US 225598 A
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N. B( '8: E. M. HELPER. Kilnfpr Burning Brick, Pottery, 8L0.
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Patented Mar, 16.1880.
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N. B. 8: E. M.'H EAFER. Kiln for Burning Brick, Pottery, &c.
No. 225,598. Patented. Mar. 16,1880.
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE.
NAPOLEON B. HEAFERAND EDGAR M. HEAFER, OF BLOOMINGTON, ILL.
K|LN FOR BURNING BRICK, POTTERY, 80C.
SPECIFICATION formingpart of Letters Patent No. 225,598, dated March 16, 1880.
- Application filed September 12, 1879. I
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known thatwe, NAPOLEON B. HEAFER and EDGAR M. HEAFER, of the city of Bloomington, in the county of McLean, and in the State of Illinois, have invented certain new and useful Improvements in Kilns for Burning Brick, Pottery, 850.; and We do hereby declare that the following is a full, clear, and exact description thereof, reference being bad to the accompanying drawings, and to the let- .ters of reference marked thereon, making a part of this specification.
Figure 1 represents aside View of our improved kiln; Fig. 2, a transverse section; Fig. 3, a longitudinal section; Fig. 4, a horizontal section.
This invention relates to certain new and useful improvements in kilns for burning tile, brick, pottery, or any other clay wares, having for its object the production of a downdraft kiln with hollow walls employed as I chimneys or outlets for the products of combustion; and the invention consists in a novel construction of kiln, all as will be hereinafter fully described, and specifically set forth in the claims. I
To enable others skilled in the art to make and use our invention, we will now proceed to describe the 'exact manner in which it is carried out.
In the drawings, A A represent the outer side walls, B B the double or hollow end walls, and C the arched top, of our improved kiln.
D represents a series of sub lire-arches or arch-furnaces, constructed outside of and running through the side Walls, A A, thus obviat= ing the taking up of room inside of the kiln, and thereby leaving all of the inside room for the reception of the ware to be burned.
E E represent permanent interior vertical bag or fire walls, arranged at a suitable distance inward from the side walls, A A, for the purpose of preventing the fire from passing directly into the kiln horizontally, but causing it to pass upward through the spaces left between the side and fire or bag walls.- The bag or fire walls may be solid, or checkered, or perforated, part or all of their height, it being preferable, however, to have said walls perforated from the top to within two or three inches from the bottom or foundation of the kiln. The bag or fire walls may extend up to the arched top 0, in which case the fire or products of combustion would have to pass through the perforations in said walls or, if
deemed preferable, the walls might only extend upward far enough to leave spaces between their top surfaces and the arched top, communicating with the spaces between the walls A and E.
F represents the bottom of the kiln, upon which the ware to be burned is placed. This bottom is provided with a series of transverse flues, f, which communicate with a longitudinal central tunnel, G, extending the entire length of the kiln, and the ends of which communicate with end transverse flues, c e, which, in turn, communicate, through perforations (1, near the bottom of the hollow walls, with the spaces between said end walls, which form chimneys or outlets for the products of combustion.
These hollow end walls constitute the essential feature of the kiln, and they may be built large or small, as may be deemed expedient, according to the size of the kiln.
It is necessary to extend the end walls above the arched top of the kiln, for the purpose of obtaining sufficient draft when'the fires are first started in the furnaces D.
The spaces between the end walls may be closed at intervals at the top, so as to form two or more separate fines or chimneys, H, as clearly shown in Fig. 1, so as to limit the escape of the products of combustion to some particular locality in the end walls; or the chimneys may be arranged at the corners, as shown in dotted lines, Fig. 2; or the chimneys may be arranged both at the corners and at the sides of the entrance-doors I I.
The hollow end walls may have an entrancedoor in one end and not in the other, or in both ends, as may be deemed expedient, and, whether one of the end walls has an entrancedoor in it or not, the said wall may form a broad flat chimney through its entire width and thickness, contracted or not at the top or outlet; or it may be contracted so as to have oneor more outlets in the center of said end wall or toward the corners of the kiln.
h represents peep-holes, closed by plugs h extending through the outer portion of the end walls into the interior space thereof, for the purpose of inspecting the condition, inasmuch as the color produced by the heat passing through the chimneys will indicate the intensity of the heat Within the kiln.
The ends of the longitudinal tunnel G are closed when the kiln is in operation.
A direct connection may be made of the ends of the tunnel G and the hollow end walls, so that the products of combustion may enter the hollow walls from the extremities of said tunnel, instead of traveling through the flues e e to seek the perforations d, communicating with said end walls; and, if deemed expedient, the perforations 61 might be closed or left open, leaving the products of combustion to choose their own course.
Instead of employing the, cross-fluesj', leading into the tunnel G, diminutive longitudinal fiues might be used leading more or less directly to the hollow end walls,and which might be used either with or without said tunnel G; or, where they could not be made to lead directly to the hollow end walls, cross-fines might be used to complete the connection.
The operation of our improved kiln is as follows: The heat is generated in the fire-arches D, and passes into the kiln with a tendency, to some extent, of enterin g abruptlyinto the ware, which is between the bag or fire walls E E; but the fire is obstructed by said walls E and caused to pass upward (some of it escaping through the perforations into the ware, if the perforations are employed) until it arrives at or near the top of the bag or fire walls, when it whirls over the said walls, and then begins its moreover, is greatly accelerated by the flames in the interior of the kiln playing against the inner surface of the end walls, intensely heating them, and hence more rapidly creating the vacuum and resulting draft.
All ware can be burned in such akiln, whether it be brick, tile, or pottery, .and with uniformity of hardness and without loss from crippling.
We are aware that interior fire-walls are common in down-draft kilns, and also tunnels under said kilns communicating with the escape fines or chimneys,. and such we do not wish to be understood as claiming, broadly, as our invention; but
We claim as our invention- 1. In a down-draft kiln, the combination, with the side walls, A A, and permanent interior fire-walls. E E, of the hollow end walls, B B, employed for the escape of the products of combustion, substantially as herein shown and described.
2. In a down-draft kiln, the combination of the furnaces D, outer side walls, A A, permanent interior fire-walls, E E, fiues f, tunnel G, and the hollow end walls, B B, substantially as and for the purpose herein shown and described.
3. In a brick, tile, or pottery kiln, the hollow end walls provided with peep-holes h, extending through the outer portions of said walls, substantially as and for the purpose specified.
4. In a down-draft kiln, the combination of the outer side walls, A A, furnaces 1), constructed outside of and running through said side walls, permanent interior fire or bag walls, E E, arranged parallel with the side walls, and fines arranged in the end walls on opposite sides of the entrances to the kiln, substantially as and for the purpose herein shown and described.
In testimony that we claim the foregoing we have hereunto set our hands this 4th day of September, 1879.
NAPOLEON B. HEAFER. EDGAR M. HEAFER.
Tnos. SLADE, O. G. BRADSHAW.