types and at least one type is convertible and converted into a potentially adhesive fibre.

4. A process as described in claim 2 in which a potentially adhesive fibre contains a latent activating agent.

5. A process as described in claim 2 in which a potentially adhesive fibre is a cellulose ether.

7. As an article of manufacture 9. 37am obtain able by the process described in claim 2.

8. As an article of manufacture a yarn obtainable by the process described in claim 2 and in which one of said fibres is a thermoplastic cellulose derivative.

9. As an article of manufacture a yarn obtainable by the process described in claim 2 in which one of said fibres is a cellulose derivative.

10. As an article of manufacture a yarn obtainable by the process described in claim 2 in which one 'of said fibres is a cellulose ether.

11. As an article of manufacture a fabric containing yarn obtainable by the process described 6.. A process as described in claim 2 in which 15 in claim 2.

one of the fibres is a naturally occurring fibre and the other fibre is an' artificial fibre.

ROGER WALLACH.

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Classifications
U.S. Classification57/256, 66/178.00R, 8/115.6, 8/120, 19/145, 8/118, 28/166, 57/297, 19/46, 8/131, 156/305, 8/DIG.210, 264/DIG.750, 8/115.7, 57/257, 8/DIG.100, 28/167, 428/364
International ClassificationD02G3/48, D02G3/40
Cooperative ClassificationY10S264/75, D02G3/48, D02G3/402, Y10S8/10, Y10S8/21
European ClassificationD02G3/48, D02G3/40B