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Publication numberUS2253538 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateAug 26, 1941
Filing dateJan 21, 1938
Priority dateJan 21, 1938
Publication numberUS 2253538 A, US 2253538A, US-A-2253538, US2253538 A, US2253538A
InventorsWilliam Sirch Charles
Original AssigneeWilliam Sirch Charles
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Gas mask respirator
US 2253538 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Aug. 2 1941. c, w 5mg 2,253,538

GAS MASK RESPIRATOR Filed Jan. 21, 1938 3 Sheets-Sheet l INVENTOR.

-Aug. 26, 1941. 7 c. w, SIRCH 2,253,533

GAS MASK RESPIRATOR Filed Jan. 21, 1938 5 Sheets-Sheet 2 I29 42 u I3 26 use 36 37 55 l INVENTOR.

Aug. 26, 1941. c, w s|R 2,253,538

cms MASK RESPIRATOR 3 Sheets-Sheet 3 Filed Jan. 21, 1938 III|I INVENTOR.

Patented Aug. 26, 1941 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE GAS MASK ausrmsroa Charles William Sirch, Los Angeles, Calif. Application January 21, 1938, Serial No. 186,166

'. Claims.

--This invention relates to respirators or gas' masks for protectingthe head as well as the respirational tracts from dangerous or objectional matters, vapors, gases or suspended or projected solids.

Among the disadvantages\found in even the 'lenses caused by circulation of' vapor; as the breath; also having a face piece which readily permits the ejection of saliva, which is sometimes so necessary when coughing, or of the voice by means of a removable exhalation valve; also whereby the collapse or loss of the filter efliuent tube does not prevent the user from breathing filtered air; alsofwhich is adapted for havin interchangeable parts so that the equipment may be used to supply either filtered air or special gases; also which may be used by man or beast.

To the accomplishment of the foregoing and such other objects as may hereinafter appear the invention reside in the combination of the elements, arrangement of the parts and in the details of construction as hereinafter particularly described and then sought to be clearly defined means of suspension and location of the parts and particularly of straps so as to cause unnecessary interference and strain or danger or both to the wearer; elongated hose or protruding parts-are apt to come in contact with other ob-- jects, either stationary, as brush or tree branches, or moving, as arms, bayonets, machinery and the like. In one recent construction the area of the filter is limited, either by the diameter of a disk which can be supported as positioned, so that even despite its shakable center it is apt to soon become insufllcient to prevent unduly high breath resistance, or. total stoppage of air may occur in case the wearer falls. In several gas masks it is found practical to carry only a restricted or limited filterarea so that only coarse'granules of adsorbent can be used whereas it is well known that far more emcient adsorption may be achieved if finer particles are used.

It isamong the objects of this invention to providea protective respirator gas mask equipment which is eflicient, safe, rugged, durable, comfortable and adapted to be operative when the wearer thereof is incapacitated and which can be readily and inexpensively manufactured and embodies other advantages which will appear from the specification and claims. One of the chief objects of my invention is a construction which protects the filter as well as the head of the wearer; also a construction which, instead of being an additional cumbersome burden even when not in use, for breathing, is at all times an ideal protective headdress when its removable facepiece is disconnected.

A further object is to provide-a gas mask construction whereby is prevented obscuring of the vision, either by parts such as the tube, hose,

filter, goggles or face-piece Or by condensation on by the claims, reference being had to the accompanying drawings forming a part hereof, and in which Figure 1 is a perspective mask and'filter assembly embodying features of the invention Figure 2 is a rear view of the exhalation valve disc assembly with parts cut away to show the supporting spider arm 91 Figure 3 v Figure 3 is a sectional view of the valve taken along. the line .A-A Figure 2 and having the lower part of the valve seat 54 together with a bearing I04 formed in the face-piece 6 supporting the spring I Figure 4 is a perspective view showing the upper part of the goggles referred to Figure 5,

with parts cut away to show the wiper mechanism and parts Figure 5 is a rear perspective view of the goggles with parts cut away to show wiper parts more clearly Figure 6 is a perspective view of the cowl Figure? is a plan of the false-bottom showing air-inlet perforations I39 I Figure 8 is a' section taken along the line G-G Figure 7 and indicating supporting members therefor Figure 9 is a perspective view of the chin strap Figure 10 is a side-elevational view of the gas mask unit, partly in section and partly perspective, with parts cut away in the face-piece 6| to show the valve seat D Figure 11 is a sectional view taken along the line D-D Figure 10 to show the air duct and valve fitting 31 Figure 12 is a sectional view of a blower coupling I32 taken along the line F--F Figure 10 Figure 13 is a sectional view of the blower outlet taken along the line EE Figure 10' and showing part to the goggle frame.

Figure 14 is a side elevational view of the upper one of the parts of a divided face-cone Figure 15 is a side elevational view of the lower one of the divided face-cone parts Figure 16 is a front view of these divided facepiece parts'showing support means and showing the tubular section of the tube .1

Figure 17 of the face-piece shown in Figure 17 with closure means- Figure 18 is a side view of the closure means Figure 19 is a top view of the closure means Figure 20 is a bottom view of the divided facepiece parts showing the partition I41 and also showing the edge of face-pieces 616 curved to fit the contour under the mouth of the user; also showing means for fitting and gasketting the joint Figure 21 is a sectional view of the fitting and gasketing means Figure 22 is afioblique view showing details of these means Figure 23 is a perspective view showing means for supplying special gases Figure 24 is a sectional view of the coupling Figure 25 is a plan of the filterbottom I24 Figure 26 shows the cap I55 Figure 27 is thesectional/view of the cap I55 Novel means are provided for durably and efficiently conducting filtered air from the helmet to the users respiratory system. The filteredeilluent delivery tube I is positioned interorbital- 1y to reach the face-cone 6.

In the embodiment shown in Figure 1 the outer casing I is preferably provided with an opening 26, which is normally sealed by the screw-cap 21 and gasket 29; also with openings 34 for rivets 4, which support the filterbottom I24 Figure 10; also with rivetholes I42 for rivets 55 which support the efiluent-valve fitting 56 Figure 10 and inner casing 2 Figure 10, the eilluent tube II and the holder I2 thereon; also with a visor 36 Figure 1 formed of the part of the brim which is in front of the head of the user. The face-cone is provided with pegs 58 to co-operate with peg openings II 8 Figure 6; and with opening 80 in the chin-strap 9 Figure 9; also with exhalation opening I00, which normally is shut off by the diaphragm IOI Figure 3 serving also as a valve, its edge being stiffened by a clamping ring H and 41.

As shown by a lower part, in section, in Figure 3, of the cone its anterior surface around the exhalation opening I00 is shaped to form a seat for the valve assembly shown in Figures 2 and 3. The seat 54 is normally covered by the face 46 of the valve disk-frame 41, held thereon by the pressure of the spring 50, turnably mounted on an extrusion I04 in the face-cone 6, and held thereon by a pin I I5 in openings 80 therethrough. The spring 50 has an opening I06 to admit the extrusion therethrough near the base 8| of the spring mounted against the face-cone I09. Passing' through another opening I01 in spring 50 two clamping-arms 91 of the spider 82, fixedly mounted on the valve frame 41 by rivets 5|"passing through openings 53 in 41, in theclamping ring H0, in the spiderlegs 98 and in the diaphragin IM and holding the members of the valve-disk assembly together,serve to hold the disk against the seat.

Novel means are provided whereby, without detaching any parts of his gas mask, the user may shift from filtered air to atmospheric air, Also whereby his voice may be projected through the port I00 directly to the atmosphere instead'of through the diaphragm MI. The extrusion I04 constitutes a pivotal bearing for the spring and by simply seizing the spring at its bent portion I02 its free end, which supports the diaphragm llll he may lift the attached valve from its seat and swing them to either side of the port or cone piece to be held there by the spring pending a possible warning of-a gas attack.

Novel means are provided for permitting the voice vibrations to pass from the chamber 11 through the opening I00 whether the valve be shut or open, and novel means are provided for normal breathing of atmospheric air without removing the mask. The central part of the thin diaphragm I0l, which may be made of any suitable air-impervious material, is adapted to'be vibrated, by the vociferation. of the user and thereby to communicate the vibrations thereof to the exterior of the member 6, when the valve disk assembly is firmly pressed against the seat, openings I08 in the spider 82 being provided to permit the vibrations to emerge therethrough to the atmosphere or outside of the mask. During exhalation the pressure of the'breath of the user lifts the disk assembly, of which the diaphragm IOI actually has an area substantially suilicient to cover the area of the port I00, and the breath fiows outside and past the edges of the diaphragm and the frame 41, to the atmosphere. The diaphragm IN is adapted to be sealed so that no gas can pass through these members, in other words the area of the disk substantially equals the area of the diaphragm plus the area of face 46. Naturally when the disc assembly is held from its seat the exhalation passes the perimeter of the face 46 directly from the port to the atmosphere. Near its face 46, the bore of the frame 41 is enlarged to admit diaphragm I0 I' and ring I I0 and preferably four radial channels are provided in 41 to hold spiderlegs 98. All parts of the valve assembly may be of metal or other suitable material. The clamping arms 91 are preferably formed by making a U-cut in the spider piece as shown. It will be noted that, when the valve is shifted to one side, it will be possible for the user to discharge sputum through the opening I00.

A novel support for goggles, a novel means. for causing them to be pressed against the face so as to exclude smoke and the like, novel means to exclude vapor of the breath and novel means for wiping condensation from the interior or back of the glass have been provided. The opening II4 Figure 4 in the goggle frame BI is adapted to be frictionally supported on they tube 1, which may be extended therethrough, so that the goggles will be positioned and pressed against the face of the user. The goggle frame may be made of metal with a rubber-edge gasketing the brow around the eyes, as described in another paragraph, herein, or the frame may be made of any suitable material, such as rubber, as shown in Figures 4 and 5. The feathered edge I20 encircles both eyes so that a chamber 9| is formed between the glasses and the users skin. The contoured rubber wall of the frame 12 has suitable openings I43 for glass 1! "or the equivalent and is channeled 15 to hold the glass. An extension 15 of this channel forms a chamber 18 for housing a wiper mechanism of which a protuberance of the wall may serve as a spring 19, by which wiper parts are normally held aside from the sight of the user. A strip of chamois 93 is able sealing means.

erably made of U-section'inetal for stiifenmg and also for holding chamois in the channel formed.

within the U-bend.. The lever 92 has openings II2. constituting rudimentary bearings with the shaft of the rivet 90 therethrough and supported by the rubber frame in openings 9I therein; also rudimentary bearing openings 94 for the pivots 96, formed by deformation .of the end of the push-rod '95. The pushrod is positioned and guided by the walls of the chamber, an area of thin wall II I being provided so that it may be depressed by the user to actuate the lever with his finger when condensation occurs on the glass from his tears.

For covering remaining portions of the head and neck and also to prevent objectionable matter from entering in his collar novel means are provided. The cowl-piece 32 Figure 6 has supporting means II8 cooperating with pegs or means 58 in cone 8; also H3 and H5 for suspension on the hook I1 and for holding 32 in tubular form aboutthe head of the user together with the buttons I I8 and cooperating holes I6 or suit- A tuck-piece 33 is sewn or suitably attached I8 to 32 so that when the free end of the piece 33 is tucked under the clothing of the user dust or the like will tend to be arrested in its passage by these parts and by the volume of air which is trapped between the parts 33 and 32, which are preferably made of oiled textilaceous material.

Novel means are provided for sealing the infiuent openin of the filter; also for adding to the normal filterbed such additional neutralizingmedia as may be required for newly developed so called surprise gases. In Figures 7 and 8 an auxiliary bottom I38 is adapted to be supported frictionally, by the heads of the rivets I 26 and'4, under the filter inlet.

stances for example cracked ice I89 during an emergency, the bottom I38 is adapted to serve as a tray upon which such media may be supported and in which perforations I39 admit the air so as to permit it to pass through the media. When it is desired to seal the filter from atmospheric air the false bottom I38 is made without the perforations I39 as will be readily understood.

A chinstrap 9 Figure 9 having openings 81, for

. When it is desired to supply additional filter media or air tempering subattaching to rivets 4 there-through or equivalent co-operating means for support, and a buckle 89 for adjustment, also has openings 88 'to co-operate with pegs 58 in the face cone 8 so that the face piece assembly may be held close to the skin by the tension of the chinstrap.

Novel means have been provided to construct a filter such as will be adapted to have large filtering capacity, a low velocity of approach of the raw air, a minimum of frictional resistance, means for ready control and also for re-activation and for replacement of filter media and parts;

' also for its suspension upon the head of the user so that its parts will tend to have the least tendency to hinder the movements of the user; also to have the filter parts serve as a protection against impacts on the head of the user, thereby enabling a corresponding reduction in the weight of other protective equipment such as a steel helmet. In Figure 10 the filter bottom I24, hav- The raw air enters through the perforations in the filter bottom and-without obstructions such as valves-passes, into the filter chamber whence the filtered air enters a port 3 in'the end of the eiliuent tube-piece. II, passing down through the bed, to. the eiliuent-valve fitting 58, which has a socket 44 for the tubular end I of the facecone therein.

Rudimentary co-operating threads 28 in the covercap 21 and in the tube-piece II are disposed to hold, and to enable a person to screw the cover 21 tight against the gasketed 29 opening26 and .thus support the skullcap or inner casing 2 which is riveted 42 to the tube-piece so that between them a tube or eliluent ductis formed by these pieces Hand 2. 4

It .will be noted that the inner casing 2 occupies the central part or like a core in a filterbed so as to form a wall for the chamber 39. Corrugations- 25 in casing 2 are adapted for housing the facepiece 6 when the end of the hanger I2 is inserted in the tube I when not used as a respirator. Rivets passing through rivet holes I42 in the hanger, the casing 2, tube piece II the fitting 58 and outer casing I support these members.

The tube-piece II is bent and riveted to the casing 2 near the lower edge of these parts soas to leave no outlet except where an opening 43 has been provided in II.

The tube-piece II is adapted to be enlargedso as to extend over a considerable area of the surface of the inner casing 2. and 2 are adapted to be made of spring steel, suitably hardened and of suitable thickness to afford the maximum protection to the head of the user because the dimensions of these parts may be considerably smaller than the,dimensions of the bowl of a standard steel helmet'o'icf casing The outlet valvefitting 55, positioned in the niche 51 formed in the casing I by the bulge 31, has a chamber 24 and a recessed opening 35 admitting to the efliuent opening 43 through the gasket 4I between these parts. A seat 52 in the chamber co-operates with the valve disc 45, held by spring 49, mounted on a socket piece 8, to hold the valve normally in closed position. To enable the tension of the spring to be adjusted so that the valve will be opened by the differential .pressure created by the muscular exertion during inhalation by the user co-operating threads 5 are provided on the outside of the socketpiece and on the inside of the wall of chamber 24. An annular bore 44 in the socketpiece is adapted to serve as a frictional support for'the airpipe I which is prevented from jambing the spring by a pin I22 supported in openings I23 in the wall of the socketpiece.

ing perforations I25 and rivet holes 34, for rivets 4 and I26 therethrough, and by which it is at- Adjustment or sweatpad means I21, adapted to cover parts which might be hard on the head or scalp of the user, are supported by rivets 38 therethrough and through parts II and 2.

The filterbed 20 may be built up of any suitable media, preferably a cotton pad or layer of fibrous material I25, supporting salifying materialin a layer 22 or mixed with adsorbent material, such as carbon in an activated state, 2I. To prevent the materials from shifting about the chamber 39 and also to screen the efiluent orifice 3 a pad or pack of fibrous or hairy material is placed on top of-the filterbed as shown.

Figure 11 shows how the tube-piece I I isshaped to fit into a channel or niche I 2I, in the fitting 58. Although shown deep, for clearness of the drawings, the channel may be shallow and corre- And both parts II spondingly wide to provide the desired airduct area I29 when the piece H is proportioned correspondingly thereby covering more of the scalp.

Novel means are provided whereby the valves are adapted to act and to respond in the mini mum period of time to the user's impulse of either inhalation or exhalation. The several parts of the covering for the face of the user are adapted to hold a minimal volume of air or breath the expansion or contraction of which, due to elasticity, might cause delay of the differential on the opposite sides of the respective check valves. The parts 8 and I, particularly, are adapted to hold a minimal volume of air and the other parts of the mask do not contribute to this volage therefrom a tube I3I having a rudimentary valve end I35 Figure 13 adapted to be inserted in opening I38 and frictionally held I 31 therein may be provided by making the opening I36 either as shown in Figure 10 or in another suitable location in the goggle frame. Similarly an outlet tube I32 may be formed in the cone piece 6 covering chamber 'II as shown in Figure 12 and the free end of the tube attached and frictionally held thereon. The check valve I35 is adapted to resist opening by the exhalation pressure such as readily opens the valve in the member 6 but to enlarge the orifice I34 at a higher pressure such as may be exerted when the exhalation valve is held shut.

The members 6 and I may be'either joined by suitable means such as welding III or they may be formed as one piece in any suitable manner.

In Figure 14 the face cone is adapted for cov ering only the nose of the user who may prefer to leave his mouth uncovered and use his lips as a valve. When the part 6'! is substituted for the parts 6 and 1, the-disc 45 having previously been removed from the valve fitting, the exhalation may pass through the filter. Obviously, when it is not desired to remove disc 45, an opening and valve parts equipment to those shown in Figure 3 may be provided in the part 61.

By removing the closure member I from partition I61, by lifting the spring 62 from the socket I45, the lower part of the facepiece shown in Figure 15 may be attached to the part El. The rubber edge strip 84 is adapted to skirt the edge of these members, to be adjustably held thereon by the co-operating depression 86 and protuberances 85 and suitably joined by cementing or taping joints. 1 When it is desired to breathe'special gases the fitting I5I Figure 24 is adapted to be substituted for the covercap 21. and the free end attached to the source or gas tank I48 by means of the tube I50 as will be readily seen in Figure 23. Regulating means I49 are provided to control the gas.

For closing the opening I32 Figure 12 in the face-piece when the tube I3I is detached a cap I55 Figures 26-27 is provided for an opening I56 to fit the part I32.

Some of the advantages resulting from thisexhalation valve disc and voice transmission diaphragm such as can be made inexpensively; a respiration equipment which can be used either for protection from toxic or irritant gases or dust or can be converted into an inhalator for special gases or vapors; the elimination of more than half the weight of equivalent equipment the user now carries and of about ten of the movements now practicedin donning gas mask equipment; also in which the armored protection consists of a plurality of layers of material which may be metal, in which case I preferably make the layer of spring steel and of sufilcient area to cover the desired parts of the head of the wearer; also in which 'both the exhalation valve and diaphragms are removably supported thereby enabling the user to change instantly to normal breathing and vociferatlon or to filtered air and diaphragm or to eject sputtum of discharges of his from his respiratory system through the opening I00. Also, whereas the common slit rubber fiuttervalve may open when inadvertently it comes in contact with an obstruction, for example, the earth, the exhalation valve assembly is adapted for withstanding collision and for protecting a fallen user even if the port is entirely obstructed; in which case it may be actually advantageous for him to force his exhaled breath past the junction of the edge of the face-piece and his skin.

Also in which the inlet valve has the maximum responsiveness to its actuating differential between atmospheric pressure and the lower pressure resulting from the muscular action of inhalation; also, obversely of the foregoing, greater used types of respirators and also by expansion.

of the greater air content such hose contains.

In practicing the invention I preferably position the axis of the air ductvertically within the triangular horizontal area between and ahead of the eyes of. the wearer which is not in his sight normally and which is termed his inter-orbital void. The weight and the members of my construction tend to hold the mask to the face of the user whereas most of the existing gas mask units are disposed to pull the mask from the face, particularly during muscular exertion, and thus to break the seal of the junction of the edge of the face-piece and the skin of the user, especially when parts, as the nose, come in contact with an object as a rifle, harness, pack or burden. The common danger of collapse of the hose and air supply is eliminated by my tube first proportionally to the great difference in their length and second by the rigid construction for which it is adapted. Supported from above and turning with the head of the user in a minimum radius my construction is an ideal durable gas mask unit for many purposes, including the protection sorely needed for draft animals which thereby can, for the first time, be provided with an adequate supply of filtered air instead of the stifling bag of moistened cheesecloth heretofore employed.

It will now be apparent that I have devised a novel and useful construction, which embodies the features of advantage enumerated as desirable in the statement of the invention and the above description, and while I have,-in the present instance, shown and described a preferred embodiment thereof which will give in practice satisfactory and reliable results, it is to be understood that the same is susceptible ofmodification in the various particulars without departing from the spirit or scope of the invention, or sacrificing any of its advantages.

Air tempering or moistening, means I60, Figure 8, for example cracked ice or warmed pebbles may be added to the filter media and supported on tray I38, Figure 8.

Having described my invention and set forth its merits what I claim is:

1. In a-gas mask or the like, in combination,

a face piece adapted to cover the users mouth and nose and having an opening opposite the users mouth, and means for clOsing said opening, said means comprising a valve seat and valve elesaid valve element being spring-held against its seat, for transmitting voice vibrations through said opening, a helmet having filter means therein and a rigid tubular connection between the helmet and face piece.

2. A gas mask in accordance with claim 1,in which said face piece is detachably connected with the front of, the helmet,

3. A gas mask in accordance with claim 1, in which said connection comprises a duct positioned so as to traverse the axis of the users inter-orbital void.

4. gas mask in accordance with claim 1, in which the face piece has a plurality of chambers ment including a voice transmitting diaphragm, V

wall is deformed,

including a breathing chamber, and an eye chamber and a duct connecting said chambers including a pressure operated valve.

5. A gas mask in accordance with claim 1, in which an eye chamber and glasses are attached to said tubular connection, and means for re- -movi ng condensation from the. glasses including said duct being positioned to traverse the inter-L orbital void of the user, said face piece including nose, mouth and eye chambers and constituting with said duct a rigidly constructed unit and a cowl piece supported from the helmet and covering the part of the head of the user not protected by the face piece.

7. A gas mask in accordance with claim 6, in which said face piece is provided with an opening having a valve seat and a valve member including a voice transmitting diaphragm spring-held against its seat, said parts serving to transmit voice vibrations.

8. A gasmask in accordance with claim 6, in which said face piece is provided with an opening having a valve seat and a valve member including a voice transmitting diaphragm spring-held against its seat, said parts serving to transmit voice vibrations, and means for shifting the valve to an inoperable position, i

9. A gas mask in accordance with claim 6, in which the eye chambers mounted on said connecting duct are adjustable slidable,

10. A gas mask in accordance with claim 6, in which said eye chambers include goggles, and means for removing vision impairing substances from behind said goggles without removing the goggles from the face including a wiper, a chant ber having a deformable wall, and means adia-=.

cent the wall for operating the wiper when the enemas wnrrm smear,

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US4353134 *Aug 14, 1981Oct 12, 1982Macnabb Thomas CUnderwater swimming goggles and masks with gravity-operated wipers
US4811728 *Sep 29, 1986Mar 14, 1989Auergesellschaft GmbhRespirator hood
US7055521 *Nov 17, 2003Jun 6, 2006Johnson Ronald AVentilated mask for outdoor use
US7802319Sep 28, 2010Sheila ShaverHelmet with rearward access aperture
US20060075543 *Oct 8, 2004Apr 13, 2006Shelia ShaverHelmet with rearward access aperture
US20080022442 *Jul 26, 2006Jan 31, 2008Sheila ShaverHelmet with rearward access aperture
U.S. Classification128/201.16, 128/201.25, 128/201.19, 2/435
International ClassificationA62B18/00
Cooperative ClassificationA62B18/00
European ClassificationA62B18/00