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Publication numberUS2254933 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 2, 1941
Filing dateJun 17, 1938
Priority dateMay 27, 1937
Also published asDE747009C
Publication numberUS 2254933 A, US 2254933A, US-A-2254933, US2254933 A, US2254933A
InventorsJames W Bryce
Original AssigneeIbm
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Record controlled machine
US 2254933 A
Abstract  available in
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Sept. 2, 1941.



2 Sheets-Sheet l FIG] C.

l/A/ M fieiafgiffffy Guadalcanal:

Sept. 2, 1941. J. w. BRYcE RECORD CONTROLLED MACHINE Original Filed May 27, 1957 2 Sheets-Sheet 2 lkml RN @WN QNN atenied Sept. 2, 1941 RECORD CONTBOLLED MACHINE y James W. Bryce, Glen Ridge, N. I., assignor to International Business Machines Corporation,

New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York Original application May 27, 1937, Serial No. 145,031. Divided and this application June 17, 1938, Serial N0. 214,397


This invention relates to accountingl systems, and has for one oi its objects the provision ot a. control system utilizing machine control means comprising plane surfaces capable of receivingv permanent eiIects from an electric action which effects subsequently are translated into electrical energy to control or operate the machine.

'I'he present case constitutes a divisional application of the copending application, Serial No. 145,031, led May 27, 1937.

The present application relates specillcally to a system in which the control elements or records are provided with magnetic conditions representing various characterizations and data, and are adapted to be presented to a machine to convert the magnetic conditions on the control elements into electrical currents or impulses to control the machine in accordance with the magnetic indications. To illustrate more specically the application of the present invention, the instant embodiment is shown to comprise well known accounting machine control elements which are controlled or influenced by the magnetic conditions or indications impressed upon the control or elements or records.

'I'he specic type of accounting system described herein comprises a system wherein the machine control elements are controlled at differential times by the electrical energy generated by the control system by sensing the coded or diierentially positioned magnetic conditions disposed under control records.

Therefore another object of the present invention is the provision of detecting means whereby the magnetic conditions on the control elements are converted into electrical currents or impulses. In accordance with this provision, the differently positioned magnetic conditions are eiective to create electrical impulses initiated at different A times.

of the machines.

Still another object is to provide means whereby the electrical energy generated by the magnetic indications are impressed directly on the control elements of the machine.

Still another object resides in the provision of vmeans whereby the electrical energy generated by the magnetic conditions is impressed directly on the accumulating control elements of the machine. l .v

Still another object is the provision of means whereby the control elements areeiiective to control the various operations of thev accounting machines in accordance with the disposition of the magnetic conditions thereon without physically engaging the control elements. In accordance with this provision it is unnecessary to physically contact the control elements in any way to perform various machine control functions.

Other objects of the invention will be pointed out in the following description and claims and illustrated in the accompanying drawings. which disclose, by way of example, the principle of the invention and the best mode, which hasbeen contemplated, of applying that principle.

In the drawings:

Figs. 1A. 1-.B, and l-C show diagrammatically the obliterating, recording, and reading means for detecting magnetic conditions on a record.

Fig. 2 shows an amplifier system including magnetic reading means in the input circuit.

Fig. 3 shows a detailed view of a control element.

Before describing the elements of the present 0 system, it is believed advisable briey to outline the theory of magnetic recording as applied to the control systems in the present invention.

The process of magnetically recording data in the form of discrete magnetic conditions or impressions depends essentially on the phenomenon of magnetic hysteresis and on the associated property that when changes of magnetomotive force are made upon a magnetizable substance a certain remanent ux density is retained by the magnetized substance which is termed remanence. The intensity of the resultant field in the magnetizable substance depends precisely on the magnitude of the magnetic fleld acting thereon and the substance of the magnetizable element. The magnetizable substance of the controlrecord for thepresentpuxposesshouldbel sequent period to initiate electrical current conditions or 'impulses which are impressed upon various control circuits to control the operation l of the different machines of the present system.

on a control record in the form of magnetic impressions, so that lnew data may be impressed upon the said record, another propertypeculiar to magnetizable substances is depended upon, namely, that the conditioned control records are presented to and inuen'ced by an alternating magnetic field of suitable intensity so that not only are the discrete magnetic impressions on the records obliterated but the magnetizable substances of the recordsare restored to a non-magnetized lstate so that the remanent flux density throughout the record is reduced to zero value.

It is evident then from the statements just set forth that ifthe non-magnetized records are In vorder to obliterate or efface the recordings.

tion, thevalueofwhichdepenonthemagnitude ofthemagneticfieldactingllvlllltherecord.

'I'he disposition of the discrete magnetic impressionontherecordisindicativeofacertain characterization of the data desired to be recorded. A plurality of such discrete magnetic impressions may be disposed in a number of various 'l identifying areas to represent various characterizations. It is preferred to arrange the different subjected to a constant magnetic field so as to y impress discrete magnetic impressions thereon, v

such impressions may be retained thereon for any desired period and that the control records may be employed in that state to control selectively the various accounting machines, and that at any subsequent desired period the recordings may be obliterated withoutl impairing the utility of the control records so as to be in a state or condition so that new magnetic influences may be impressed thereon to represent new characterl izations of the desired data.

Referring now to Figs. i-A, 1 B,and i-c of the drawings, the method of preparing and utilizing the control records is shown diagrammatically. The rst step is to presentthe control record D to a changing magnetic eld created by the magnet A, termed the obliterating magnet.` It is preferred in the present case to subject all the record elements to the magnetic field of the obliterating magnet before the data is recorded4 the recording magnets, so that a selected magnet,

upon energization thereof, is effective to create a constant magnetic eld which is directed to a particular control area on the record so as to excite the selected or desired identifying area and thus impress thereupon or therein magnetic impressions or influences which are retained by the record.

One of the recording magnets Bis shown disposed in close proximity to the record so that a particular identifying area thereof is subjected to the excitation field of the particular recording magnet and thereby impressing uponthe record a discrete magnetic impression. Upon removal of the record D from the constant excitation field created by the recording magnet, the control record will retain a certain remanent magnetizacontrol or magnetizable areas in columnar arrangement so that each column may be conditioned by magnetic. imp differently positioned in the individual columns.

Inordertoutilize the recordspreparedinthe manner Just described. it is n to describe the associated elements adapted to detect the magnetic impressions representing the recorded data, convert the said differentially disposed and discretel magnetic impressions into electrical impulses, and direct the diiferentially timed impulses by various control circuits to control devices adapted to translate and interpret the various characterizations impressedon the control records. The specific control devices will not be described at this time but a brlef'description of the method of converting-,the magnetic iniluenc to electrical currents will be set forth.

Referring now to Figs. l-C and 2, the conditioned control record D is-presented to one of the electromagnets C which will be termed a reading iiow of current induced in the magnet is then conducted to the input-circuit of an amplifying system, generally designated at E, and comprises a plurality of Vthermionic device of which two areshown connected in cascade unploying the resistance upling type of which is well known d'need not'be dcribed in fin'ther detail. Thegridcircuitsofthedevicaremaintained at a suitable negative bias, and indicated as such by the conventional battery. so that normally no current iiows in the output circuit of the system and laccordingly the associated work circuit remains normally d The ow 0f current induced in the, reading magnet and impressed upon the input circuit of the amplifier is ofsuchvaluesoastoreducethegdbiasand thus permit the devices .to cliente s0 that'the current flow in the output circuit thereof is effective to energize the work circuit.

The work circuit is deenergiaed immediately when the sensed magnetic im is positioned awayvfromthe reading magnet. Ingtliis manner, it is possible to convert the discrete,v magn-- suitably adapted to be controlled by the magnetic control records. In order to simplify the followingl description as much as possible, the principle of the present invention'will be applied to various elements which are standard and used at present' in the known accounting Control records The control records to be described and shown in Figs. 3 to 9 must fulilil certain requirements in order to be adaptable to accounting system processes. The records, of course, must comprise suitable magnetizable substances which, when subjected to controlling magnetic fields and removed therefrom, retain suitable remanent iuxes therein which will be effective to create or initiate current impulses when presented to suitable detecting or sensing devices.

The magnetizabie material may be incorporated in or form part of the control record in various ways, for example, (1) the said materialmay be in the form of a metallic wafer or strip, or individual wafers or strips; (2) or may be in the form of metal powder or iilings suitably ilxed upon a carrier or base; (3) or a form oi' colloidal metal and sprayed or coated upon a carrier or base as a metallic coating; (4) or a form of coating or layer of material deposited on a carrier by an electrolytic process; (5) or may be in the form of a granular material such as filings and mixed in suitable paper used as a carrier; (6) or a form of ilnely divided metal powder incorporated in the pulp before manufacturing the paper carrier or base.

Irrespective of the method employed to form the control records, it is imperative that the records produced be capable of withstanding the stresses to which they are subjected by the rapid and repeated handling of the records in the various accounting machines. It is necessary that the records have suilicient rigidity and durability to be adapted for and capable of being electromechanically segregated, sorted and tabulated and withstand the exigencies of repeated operations.

It is also necessary to form the control records so as to be provided with at least one surface to readily receive legible matter such as various characters or marks formed by writing, printing, or typewriting. This requisite is quite important in view of the fact that the magnetic iniluenc impressed on the control records are not visually discernible and therefore the appearanpe and configuration of the control records remain unchanged; that is, the records appear exactly the same after recording the data thereon as they appeared before recording of the data was eifected. In this manner, it is possible to identify the various discrete magnetic influences impressed on the records. Not only is it possible to identify the various recordiilgs by the corresponding characters Written or printed on the surface of therecords, but also the entire surface, or any part thereof, is free to be used for reception of additional data which it might be desired to include lthereon. The latter feature is possible since the surface of the record is not altered or mutilated for the purpose of recording the particular data.

It is evident, toc, that subsequent entries of the legible characters may be made upon the surface of the record from time, to time. This makes it possible to delete or strike out any of the printed or written characters as desired or add thereto, particularly in view of the fact that the magnetic influences impressed on the records may be obliterated and substituted by new recordings from time to time. Suflicient space on the surface of the card should be available to receive the additional printed or written recording identifying matter in the event it is desired merely to strike out the irrelevant legible matter.

With referenceV now to the ilgures, particularly Fig. 3, vthe control record D represents, in the present instance, a control element of standard size. that is. similar in size to the records for use with accounting machines of the weil known Hollerith type, and comprising magnetizabie material and having a surface capable of receiving legible characterizations.

The surface of the control record D in the ii8 ure is shown to be divided into a plurality of individual index point positions. In practice. it is to be understood that the index point positions need not be indicated as shown in the figure and that the illustration used is merely for descriptive purposes, since it is impossible to show graphically the magnetic iniluen'ces impressed in the' various control areas.

It is seen that a plurality of columnar areas III are provided along the minor axis of the control record D and that each columnar area is sub-divided into a plurality of code or"index point positions Il, each position representing a certain value or characterization. For example, each columnar area, as shown, is divided into ten index point positions, the values of which increase in value from the top to the bottom of the record. In this respect, the positions are arranged and identiiied similarly as is the customary and well known arrangement of the Hollerith record. It is to the speciilc positions il where the discrete magnetic influences are directed and impressed in accordance with the data desired to be recorded.

It is evident, therefore, that the statistical information or data are arranged in the form of arbitrary indications coded according to their positions on the record.

The magnetic material may be in such a form or state that it will not readily receive writing or printing, and it is obvious that such a surface must be provided so as to enable the identication of the records and interpretation of the data impressed thereon. 'I'he term writing surface" is meant to include a surface which will readily take impressions from a pencil, pen, typewriter, hand stamp, printing press, or other kindred instrument. In Fig. 3, the entire plan surface of the control record is adapted to be capable of receiving such legible impressions, and, as indicated on the record, the legible indications may be arranged at the head of the columns to interpret the code impressions in the corresponding columns. In addition to the columnar code indications, the remaining surface of the record is available and capable of receiving legible impressions, since the magnetic influences impressed on the record in the various positions do not alter the configuration of the record, and the legible impressions in no way disturb or alter the effects of the magnetic impressions.

It should be mentioned at this time, that in addition to the different positions Il, a space I2 is provided available for the reception of additional magnetic impressions Which can be used for various control purposes or in combination with the impressions disposed in the positions Ii to expand the number of code combinations on the records. It is well known that for certain control purposes 11" and 12 index point positions are provided on a control record and in such cases where this is desirable it is possible to impress the discrete magnetic influences to be utilised for control purposes in the "11" and 12" positions for any columnar area Iii, in the space i2 designated on the record in the figure.

Referring now to Figs. 4 to 9, different forms of control records comprising magnetizable material will be described, and it is to be understood that each record described hereinbelow can be conditioned in the manner Just described and the arrangement of the magnetic iniluences and legible impressions can be made in accordance with the description set forth in conjunction with the record D in Fig. 3.

In Fig. 4, the record is shown to comprise a carrier or base i3 which may be of paper stock, although other material, preferably non-mag- 15 netic, may be used as a support or backing as long as it is strong and durable and capable of withstanding the stresses to which it is sub- .iected. A wafer or foil of magnetic material i4 is shown secured to the carrier I3 by any suitablev 20 bond or cementitious material I5, such as glue.

In order to protect the foil or wafer of magnetic material, and also to yprovide a writing surface for the record, a layer of suitable paper IB, such as mentioned hereinbefore, is provided and secured to the magnetic wafer I4 by a layer of cementitious material I1. The wafer or foil of magnetic material referred to must be made extremely thin, so that recording oi' discrete magnetized areas can be effected on the homogeneous magnetizable material. It has been found that magnetic recordings of the character referred to herein must be made on relative thinner homogeneous material rather than relative thicker material. f

It should be mentioned at this time that it has been found that magnetic lines of force, when suitable coils are used and the proper voltages are applied thereto (depending'upon the materials used in the record), will travel through li0 non-magnetic material and cementitious layers generally without hindrance or interruption.

Referring now to Fig. 5, a record is shown to comprise a sheet of suitable non-magnetic material il such as paper, which is impregnated with granular magnetic material, generally indicated at I9, such 'as iron filings. 0r, if preferred, the carrier i8 may be made by depositing ilnely divided metal powder in the paper pulp so as to be incorporated therein before the manu`50, facture of the magnetizable paper stock. The impregnated paper may then be treated and coated on both sides with layers of ink retaining varnish 20. The layers of varnish serve two purposes; (l) to protect the impregnated carrier il, and (2) to provide a writing surface on the record.

In Fig. 6, the impregnated sheet i8 is shown to be covered with layers of suitable plain paper stock 2i secured to the impregnated stock by 60 cementitious material 22. One of said layers of plain stock 2i should be capable of receiving printing or legible character marks.

In Fig. '1, one of the plies of paper stock 23 is coated with a metallic coating `24 and secured 65 to the other by cementitious material 25. To this end, suitable metal powder or filings may be suspended in any suitable binder and sprayed or coated on one of the plies of paper stock. Colloidal iron may be used and sprayed thereon as a metallic coating;

In Figs. 8 and 9, still another modification is shown to comprise two plies of suitable paper stock 20 and upon one layer individual magnetizable portions 21 are applied thereto. These 75 portions are positioned tocorrespond to the po- The plies of sitioning of the fields Il (Pig. 3), stock 28 are then secured by the 'cementitious material Il.

n has been determined. byexpenmen.' um,

in cases where homogeneous magnetizable materials are used in control records of the character described (with the exception of the'type shown in Figs. 8 .and 9) the magnetized` index l points or marks cannot be recorded as closely as when powdered or granular magnetizable materials are used. For this reason, the last mentioned types of materials are preferred.

It has been shown from the description just set forth how to form control records suitable for use in present day accounting systems and having suitable characteristics such as rigidity, durability, etc. sovas to be adapted for and capable of being electro-mechanically segregated, sorted, and tabulated. and comprising (l) suitable magnetizable material so that magnetic iniluences directed to certain positions thereof are retained by the records, and (2) that a suitable writing surface is provided on the records, the entire surface of which may be utilized for the reception of the legible characterizations.

Tabulating mechanism The principle of operation of the tabulating mechanism now to be described is based on the fact that the records having discrete magnetic impressions representing the data are presented to suitable reading magnets and the said impressions are detected while the records.. are in motion to initiate timed impulses in accordance with the disposition of the impressions on the record to control either data accumulating mechanism or data printing mechanism or both; said accumulating and l'printing mechanisms are adapted to be operated in synchronism with the feeding and sensing of the records so that upon initiation oflthe timedimpuises which control -the operation of said mechanisms, the data entered in the accumulating mechanism and the data recorded by the printing mechanism correspond to the coded magnetic data representations sensed.'

The tabulating mechanism shown diagraml matically in Fig. 10 comprises generally three units, namely, the record feeding and sensing unit, the accumulating unit, and the printing unit. Each unit is shown diagrammatically as well as the connections between all the umts;

however, the operation of the units are shown to` be operated in synchronism exactly as they are operated in practice at the present time. The disclosure and brief description to follow are believed to be suilicient, in view of the fact that the said units and method of operation thereof are predicated upon the structures shown in U. S. Patent No. 1,976,617, issued to Lake et al., and wherein the units and their yoperation are explained and described in detail.

In addition to detecting the magnetic impressions on the records, converting them into differentially timed impulses to control the accumulating and listing mechanisms in accordance with the sensed data, it will be shown as the description progresses how the magnetic control elements or records are effective to control the machine in a predetermined manner, for example, preventing further tabulating operations,

without physically engaging the control records,

whenever the following conditions are existing: (l) the presentation of records to the machine having classification data on successive records which are dissimilar, (2) the presentation of blank or inverted records to the machine, (3) the presentation of records to the machine without specic control indications disposed thereon, and (4) failure of presentation of records to the machine.

Referring now to the figure, and assuming that the control circuits are conditioned so that the circuits to the motor |85 are maintained energized; records |86 having discrete magnetic impressions disposed differentially in the various columnar areas, are presented singly to the continuously rotating feed rollers |81 by the card picker |88-A, so that the leading edges are moved in cooperation with the rollers and thence downwardly in succession past pairs of feed rollers |88, |89 and |90 to a discharge hopper suitably disposed with respect to the last mentioned rollers. The gearing connecting the feed rollers to the main drive shaft |9| are generally indicated at |92 and |93.

Between the pairs of rollers |81 and |88, a plurality of reading or sensing magnets |94-A, ISS-1A, etc. are suitably disposed and this reading or sensing position will be referred to as the upper record sensing position; and between rollers |89 and |90, a plurality of sensing magnets ISL-B, ISS-B, |91, etc. are suitably disposed and will be referred to as the lower record sensing position. The set of magnets |94, |95 and |96 are provided for various machine operation control purposes, whereas the magnets |91 are provided to control the operation of the accumulating and listing mechanisms directly.

The continuously rotated shaft |98 has slidably mounted thereon, but keyed fr rotation therewith, a plurality of clutch elements |99, there being one for each denominational order position of the accumulator. 'Ihe element |99 is provided with a groove in which fits the end of an arm 200 of a suitably pivoted lever 20|. The lever 20| is normally held in the position shown by armature 202 of a magnet 203. Upon energization of the magnet, the said amature is attracted thereto, thereby releasing the lever 20| and permitting the clutch element |99 to move into engagement with'cooperating teeth 204 integral with a gear 205 loosely mounted on shaft |98. Gear 205, when thus coupled to shaft |98, will rotate a gear 206 which meshes therewith and displace the accumulator index wheel 201.

It is to be understood that the magnets 203 may be energized at various points in the cycle of the machine, depending upon the disposition of the magnetic impressions in the corresponding columnar areas of the record detected by the reading magnets |91. 'I'his energization may take place in response to a detection of a magnetic impression'in any of the index point positions represented by the accumulator. For example, a magnetic impression in the 9 position will cause the clutch element |99 to be tripped to position the index wheel 201 nine steps before a declutching operation is effected by the machine and an impression in the "1 position will cause the clutch element to be tripped to position the index wheel 201 one step before being declutched. 'Ihe manner in which the circuits controlled by the magnets |91 in the lower sensing position control the operation of magnet 203 will be set forth hereinbelow. For further detailed description of the accumulating mechanism, reference should be made to the said Lake patent and wherein such well known accumulator operations as, denominational vorder transfer, restoration of the clutch elements and magnet armatures to normal position, and resetting of the accumulator mechanism, are specifically described.

The printing or listing unit comprises a printing cam 2I0 shown associated with the shaft |98 and is rotated in synchronism with the record feed mechanism making one revolution for each record fed and analyzed. The member 2|| is shown to cooperate with and actuated by a cam groove in the printing cam so that the printing bail or member 2|2 is effective to impart an upward movement tothe type bars 2|3 by means of the resilient connection such as springs 2|4-A between the type bars and the printing member. The type bars 2|3 are provided with a plurality of ratchet teeth 2|! which cooperate with stopping pawls 2|5 so that the type bars may be interrupted at various positions to present any of their type elements 2|6 to the printing platen 2|1 for cooperation therewith.

By virtue of the spring connections 2|4-A,I

the bars 2|3 may be interrupted without interfering with the upward movement of the printing member 2|2 which has an invariable extent of movement controlled by the cam 2|0. Energization of any one of the magnets 2|8 is eiective to rock the spring-pressed pivoted latch releasing the associated pawl 2|5 so that it may swing into engagement with teeth 2M and interrupt the further upward movement of the corresponding type bar 2|3. The energization of the magnets 2|8 is controlled by the reading magnets |91 disposed in the lower sensing posivtion which, upon detection of magnetic impressions on the records, will control the energization of the magnets, and due to the synchronization of the type bar travel with the passage of the records by the reading magnets, will present the type elements 2|6, corresponding-to the controlling magnetic impressions, in printing position.

Associated with each type bar 2|3 is a printing hammer 220 which is positioned to strike the type elements 2|6 which are in printing position to eiect printing therefrom. 'I'he printing hammers are actuated immediately after the positioning of the member 2| to the upper extremity of its movement. The detailed operation of the printing mechanism just described is Well known and also is completely described in the said Lake patent, so that further disclosure of this unit is deemed unnecessary.

Now as to the method of converting the discrete magnetic impressions into electrical conditions, a complete explanation has been given hereinbefore, that it is deemed suilicient merely to state at this point that during the passage'of the record carrier of the magnetic impressions by the reading magnet, the detected impressions induce electrical currents in the magnet, which are then impressed on the input circuit of the resistance coupled amplifier unit, (normally arranged so that no current flows in the output circuit thereof) to initiate current impulses in the output circuit of the ampliiier. The amplifiers generally designated 22l-AtoEinthisguro are similar in all respects to the amplifier unit described hereinbefore and the operation of which is now understood.

'Ihe different automatic control circuits of the machine governed in their operation by the magnetic records will now be explained. 1ct it be assumed now that each record presented to the machine is provided with a specific control magnetic impression. It is preferred that this control impression is disposed in the blank space i2 of the record shown in Fig. 3, namely, in the 11" or "12" index point position. .It is immaterial which position is chosen, but it is necessary that all the records are consistentlyA provided with the control impression in the chosen position.

As to the columnar area in which the control impression is disposed, any of the said areas on the record may be utilized for this purpose. In the present example, one of the columnar areas near the edge of the record is used for control purposes, andthe associated reading magnets Ill-A and B provided to detect solely the control impressions are shown disposed in both the upper and lower sensing positions. In practice, it is preferred not to impress data recordings in either of the columnar areas at the edges of the record, therefore, either columnar area will always be available for the control impressions. However, only one of the columnar areas is to be used for control purposes. It is to be observed that the said reading magnets are connected in series in the input circuit of the associated ampliiier unit 22S-E and the output circuitthereof is connected to the coil of relay 229.

The purpose of the series connection of the reading magnets IIC-A and B is that in order for the amplifier unit to operate so that the connected relay 229 can be energized, it is necessary for both magnets to detect the control magnetic impressions on the record simultaneously. 'Ihat is, the biasing of the grid circuits of the amplifier 22B-E is so arranged that the electrical currents induced by only one reading magnet, either i99-A or ISS-B, is not of sumcient value to overcome the grid bias to permit current to flow in the output circuit of the unit. But, the electrical energy induced in the said input circuit by the simultaneous detection of magnetic impressions on the records in both sensing positions is of sumcient value to overcome the grid bias provided to permit current to flow in the output circuit and consequently to energize the relay 229.

Therefore, it is evident that if control records are presented to both sensing positions, and if only one record is provided with a magnetic impression in the chosen control index point position, -that electrical energy would be induced in only one of the reading magnets, which, of course, is not of suflicient value to render the amplifler unit operative, and thus ythe relay 229 would remain unoperated. But, in the event that the records presented in both sensing positions are provided with control impressions in the specined control area, suflicient energy is induced in both the recording magnets to overcome the grid bias, thus permitting current'to flow in the output circuit to energize the relay 226. l

It is obvious now from the description just set forth that if a blank record is presented to the sensing unit, of if a record having data impressions disposed thereon but not provided with a control impression, that the energy induced in the input circuit of the ampliiier unit is not sufficient to render it operative so that under such conditions the relay 229 remains inoperative. Similarly, if an inverted record having a'control impression is presented to the machine,

vone of the recording magnets would remain dei energized during the analyzing cycle, so that relay 229 would under such conditions remain inoperative. It is remembered that it is preferred to maintain the columnar areas near the edges of the records devoid of datarecordings, so that whichever area is chosen for the control impressions, -the other area will always remain blank, so that in the event inverted records are fed to the machine, no magnetic impressions will be present at any time in the columnar area of the inverted record presented to the control reading magnets. And, of course, it is seen that if fiuther feeding of records to the sensing positions is not effected that the grid bias would maintain control of the circuit and thus maintain the relay 228 in an inoperative condition.

The reading magnets I94-Aand B and |95-A and B are also shown connected in series,l respectively, similarly as the magnetslS-A and B. The said magnets I and .|95 are-connected to individual amplifier units 22B- A and B respectively in exactly the same manner as the magnets |99 are connected to ampliiler 22B-E. The operation of the amplifiers 22B-A and B is also eifected in the same manner as described hereinabove, namely, that if either one of the'magnets Ill-A or B detects a magnetic impression the energy induced in the input circuit of the unit 22B-A is insufilcient to overcome thegrid bias thereof and thus the coil 221 of relay 229 remains deenergized to maintain the relay 229 inoperative. But, whenever the magnets I94-A and B detect magnetic impressions on the record carriers at the same time the relay 229 is rendered operative. Similarly with the magnets i9B-A and B, simultaneous detection of.magnetic impressions in the same index point positions renders the associated relay 229 operative, but whenever one or the other of the said magnets detects a magnetic impression, the relay 229 is maintained inoperative. 'Ihe magnets |94-A and B and I95-A and B control the automatic control circuits which are adapted to keep the machine in operation as long as certain classification data on successively analyzed records are the same.

Let it be assumed that the columnar areas which are adapted to be sensed b y the sets of magnets |94 and |95 are provided with the magnetic impressions representing the classification data, and that it is desired to stop further machine operations whenever the classilcation data in the successively analyzed records arel dissimilar. yIt is seen from the description Just set forth hereinabove that whenever the classification data is similar in the said columnar areas of the successively analyzed records', the reading magnets |94 and |95 in both the upper and lower sensing positions detect the coded magnetic impressions and thus cause the relays 228 and 229 to be operated, respectively. However, in the event that the classification data is dissimilar, either, none of the said relays or only one of them is rendered operative. Thus, it is seen that as long as the classification data on successively analyzed records are the same, both the relays 229 and 229 are rendered operative. The purpose and etiects of the said relays will be understood as the description prograsses.

The motor control and starting circuits will now be explained. It is assumed that the machine is at rest at the normal and well known D position and that no records are present in the machine. 'I'he start key 234 is now momentarily depressed to establish a circuit to the motor from one side oi' the line 236 to motor |85, and start key 234 to the other side of the line 231'. Shortly after the energization of motor |85 (see timing chart in Fig. 1l) the CC-I cam operated contacts (the cams CC are shown to be mounted on shaft |98 rotated directly by the motor) are closed to maintain the motor energized for one cycle, during which the record picker mechanism |88 is effective to feed a single record to the feed rolls |81. The machine comes to rest at the D position after this first record feeding cycle, due to opening of the CC-I contacts, with the first record about to pass the upper reading magnets. A second manually initiated cycle then is eected by depression of the start key, similarly as in the first cycle, the machine is operated for one cycle by virtue of the operation of the CC-l contacts. At the end of this cycle, the leading record will be about to pass the lower reading magnets and a second record is presented'to the first set of rollers |81 by the picker mechanism so that this card is about to pass the reading magnets in the upper sensing position. Now upon initiation of the third cycle by momentary depression of the start key, the leading record will be positioned past the lower reading magnets and the second record will be fed past the upper reading magnets and a third record will be presented to the feed rollers |81 by the picker mechanism. Assuming that the records presented to the sensing positions are all properly conditioned with the specific control impressions and similar classication data impressions, during this cycle and succeeding cycles, it is seen that the relays 226, 228, and 229 are rendered operative by the associated detecting magnets andampliiier units. It should be mentioned at this point that the relays 228 and 229 are each provided with two coils 221 and 232 and 230 and 23|, respectively. The coils 221 and 230 acting as the pickup coils of the relays and coils 232 and 23| being the holding coils.

Therefore, upon energization of relay 228, the

contacts 22B- A are closed to'permit the coil of relay 233 to be energized closing the contacts 233- A. A holding circuit is then established from one side of the line 236 through cam operated contacts CC-2, contacts 233-A and coil of the relay to the other side of the line 231. It is seen that cam contacts CC--2 will maintain this holding circuit for the remaining part of the cycle. 'I'his relay also closes the contacts 233-B.

Energization of relays 228 and 229 also close the contacts 228--A and 22S- A respectively to establish holding circuits for the relays through the cam contacts CC-2 and the holding coils 232 and 23|, respectively, to maintain the said relays energized for the entire cycle. Energization of the said relays also closes the contacts 22S-B and 22S-B, so that now the three contacts connected in series are closed to establish a circuit therethrough and shunting the start key contacts to maintain the motor |85 energized the entire cycle.

As long as the records have the special control impressions properly positioned and similar classication data impressions, the motor remains energized by the circuits described. Near theend of the cycle, cam contacts CC-I open, but since the said contacts shunt the three contacts in series which are closed at this time, namely 233-B, 228--B and 229-3, the motor circuit is unaffected. 'I'he said series contacts are maintained in the operated position by virtue of the CC--2 contacts continuing the holding circuits for relays 228, 229 and 233 during the time CC-I contacts are open. CC--2 contacts are opened momentarily to deenergize the relays 228, 229 and 233; however, during this timed interval CC-I contacts are closed and remain so until the relays 228, 229 and 233 are energized to regain control of the motor circuit.

As mentioned hereinbefore the reading magnets |91 provided to detect the coded amount data magnetic impressions are disposed in the lower sensing position, andas the records are fed past these magnets, the differentially positioned magnetic impressions are effective to induce electrical energy in the corresponding reading magnets at the diierent times the impressions are detected. 'I'hese currents are then impressed upon the associated amplifiers 225--C and D to energize the connected work circuits. It is to be noted that selectively positionable switch arms 240 and 24| are included in the said output circuits and when positioned so that the contacts -a are engaged the accumulator control magnets 203 are energized. In this manner the magnets 203 are energized at different times in accordance with the differentially positioned amount data magnetic impressions so that the data represented by the impressions are entered into the accumulator.

If, however, the switch arms are positioned to engage contacts 24U- b and 24|-b, the printing control magnets 2|8 are energized 'by the inltiated impulses in accordance with the amount data impressions to release the pawls so that the upward movements of the type bars 2|3 are interrupted to present the type elements 2|8 to the printing platen corresponding to the data represented by the magnetic impressions.

If it is desired to enter the amount data in the accumulator concurrently with interrupting of the type bars so that accumulation of the data and printing of the data are effected simultaneously during the cycle, the switch arms 240 and 24| are positioned to a third position so as to engage the contacts 240-c and d and contacts 24|-c and d respectively. This switching arrangement connects the printing control magnets 2|8 in parallel with the accumulator control magnets 203 so that the concurrent energization thereof is controlled by the coded amount data magnetic impressions.

Now let it be assumed that a control record properly conditioned with data impressions but with an improperly positioned control impression or devoid of the control impression; due to this condition the control reading magnet |98-A would not have any energy induced therein and thus permit the grid circuits of the amplifier unit 22S-E to regain control thereof preventing current flow inthe output circuit and causing the relay 226 to be deenergized. Deenergization of the said relay opens the contacts 22S-A so that at the time CC-2 contacts open the relay 233 is deenergized to open the contacts 233-B. With the last mentioned contacts open, the motor circuit is deenergized upon opening of the cam contacts CC-|, thereby preventing further machine operations. It is obvious that the operations just mentioned would occur exactly as described, in the event that an inverted record would be presented to the machine fory under. this ,condition the control magnet ISB--A would not have any energy induced therein and. the relay 228 would be rendered inoperative; similarly, if no records would be presented to the machine or more specically the upper sensing position. this said magnet would remain uniniluenced by any magnetic ileld so that relay 220 would be rendered inoperative.

In accordance with the customary practice, a stop kep 235 is provided so that continued de pression-of this key too would be effective to deenergize the motor circuit and prevent further machine operations.

It is evident, in case the records presented to the -machine have dissimilar classification data, impressions disposed thereon, that either relay 22B or 220 is rendered inoperative, or bothmay be deenergized depending upon the disposition of the impressions in the classiilcation columnar areas, so that either contacts 22S-B or 22S-B or both are opened to render the motor circuit inoperative upon opening of the CO-Ki contacts at the end of the cycle, thus preventing further machine operations.

Summary It has now been fully shown and described how to provide a system of accounting utilizing machine control elements which are adapted to be subjected to electrical fields and iniluenced thereby so that characterizing conditions which are retained under control elements'or records y may be employed at the subsequent time to control various accounting machines by converting the characterizing conditions into electrical conditions which are impressed upon circuits of the machines.

It has been shown that the magnetic data impressions represented at the records are eifective to enter the coded data into data accu--A mulating means; and that the tabulating machine functions may be interrupted by means of control circuits which are controlled by the records, but the records themselves are not physically engaged, when certain` conditions exist, namely, that the records presented to the machine contain no recorded data, or irregularly Adisposed or no control impressions, or whenever the coded classification data is dissimilar. y

While there has been` shown anddescribed and pointed out the fundamental novel features of the invention as applied to a single modiilcation, it will be understood that various omissions and substitutions and changes inthe form and details of the device illustrated and in its Voperaticnmay be made by those skilled in the lart without departing from the spirit of the invention. It is the intention therefore'to be limited only as indicated by the scope of the following claims.

What is claimed isas follows:

1. In a lrecord'controlled machine, a recor the control velement comprising a non-magnetic body portrolled by said detecting means and responsive to said impulses.

2. In a record controlled machine. a record element comprising a non-magnetic body portion carrying nely divided mametizable material, said record element having discretely magnetized index points which are disposed at different index point positions, means for detecting magnetically said index points, means for causing continuous relative movement between said record element and detecting means for producing electrical impulses in accordance with the ydisposition of the discretely magnetized index points thereon, and ditlerentially operable devices controlled by said detecting means and responsive to said impulses.

3. In a record controlled machine, -a record element comprising a non-magnetic body portion carrying discrete areas of. magnetizable mavices Vcontrolled by said detecting means and re-y sponsive to said impulses. i

4. In a record controlled machine, a record element lhaving discrete areas of magnetizable material at al1 the index point positions, certain of which-areas are magnetized to represent the Hindexpoints, which magnetized areas are surrounded by areas of high magnetic reluctance, means for detecting magnetically said index points, means. for causing continuous relative movement between said record element and detecting means for producing electrical impulses in accordance with the-disposition of the discretely magnetized indes: points thereon, and differentially operable devices controlled by said detecting means and responsive to said impulses.

5. A record controlled machine of the class described comprising means for feeding individual records successively, each of said records being provided with magnetizable material and having a control designation thereon consisting of a discrete magnetized area, individual sensing magnets for sensing similarly disposed designations ontwo successive records simultaneously,

electron discharge means having an.input circuit including a grid element and an output circuit, means for impressingabias condition on the said grid element and input circuit so that the electron discharge means is substantially nonconductive, means for connecting the said sensing magnets in a series arrangement to said input circuit for altering the bias condition impressed thereupon to render the discharge means'conductive only upon the sensing of similarly disposed designations on two successive records simultaneously by impressing the potentials upon the said input circuit which are induced simultaneously in the said sensing magnets, and means controlled by the output circuit of the said discharge means, when the latter is conductive, for modifying the operation of the said feeding means.


Referenced by
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U.S. Classification235/449, 234/75, 360/131, 235/476, 360/2, 29/DIG.280, 360/88, 360/79, 192/127
Cooperative ClassificationY10S29/028