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Publication numberUS2255011 A
Publication typeGrant
Publication dateSep 2, 1941
Filing dateAug 31, 1938
Priority dateAug 31, 1938
Also published asUS2240563
Publication numberUS 2255011 A, US 2255011A, US-A-2255011, US2255011 A, US2255011A
InventorsHamilton Francis E, Lake Clair D
Original AssigneeIbm
Export CitationBiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan
External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet
Recording machine
US 2255011 A
Abstract  available in
Previous page
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Claims  available in
Description  (OCR text may contain errors)

Sept. 2, 1941. c. D. LAKE ET AL RECORDING MACHINE Filed Aug. 31, 1938 U Q N FIG. 1.

16 Sheets-Sheet 1 ATTORNEY Sept. 2, 1941. c. D. LAKE ETAL RECORDING MACHINE Filed Aug. 31. 1938 16 Sheets-Sheet 2 ATTO R N EY p 1941- c. D. LAKE ET AL 2,255,011

RECORDING MACHINE Filed Aug. 31, 1938 16 Sheets-Sheet 3 s I us M g 8 a M LL ATTOR N E"! Sept. 2, 1941. c. D. LAKE ETAL I RECORDING MACHINE Filed Aug. 31, 1938 16 Sheets-Sheet 4 ATTORNEY p 2, 1- c. D. LAKE ET AL 2,255,011

RECORDING MACHINE Filed Aug. 31, 1938 16 Sheets-Sheet 5 Sept. 2, 1941. c. D. LAKE ETAL RECORDING MACHINE Filed Aug. 31, 1938 16 Sheets-Sheet 6 Sept. 2, 1941. c. D. LAKE ET AL 2,255,011

RECORDING MACHINE Filed Aug. 31, 1958 16 SheetsSheet '7 I'll! iiiiib nil'limT;

. XENTJSO ORNEY Sept. 2, 1941. c. D. LAKE ET AL RECORDING MACHINE Filed Aug. 31, 1958 16 Sheets-Sheet 8 3. N2 m! m! u. a A. i v. E .3. Q .8 W 0 I a V T a o W m3 m! A. 3 fi7w My n W% HHHHM- B u E 2 3. Q mm. i Q t a e. *3 w $2 *M l" ".I'l'l l l l fl" l l (UM-l 3.. S. I; H "H N #3 is Sept. 2, 1941. .'e.E.H=Ag ET AL 2,255,011

RECORDING MACHINE h I Filed Aug. 31, 1938 lFkFets-Shefifi FIG. I8.

- INV IT R ATTORNEY Sept; 2, 1941- c. D. LAKE ETAL 2,255,011

RECORDING MACHINE Filed Aug. 31, 1938 I 16 SheetsSheet 10 FIG. 21.

A TTORNEY Sept. 2, 1941. c. D. LAKE ET AL 2,255,011

RECORDING MACHINE Filed Aug. 31, 1938 16 Sheets-Sheet 11 252B EMA/7% FIG. 24.

FIG 25 Sept. 2, 1941. c. D. LAKE ET AL 2,255,011

7 RECORDING MACHINE Filed Aug. 51, 1938 16 Sheets-Sheet l2 lNyzEyT R fj nzg,



Filed Aug. 31, 1938 16 Sheets-Sheet 13 FIG. 31 ,0

044w era: fIAiM OFSf/l/T 12$ 0 FIG. 32.

207mm creme/1296M or syn/r 3.925 7'23} a: was Panvr FIG. 30. fly??? Sept. 2, 1941.

c. D. LAKE ET AL 2,255,011

RECORDING MACHINE Filed Aug. 31, 1958 FIG. 34a

16 Sheets-Sheet l4 CARD R560 Sra/KEY giikzm ATTORNEY Sept. 2, 1941.

C. D. LAKE ET AL RECORDING MACHINE Filed Aug. 51, 1958 FIG. 34b.

16 Sheets-Sheet l5 ZINE fP/QCE' ATTORNEY Sept. 2, 1941.

C. D. LAKE ET AL RECORDING MACHINE Filed Aug. 51, 1938 FIG. 340.-

l6 Sheets-Sheet 16 i Q J 327c-l2 322-11 T 11 T'T LL-fi LL- 32742 327- F5 "0" ZONEll/V! l ATTORNEY Patented Sept. 2, 1941 RECORDING MACHINE Clair D. Lake, Bingliamton, and Francis E. Hamilton, Endicott, N. Y., assignors to International Business Machines Corporation, New York, N. Y., a corporation of New York application August 31, 1938, Serial No. 227,784

32 Claims.

This case relates to a machine for automatically recording or transcribing information derived from an information or record source.

The present invention deals specifically with an information source comprising a record sheet or tabulating cards bearing information in the form of coded perforations or designations. The information designated on the record sheet or cards may be of the kind to be recorded in the form of lists with or without the accompaniment of heading or classification or identifying data. Thus, it may be required to prepare bills, invoices, or the like under control of the record sheet or cards, all or some of which bear the data to be listed on the invoice, bill, or statement. The listed information is required to be recorded in segregated or laterally separated lists.

' One purpose of the present invention is to provide automatic list segregating or separating means for effecting predetermined list separation or division. Thus, if a series of bills is to be prepared, all of which include names of separate items, quantity of items, individual item prices, and total cost of the number of each item,the machine may be set to allocate each of these separate classes of information to a separate list.

It is further proposed to provide a cyclically operating machine operable once each cycle on a record card and including therein cyclically operating means for predetermining list separation.

It is further proposed to provide automatic list determining or spacing means operating independently of any information or designations derived from the record source.

It is still further proposed to provide list determining means operating according to a preselected program.

More specifically, it is proposed to provide means for determining the list arrangement in the form of a program device; for example, a

program drum, having settable elements to determine the list separation.

It is also contemplated to provide for suppressing automatically the operation of the list determining means during the recording of a certain class or group of information or during the operation of the machine under control of or while deriving information from certain records.

More specifically, in the preparation of invoices, statements, bills, or the like having classiflcation or heading information or the like to identify or accompany the information to be of operation of the list spacing or determining means.

The list separation is effected by spacing along a line of recording or by an intraline spacing, and broadly, the invention also contemplates suppression of normally effective intraline spacing controls during the recording of information derived from certain records.

Another object of the invention is to provide for automatic skipping of intermediate or end fields of a record sheet at greater than the normal speed of operation.

In connection with the latter object an object is to selectively suppress the high speed skip control when certain record cards are being operated on.

The object is further to provide program means for selectively determining the operation of the high speed skip means.

It is also an object to provide a novel means for controlling longitudinal or line spacing of the record form which receives the transcription of the data taken from the record cards.

More specifically the latter object includes the provision of program means for automatically determining line spacing operations. I l

This object, stated more broadly, contemplates the provision of program means for controlling the extent of vertical spacing between different data fields of a reco d form on which the items derived from the data bearing medium are being recorded. 7

It is an object further to provide novel means for translating the coded data designationsof record cards into operations of a recording apparatus.

It is still another object to provide novel means for selectively operating the same recording element under control of different codes.

Further objects of the instant invention reside in any novel feature of construction or operation or novel combination of parts present in the embodiment of the invention described and shown in the accompanying drawings whether within or without the scope of the appended claims and irrespective of other specific statements as to the scope of the invention contained herein.

in the drawings: Fig. 1 is a plan view of the machine, with the control section uncovered.

Fig. 2 is a section along lines 2-2 of Fig. 1. Fig. 3 is a detail sectional view through apart of the card stacking unit of the control section,

listed, it is proposed to provide for suppression taken along lines 33 of Fig. 1.

Fig. 5 is an enlarged plan view of the drive mechanism and part of the control section.

Fig. 6 is an enlarged side section through the transcribing section, taken along lines 6-6 of Fig. 7 is a front, sectional view of the translating portion of the transcribing section. V.

Fig. 8 is atop, sectional view of the translating portion.

Fig. 9 shows, in front View, the top four combs of the translating portion.

Fig. 10 is a sectional view of the line space program means, taken along lines lIl- -lll of Fig. 1.

Fig. 11 is a sectional view of planetary gearing forming part of the drive mechanism, taken along lines llll of Fig. 5.

Fig. 12 is a plan section through the card cycle program drum, and also showing the associated contact means.

Figs. 13, 14, 15, and 16 are sections taken along lines |3--l3, l4-I4, l5-l5, and lG-IG of Fig.

Fig. 17 is a detail side sectional view of the main clutch and its control magnet. Fig. 18 is a detail, side sectional view of the high speed clutch and magnet.

Fig. 19 is a detail view of contacts controlled by an arm of the main clutch assembly.

Fig. 20 is a detail view of the high speed clutch detent.

Fig. 21 is a detail side view of the card supply hopper. D

Fig. 22 is a'rear view of part of the line space program means, taken as indicated by arrows 2222 of Fig. 1. I

Fig. 23 is a top view of the line space program contact assembly.

Fig. 24 is a side section through the zoning system, showing the shift lever control magnet,

and taken along lines 24-24 of Fig. 8.

Fig. 25 is a detail of line space control clutch contacts in the zoning system.

Fig. 26 is a detail view of restoring means for the combs of the zoning system.

Fig. 2? is a section taken along lines 21-21 of Fig. 8'.

Fig. 28 is a detail plan view of switch means in the recording unit and controlled by the carriage return or tabular operating levers.

Fig. 29 is a detail plan viewof contacts controlled by a left hand margin stop in the recording unit.

Fig. 30 shows a record or tabulating card punched with the codes for the various functions.

Fig. 31 is a timing chart of the card cycle.

Fig. 32 is a timing chart of a card column cycle, with an indication of the timing of the various card cycle program contacts in relation to: the column cycle.

Fig. 33 shows the timing of a line space commutator contact, and indicates in relation thereto the timing of line space program contacts, and

Figs. 34a, b, and c are the circuit diagram.

The invention, though capable of varied applications, is disclosed herein in conjunction with the preparation of invoices or the like, the data for which is taken from perforated record cards. It is to be understood that the invention may be applied to the preparation of other forms of records; further, that the invention may be used in conjunction with codes derived from a record tape or sheet or from a remote source, either through electrical, pneumatic, or equivalent circuit means or through mechanical means.

GENERAL Dascmrd ON The machine may be considered to comprise a control section including card handling and reading means, and a transcribing section including translating means or a zoning system and a recording or writing unit. Common to both sections is a drive mechanism. This mechanism, acting through a main clutch, operates cyclical means in the control section, having one cycle for each card. A high speed clutch supplements the main clutch, so as to enable certain parts of a card, during a cycle to be ejected rapidly. Where the stack of cards to be transcribed has the same class of data assigned to the same predetermined parts of each card, the separation of the different classes of items into segrated lists is controlled by program means which acts during each card cycle to control tabular mechanism of the transcribing unit to laterally space the classes of items. This program means also may control high speed operation of the control section, as well as zero elimination means to prevent printing of zeros to the left of the first significant digit of a numerical amount transcribed from the record card.

When the machine is preparing invoices including headings, certain of the cards bear the heading data. During the cycles of action on the heading cards, the tabular control by the card cycle program means and high speed control by the same program means are suppressed. This suppression is controlled by program means governed by operation of the transcribing unit in accordance with the longitudinal feed of the invoice sheet, and the latter program means may be referred to as the line space program means. Another, and important, function of the line space program means is to control the amount of longitudinal spacing between difl'erent groups of data. Thus, a predetermined number of lines is assigned to each invoice form, with the headin to be within a heading field, the item lists to lie within an item field, and the total to be recorded on a total line. The spacing between the various fields of each invoice form, as well as the spacing between the total line or field of one invoice and the heading field of the next invoice are all controlled by the line space program means.

The cards to be transcribed are placed in a supply hopper in the control section in the order in' which their data are to be recorded. Also, the cards are disposed with their designation columns extending transversely to the direction of feed and so as to successively traverse the designation analyzing means. As the analyzing means reads a designation, it controls the zoning system accordingly to cause the recording unit to record the designation, or controls the machine to function in accordance with the designation.

The drive mechanism continuously operates actuating mechanism in the transcribing section at high speed relative to the normal speed of the operating means in the control section. Each cycle of the control section takes care of one card 'Irm TBANSCBHBING UNIT While the invention may make use of any suitable recording unit, it is preferred, for illustrative purposes, to disclose the invention herein in connection with a recording apparatus, the general principles of which are disclosed in Patents Nos. 1,777,055 and 1,873,512. Fig. 1 shows the arrangement of levers II) for causing the operation of transcribing elements and related control devices. The several levers I may be distinguished by appending to the'general reference character a supplementary reference character denoting the particular function or operation controlled by the operating lever. Thus, levers III-.A to Z, 0 to 9, cause operation of transcribing elements to record characters AZ, 0 to 9; lever I0TAB controls tabulating operation; lever I0SH controls the form in which the character is to be recorded, that is, whether the character is to be recorded in upper or lower case; lever I 0-CR controls the carriage return operation; and lever III-SP controls the operation of intraline spacing means.

Referring to Fig. 6, depression of a lever I0 releases a latch II from a cam I2 permitting the latter to be forcedby a lever I3 against a constantly rotating friction shaft I4. The latter rotates the cam, causing the carrier I5 of the cam to rock in a direction for depressing connected link I6. This link, through a linkage II,

The carriage return means operated by lever III-CR may be such as disclosed in Patent 1,955,614. As usual, the carriage return is preceded by a line spacing operation, and after the carriage has returned to the beginning of the line, repeat depressions of the lever I0-CR will effect repeat line spacing operations.

The tabulating means may be such as disclosed a in Patent 1,935,436, and includes the usual settable tabular stops set in accordance with a desired lateral spacing of item lists and other.information across the record sheet. Depression of the lever Ill-TAB controls the tabular spacing as governed by the positions of the tab stops.

Peculiar to the present invention are the following:

Normally closed switches 26 (Fig. 6), one associated with each cam I2, are provided to be used in checking the accuracy of transcription of the card data, in a manner which will be explained hereinafter. When a lever I8. is depressed to cause release of cam I2 associated therewith, the rotor I4 imparts half a turn to the cam to cause operation of the type bar. During this movement of cam I2, it rides past the long blade of the associated switch 28 and momentarily opens the latter.

A special normally closed switch 28 (Fig. 28 is located at the rear of the recording unit. The

long, spring blade of this switch is engaged with a roller III, of insulating material, carried by one arm of a lever II.

interlock, which as described in Patent 1,873,553

is rocked by the escapement pawl release lever 82 while the carriage is tabulating. Lever 32 is also actuated during line space or carriage return operation to rock back-space interlock lever 3|, as described in above-mentioned Patent 1,955,614. When the lever 8| is rocked, its roller 30 opens switch 28, which remains open until the completion of either the carriage return or the tabulating operation, whichever is taking place. The purpose of switch 28 will be explained hereinafter, in connection with the circuits.

Another special, normally closed switch 38 is provided (Fig. 29) at the rear of the recording unit, which is opened when an? insulating tab 330. on its long, spring blade 28b is engaged by the special extension flwof the settable beginning of the line margin stop 84. The purpose of switch 83 will be explained in connection with the circuits.

Record card I and code The record card T, as indicated in Fig. 30, has eighty designation columns, each with twelve index points or perforation-receiving positions known as the 8, 8 I, I], II, and I2 positions, and perforations in which are known as the 9, 8 I, 0, II, and I2 perforations.

The columns of a card T are perforated according to the information to be listed or transcribed under control of the card, and the various codes designating the information are shown in Fig. 30. The codes may be considered as divided into several zones. The single point zone includes single perforations in any of the 9, 8 I, II, II, and I2 positions of a card column. The 9, 8 I, 0 perforations in this zone represent, respectively, these numerals, the II perforation represents a tabular operation, and the I2 perforation represents a carriage return operation. The I2 zone comprises a common I2 perforation plus one of the perforations I to 9 representing letters A to I. The II zone comprises the common II perforation plus one of the I to 8 perforations, representing letters J to R. The 0 zone comprises the common 0 perforation accompanied by a 2 to 9 perforation representing letters S to Z. The II--I2 zone comprises common 11-12 perforations plus a I to I perforation, representing diiferent symbols. The I I--I 2 code alone represents a high speed (H. S.) eject operation to be controlled by the card. In each combination holecode, the common zone perforation or perforations may be referred to as the zone distinguishing perforation, point,- or characteristic. In the single point zone, the imperforate or solid portion of the column may be considered as the zone characteristic. The character or function distinguishing points of each zone are the 8 perforations which may be re- {etrired to as the intrazone points or characters cs.

Drive mechanism I meshes with a worm wheel 42 on a sleeve This lever is the back-space shaft 48 rotatably mounted on a shaft 44.

Main clutch-One end of the sleeve shaft 43 is provided with a driving clutch ratchet 45 (also see Fig. 17) having four teeth, ninety degrees apart. Fixed to shaft 44, adjacent driving ratchet 48, is a plate 48 formed with four equally spaced notches 48a ninety degrees apart.

Loosely carried by shaft 44 adjacent plate 46, is a cam disk 41 with four cam teeth 41, each adjacent one notch 46. Plate 46 pivotally carries a clutch pawl 48 having an intermediate tooth 48a to engage a tooth of driving ratchet 45. The free end of pawl 48 carries a stud 48!) passing through a hole 46b in plate 46. Adjacent stud 48b, pawl 48 has a pin 480 connected by a spring 49 to a pin 460 on plate 46. The spring tends to move pawl 48 inwardly to engage its tooth 48a with a tooth of driving ratchet 45, but

this action is prevented while the high cam porside of one of its teeth' 41a with the nose of a latch arm 58 fixed to one end of a shaft which at the opposite end carries the armature lever 52 of main clutch magnet 53. The lower, free end of armature lever 52 is located between a pair of adjustable stop screws 54 which limit the retracted and attracted positions of the armature lever, its shaft 5|, and latch arm 50. A spring 55 connected to armature lever 52 and a spring 56 connected to latch arm 58 combine to hold the armature lever in retracted position, with the latch arm in position to engage a tooth of disk 41. Spring 56 connects arm 50 to an impositive latch arm 51 provided with a roller 51a riding on the periphery of disk 46, and adapted to enter a, notch 46a of plate 46 to detain, impositively, this plate in one of the four positions, ninety degrees apart, at which the declutching takes effect. Arm 51 is fast to a shaft 58 which carries a dependent arm 58 (Fig. 19) located between the adjacent spring blades 68 and 6| of a pair of switches 62 and 63 tending to open. When arm 51a is seated in a notch 46a, switch 62 is closed and switch 63 open. These switches may be referred to as the clutch arm contacts. During rotation of disk 46, arm 51 will be cammed out of notch 46a, causing arm 59 to close switch 63 and permit switch 62 to open. The arm 51 will move into a notch 46a every ninety degrees of rotation of plate 46, intermittently closing switch 62 and opening switch 63.

by pinion 65. Rigid with each gear 66 is a pinion 69 meshed with a gear fast to one end of a sleeve 1| surrounding shaft 44. To the opposite end of the sleeve 1| is fast a pair of gears 12 and 13. With shaft 44 coupled, as previously explained, to driving ratchet 45 for rotation, and with driven clutch disk 68 held against movement, pinion 65 of shaft 44 actuates gearing When main clutch magnet 53 is energized, it

rocks armature lever 52, shaft 5|, and latch arm 58 counterclockwise (Fig. 17). withdraws from an arm 41a, releasing cam disk 41 and enabling spring 49 to move stud 48b inwardly. The stud acts against the curved cam side of a tooth 41a of disk 41 to rock the disk clockwise, bringing the tooth 41a previously engaged by arm below the nose of the latter. As pawl 48 was rocked inwardly by spring 49, its clutching tooth 48a engaged with a tooth of driving ratchet 45, thereby coupling the driven shaft 44 to the sleeve shaft 43 of the ratchet. With pawl 48 in its inner, clutching position, stud 48b thereof is seated in the crotch between two teeth of cam disk 41, forcing the latter disk to rotate with the pawl. Upon deenergization of main clutch magnet 53, latch 58 intercepts one of the four teeth of disk/41, rocking the latter to cam pawl out of clutching engagement with ratchet 45. Referring to Figs. 5 and 11, driven shaft 44 rigidly carries a pinion 65, meshed with three sun gears 66 rotatably carried by the three arms of a carrier 61 which is fixed at its center to the reduced end of the hub sleeve 68a of a driven clutch disk 68. When clutch disk 68 is stationary, then carrier 61 is also at rest, and sun gears 66 are capable only of simple rotation The latch arm 66, 69, 18, 12, and 13 as a simple train of gearing. Gears 12 and 13 then rotate at normal speed.

It is clear, from the above, that when main clutch magnet 53 alone is energized to cause shaft 44 to be coupled to driving ratchet 45 on the motor-driven sleeve shaft 43, the gears 12 and 13 have normal speed operation.

For convenience, clutch elements 45, 46, 41, 48 may be considered to comprise the main clutch.

The gears 12 and 13 may be driven, alternatively, at high speed. For effecting high speed drive, the following means are provided:

High speed cZutch.R.eferring to Figs. 5 and 18,

driven clutch disk 68, previously referred to, pivotally carries a clutch dog 15 having an intermediate tooth 15a engageable with a tooth of a driving ratchet wheel 16 fixed .to driven shaft 44 and similar to driving ratchet 45. As in the main clutch, clutch dog 15 has a stud 15b passing through a hole in the disk 68, and a spring 11 between the disk and the dog urges the dog inwardly, tending to engage tooth 1511 with driving ratchet 16. Loosely mounted between disk 68 and ratchet 16 is a cam disk 18 having four cam teeth 18a, similarly to disk 41 of the main clutch. In the arrested position of cam disk 18, the cam side of one of its teeth 18a abuts the stud 16b, preventing clutch dog 15 from engaging its tooth 15a with ratchet 16.

Engaging the fiat side of a tooth 18a of cam disk 18 is the nose of a detent mounted on the vertical arm of a bell crank lever 8| fixed to one end of a shaft 82 (also see Fig. 20). Detent 80 is mounted for slight vertical play along the vertical arm of lever 8| and is normally held in lowerposition relative to the latter arm by a spring 83. The purpose of thus mounting detent 80 is to enable the detent when it intercepts a tooth 18a to be moved upwardly by the .tooth just before the disk 18 is stopped and thus yieldingly arrest the disk, with spring 83 helping to absorb the shock of impact between the detent and a tooth 18a when the detent stops the disk 18.

The horizontal arm of lever-8| is provided with a stud 84 engaging the bottom of the horizontal arm of a latch lever 85, rotatably mounted on shaft 82 (see Fig. 18). The upper, nose-end of lever 85 is square to seat within any one of the four square notches 68b of clutch disk 68.'

Mounted for vertical, slidable movement on the vertical arm of lever 85 is a thin latch slide 86 urged downwardly by a spring 81 between the slide and the lever. The upper, nose end of slide 86 has the same square shape as the nose of latch lever 85 and is adapted to lie, alongside the nose of the latch lever, inside the same square notch 68b. To prevent reverse rotation of clutch disk 68, it is provided with ratchet notches 680,

to receive the nose of a pawl 88 which permits clockwise or forward rotation of the clutch disk but prevents its reverse rotation.

Shaft 82, as indicated in Figs. 5 and 18, rigidly carries the armature assembly 30 of high speed clutch magnet 9|. Upon energization of this magnet, armature 90 and its shaft 82 are rocked counterclockwise (Fig. 18) against resist-

Referenced by
Citing PatentFiling datePublication dateApplicantTitle
US2453781 *Jun 14, 1946Nov 16, 1948Addressograph MultigraphRecord controlled operating mechanism for embossing machine keyboards
US2540029 *Feb 6, 1948Jan 30, 1951IbmSelectively controlled recording apparatus
US2540030 *May 12, 1948Jan 30, 1951IbmSelectively controlled recording apparatus
US2543935 *Jul 23, 1948Mar 6, 1951IbmRecord controlled recording apparatus
US2584817 *Mar 12, 1949Feb 5, 1952IbmLine spacing control for typewriters
US2684745 *Nov 21, 1950Jul 27, 1954IbmTeletypewriter
US2701748 *Apr 28, 1954Feb 8, 1955Panellit IncAutomatic process logging system
US2755019 *Feb 7, 1952Jul 17, 1956Exacta Baromascmsen Gese32Remote controlled paper carriage feed mechanism
US2825620 *Mar 21, 1955Mar 4, 1958Panellit IncLine space memory and counter for electric typewriter
US2832455 *Mar 18, 1955Apr 29, 1958Standard Register CoStrip feeding mechanism
US2905299 *May 24, 1957Sep 22, 1959Underwood CorpData recording device or devices and programming means therefor
US2913088 *Feb 25, 1957Nov 17, 1959Underwood CorpDifferentially programmed typewriters and tape punch
US2950758 *Mar 9, 1956Aug 30, 1960Erik Mattsson MatsCash registers, accounting and like machines
US2954860 *Sep 23, 1958Oct 4, 1960Int Computers & Tabulators LtdPrinting apparatus
US2988194 *Jun 10, 1959Jun 13, 1961Royal Mcbee CorpAutomatic tabulating apparatus for typewriters or like machines
US3019881 *Mar 18, 1960Feb 6, 1962Royal Mcbee CorpAutomatic line feeding and tabulating apparatus for typewriters or like machines
US4050566 *Nov 18, 1975Sep 27, 1977Hamilton Communications, Inc.Mechanical code converter for use with a typewriter or the like
US4687353 *Apr 28, 1986Aug 18, 1987International Business Machines CorporationAutomatic format, mode control and code conversion for data processing and printing apparatus
U.S. Classification400/281, 400/314.2, 400/583.2, 400/314.1, 346/78, 400/285.4, 400/75, 400/611, 400/568, 234/13, 400/62, 400/569
International ClassificationB41J5/31, B41J5/36
Cooperative ClassificationB41J5/36
European ClassificationB41J5/36