US 2257166 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
sept. 3o, .1941.
R. P. FISHER" 2,257,166
GRUSHER AND PULVERIZER Filed April 21,` 1939 v 2 shets-sneet 1 si I' n/m N 1g, 13j
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Sept. 30, 1941. R. P. FISHER y 2,257,166
CRUSHER AND PULVERIZER lFiled April 2l, 1959 2 Shee'ZS--Sheei'l 2 1a 37 o l 2.6[14 720 75 y 6 [la Patented Sept. 30, 1941 UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE CRUSHER AND PULVERIZER Robert P. Fisher, Los Angeles, Calif.
Application April 21, 1939, Serial No. 269,130
The present invention relates to Crushers and pulverizers, and more particularly to vdevices of that character employed in the crushing or pulverizing of various ores.
The prior art stamp mills, ball mills, Crushers, pulverizers and the like reduce the size of the materials being operated upon with a full or partial grinding action. As a result, the percentage of material of desired mesh recovered isy low, since such grinding action decreases the particle size of a large percentage of the material to an inordinately low value.
Accordingly, it is an object of the present nvention to provide a machine capable of emcient crushing or pulverizing of materials, and in which the percentage of material reduced to a size less than that desired is substantially lowered.
It is a further object of the invention to provide a Crusher or pulverizer capable of effective operation upon materials with substantially a complete omission of a grinding effect. That is, the invention contemplates the utilization of a full compressive force or impact upon the materials to reduce them by a shattering effect to the desired mesh.
Due to their inherent characteristics, the prior art crushing and pulverizing machines can operate only at slow speeds, and must be of large size with attendant weightiness and bulkiness to be able to act upon material at any given rate.` i"
It is still a further object of this invention to pro,- vide a c-rusher or pulverzer of relatively small size, but operable eiiiciently at a comparatively high speed to passv materialtherethrough at a correspondingly rapid rate.
This invention possesses many other advantages, and has other objects that will become apparent from a consideration of several embodiments of the invention.v For the purpose of illustration, forms of the invention are shown in the drawings accompanying and forming part of the present specification. These forms will now be described in detail, illustrating the general principles of the invention; but it is to.4 be understood that such detailed description is.v not to be taken in a limited sense, since the invention is best defined in the claims appended hereto.
Referring to the drawings:
Figure 1 is a longitudinal section of oneY form of the invention, taken generally along the line I I of Figure 4, and disclosing the Crusher jaws in contiguous position.
Figure 2v is a sectiontaken generally along the line 2 2 of Figure 4, disclosing the Crusher jaws in separatedk position;
Figure 3 is a side elevation as seen along the line 3 3 of Figure 4;
Figure 4 is a transverse section, taken along the line 4 4 of Figure 1;
Figure 5 is a cross section taken along the line 5 5 of Figure 1;
Figure 6 is an enlarged perspective View of a modified form of Crusher member surface; and
Figure 7 is a modified form of part of the Crusher.
The active parts of the Crusher or pulverizer are suitably enclosed within a housing I0, supported upon base members I I' fastened to the bottom I2 of the housing by screws or bolts I3. The
- main portion of the enclosure IB consists of front and back walls i4, I5, and side walls I6, II receivable within grooves I'B in the mst-mentioned members. These parts are held together by bolts i9 passing through the terminal portions of the front and back walls. The botto-m I2 is suitably secured to the wall members, as by welding or the like.
The material or ore is adapted to be crushed or pulverized by the application of a substantially full compressive force, alternately applied and released at a comparatively rapid rate. In accomplishing this objective, a relatively xed Crusher jaw 20 is mounted within the housing. Movable to and from this jaw, and preferably pursuing a straight line of motion, is a movable Crusher jaw 2| rollab-le along the bottom I2 of' the` enclosure through the agency of the balls or rollers 22 received within a pair of spaced raceways 23 in the lower part of the jaw and engageable with the bottom I2y of the enclosure.
The path of movement of this jaw 2| is confined by the engagement of its sides with the front and back Wall-s I4, I5 of the housing.
As an assurance against damage to the housing, wear plates 24 are mounted within suitable recesses 25 extending between the top and bottom of the walls. These plates are urged into engagement with the bearing sides of the movable jaw by springs 26 abutting stationary brackets 21 Xed to the enclosure and against nuts 28 threaded onto stems 29 secured to the plates 24. By this arrangement, and due to the fact that the plates are made from softer material than the movable Crusher jaw, any wear attending the operation of the crusher will occur upon the plates, instead of the jaw member, these plates being readily replaceable by the simple operation of removing the brackets 21 and threaded stems V29 prior to sliding the plates upwardly from the grooves 25 normally receiving them. The man- 1 ner of replacing the wear plates and securing 1 their cooperable spring elements to them will be d means.4
' specific embodiment shown in the drawings, in which a drive shaft 39 is rotatably mounted within spaced supporting members 49 fixed to or in- Sure.
l shown) obvious.-
` The movable crusher jaw 2| is forced toward the fixed jaw by a slidable cam or wedge 30 having an inclined face 3| opposed to a companion 1 inclined face 32 formed on the movable jaw.v The i cam or wedge 30 is slidable, preferably in a straight line at right angles to the path of movement pursued by the movable jaw, its motion be- 3 ing preferably 'transmitted to the movable jaw 2| through the medium of anti-friction ball or spaced raceways 34, 35 provided respectively in the U-shaped cam and jaw arms extending toward one another. The cam 3D, in causing movel ment of the crusher jaw member, will react roller elements 33 receivable within the inclined against oneof the side walls |6 of the Venclosure I through the anti-friction balls or rollers 36 en- Vl gageable within spaced raceways 3l in the cam and corresponding opposed raceways 38 formed in the wall. Y'
The cam 30 can be reciprocated by any, suitable However it is proposed to employ the tegral with thefront and back walls of the enclo- This shaft xedly carries a pulley 4| having an engaging belt 42 connected with an- It will be apparent that rotation of the eccentric -43 will produce reciprocation of the cam or wedge member 39 within the housing.` Upon moving downwardly, the slidable cam will move the crusher jaw 2|1towards the fixed jaw 20 in a l path at right angles to that pursued by the i wedge.-v Return movement of the movable jaw 2| to its initial position upon upward motion of theV slidable cam is obtained by providing a return spring'V 49 having one end abutting vthe exterior ofthe side wall I6, and its other end a suitableV nut 59 and washer 5| secured to a return rod 52 at its other end. This rod 52 passes 1 through a slot 53 in the cam and is attached to the movable jaw, as by the threaded intercon- 1 nection disclosed so that the tension or energy Vstored in the returnspring is constantly tending to move the jaw-2l away from the fixed jaw 29 and also hold the various rolling elements22, 33,
3 36 in engagement with their respective'raceways.
In view of the inclination of the cooperable raceways 34, 35 on the cam and movable jaw member,
1 a component of thrust in a downward direction is always available for urging the movable jaw in Q a downwarddirection with its raceways V23 in j snug bearing engagement with the bottom rows of rolling elements 22.
yItjis'"preferredthat'the position of the xed Vjaw be. maderadjustable in` order to vary the l nal mesh of the Vore or other material'passingY between'the'jaw members of the crusher. Although variousexpedients could be availed of, the specificform shown in the drawings includes ay structure similar to that described in con- Y i nection with the movable jaw 2| and its cooperable cam or wedge 30. More specifically, the fixed jaw 29 is of generally U-shaped cross section, being provided with raceways 54 receiving rolling elements 55 engaging the bottom I2 of the enclosure and with tapered raceways 56 in its arms receiving balls or rollers 51 engageable within companion raceways 58 formed in an adjusting cam or wedge 59 adapted to react against the side wall through the balls or rollers 59 received within pairs of spaced and opposed raceways 6|, 62 provided in the adjustingrcam 59 and inner surface ofthe side wall'll'. The fixed jaw member 20 is urged away from the movable jaw 2| by a compressed spring 53 abutting the exterior of the side wall il and a nut 64 threadedly secured to a rod 65 extending through the side wall and an extended slot 66 in the nection. Adjustment of the xed jaw is initiated through the rotation of an adjusting screw 6J rotatably mounted within a plate 68 fixed to the top of the enclosure by the screws 69. This screw 6l has a threaded stem received within cooperating threads provided in the top portion of the adjusting cam or wedge 59. :Axial movement of the adjusting screw is prevented in one direction by the knob or wheel 'I9 abutting the upper surface of the plate 68, and in the other direction by a collar 1| fixed to the stem and abutting the underside of the plate.
Rotation of the adjusting screw 67 in one drection or the other will advance or retract the adjusting cam 59 to correspondingly position the xed jaw 29 with respect to the movable jaw 2| land thus determine theminimum space remaining between the jaws after the movable member has approached to its greatest extent.
The material to be crushed or pulverizedy is fed to the convergent space 'l2 defined by the downwardly converging working surfaces 13 on the upper portions of the cooperable jaw mem-v bers. The material will pass from this space between the parallel faces 'I4 on the remaining lower portions of rthe jaw members and will 1inally exit therefrom through an opening l5 in.
As the eccentric 43 rotates, the slidable cam orV wedge 39 will be reciprocated fairly rapidly, in-
ducing a corresponding reciprocation of the mov-y able jaw member 2| toward vand from the fixed V jaw member 20. The rapidity of reciprocation of the movable jaw will produce a blow-like actionV upon the ore between the parallel facesrof the jaws, to not only reduce it to the desired mesh determined by the adjusted position of the fixed jaw, but also to prevent free flowing or passage of the ore downwardly between the jaws under the influence of gravity. Instead of falling freely through the machine, the ore will only have time to be fed or gravitated step-by-step downwardly, being brought periodically to rest whenever the reciprocating jaw moves toward the fixed jaw and delivers a compressive force or blow to the material being acted upon,
Due to the substantially complete compressive action of the jaws upon the ore, very little of it is Y decreased in particle size to an inordinately low value, traceable to the substantial elimination of grinding action upon the ore. A high percentage of recovery of the ore at the desired mesh'is accordingly obtainable; ThisVv lack; of' extremely low fmeness' in the crushed or' pulverized material is ofparticular valuev in connection with gold bearingy ores. A grinding effect on such oresfails to free the valuable metals from the undesired elements, reducing the former to a flour state, from which their recovery is verydii'cult. Contrary-to this result, the present invention delivers a shattering blow to the ore breaking the gangiley materials from the gold or other valuable elements, and leavingthem'ina state more readily recoverable;
The rapidity with which the present machine operate'sifor example, an eccentric speed of from approximately 1000 to 2000 R. P. M., although it is also eiective at other speeds) permits a crushing effect to be effectively delivered to a much greater quantity of ore than can be reduced in priorV art machines of. comparable size. The crushing force delivered.. is very great' due to the mechanical advantage afforded by the inclinations 3|, 32` of the slidable cam or wedge and the movable jaw member. It is to be understood that this mechanical advantage could be increased or decreased through appropriate alteration in the pitch of the inclined faces.
'- While comparatively smooth crusher surfaces canbe-effectively used, it might be desirable in operating upon damp ores to use roughened surfaces` which will prevent sticking of the ore to the pressure plates and insure its downward feeding under the influence offgravity, in the manner aforementioned. The plate surfaces can consist of protuberances 80l (see Figure 6) separated by interstices 8|. The protuberances on each plate are preferably directly opposite one another to applyA a compressive action. or shattering blow to the material. Damp material will pass downwardly around the protuberances 80 or projections within. the spaces 8| therebetween, and due to the intermittent progressivel action thereon by following material will press the moisture out, leaving the ore in a desirable dry state and of the required mesh.
The projections or protuberances 80 are preferably of diamond shape with those on one jaw surface positioned substantially at right angles to the opposed projections on the other jaw surface. Iny this manner, the protuberances will overlap the intervening spaces on the other jawl member to apply an effective compressive action to the materials within the interstices for the purpose of both pulverizing and drying them. Although I do not wish to be limited to this figure, good results have been obtained with a provision of about six protuberances to the inch upon the jaw surfaces,
The material or ore is prevented from coming in contact with the bearing surfaces and rotating parts of the device by providing a flexible shield 82 around the eccentric, and connecting rod, which shield has an end 82a seating within a groove 83 in the upper part of the movable jaw. Another flexible shield 84 is fastened to the top plate 63 of the adjusting device with one of its ends 86a seating within the groove 85 provided in the upper portion of the stationary jaw member. Y
A yieldable reaction plate for the fixed jaw member 20 can be provided as a Safeguard against jamming of the machine in the event that ncn-friable material, such as pieces of iron or steel, comes between the jaw members. As disclosed in Figure '7, a member 99 having raceways 62 for the reaction rolling elements 60 abuts a plurality' of stiff coil springs 9| bearing against the side wall I1 and held in position by retainer studs 92. The springs 9| function normally as rigid abutments for the reaction member 9D, but are of such strength as to yieldupon' anoverload occurring between the jaw members, due to relatively non-friable material coming therebetween. In this form, the top plate` 63 and adjusting screw 61 are carried by the member 90.
1. A device of the character described, including a supporting structure, jaw members having opposed vertical faces for crushing materials therebetween, one of said members having a bearing raceway inclined upwardly toward said other jaw member, a reciprocable cam having a companion raceway, said structure having bottom horizontal and. side vertical raceways opposite respective bottom and side raceways in said inclined jaw member and cam, rolling elements in said raceways, whereby vertical reciprocation of said cam movessaid inclined member horizontally with respect to said other jaw member for guiding said inclined jaw member to and from said other jaw member, comprising wear plates in said structure, and means for yieldably engaging said plates with said jaw member.
2. A crusher, including a stationary jaw member, a movable jaw member, said members having opposed Vertical faces for crushing materials therebetween', said movable member having a bearing portionv inclined to the vertical, a reciprocable cam having a companion inclined portion for moving said movable jaw member hori- Zontally in a straight line path with respect to said stationary jaw member, said stationary jaw having a portion inclined to its vertical face, an adjustable cam in slidable relation with Said inclined portion, a rotatable screw threaded shaft cooperable with said cam for shifting it with respect to said stationary jaw to determine the minimum space between said jaw members, a rodv xed to said stationary jaw member and eX- tending through a slot in said adjustable cam, and spring means acting on said rod to urge said stationary jaw member away from said movable jaw member.
3. A Crusher, including a stationary jaw member, a movable jaw member, said members havi-ng opposed faces for crushing materials therebetween, said movable member having an inclined bearing portion, a reciprocable cam having a companion inclined portion for moving said movable jaw member in a straight line path with respect to said stationary jaw member, said stationary jaw having an inclined bearing portion, an adjustable cam in slidable relation with said inclined portion, a feed screw cooperable with said adjustable cam for shifting it with respect to said stationary jaw to determine the minimum space between said members, and means for yieldably urging said jaw members apart.
4. A Crusher, including a stationary `iaw member, a movable jaw member, said members having opposed faces for crushing materials therebetween, said movable member having an inclined bearing portion, a reciprocable cam having a companion inclined portion for moving said movabley jaw member in a straight line path with respect to said stationary jaw member, said stationary jaw having an inclined bearing portion, an adjustable cam in slidable relation with said inclined portion, a feed screw cooperable withl said Vadjustable cam for shifting with respect tof said stationary jawv to determine the minimum space between ysaid members, a rod 3 `iixed to said stationary jaw member and extending through a slot, in said adjustable cam,
Y and spring meansacting Von said rod to urge said A side raceways in said jaw members and cams,
and rollable elements in said raceways.V
6. A crushenincluding a supporting structure,`
jaw members having opposed faces for crushing materials therebetween, each of said members having an inclined bearing raceway, a slidable cam for each member having al companionV raceway, said structure having bottom and side'race- Yways opposite respective bottom and side raceways in said `jaw members and cams, rollable elements in said raceways, and means for yieldably urging said jaw members apart to maintain said elements in their respective raceways.
7. A Crusher, including a supporting structure, stationary and movable jaw members having opposedverticalfaces for crushing materials therebetween, said movable member having a bearing portion inclined to the vertical, a reciprocable cam having a companion inclined portion for` moving said movableV jaw member horizontally in a straight line path with respect to said stationary jaw member, said stationary jaw having a portion'inclined to its vertical face, an adjustable cam in slidable relation with said inclinedv portion,.said structure having horizontal bottom and vertical side raceways-op-posite respectivehorizontal bottom and vertical side raceways in` said jaw members and cams, said inclined portions having respective opposed raceways, roll-v able elements in said raceways, and means co- Voperable with said adjustableY cam for shifting it with respect to'said stationary jaw to determine the minimum space between said members. 8. A Crusher as defined in claim 7, including Ymeans for yieldably urging said jaw members V,apart to maintain said rollable elements in their respective raceways.
` 9. A Crusher as defined in claim 7, including a rod fixed to said stationary jawl member and extending through a slot in said adjustable cam, and spring means acting on said rod to urge said stationary jaw member away from said movable jawmember.
10. A Crusher, including cooperable stationary and movable jaw members having opposed faces for crushing materials therebetween, said members having bearing portions inclined upwardly toward each other, opposed similar slidable cams each having an inclined bearing Yportion com--l panion to the inclined bearing portions of an adjacent jaw member, means for shifting said cams to move said members towardeach other, and separate means for yieldably urging said jaw members away from eachother.
, 11. A Crusher, including cooperable stationary and movablejaw members having opposed vertical faces for crushing materials therebetween, said members having bearing portions inclined upwardly toward each other, a reciprocable cam having a bearing portion companion to the bear-'- ing portion on said movable jaw members for moving the latter horizontally in a straight line path towards said stationary member, an adjustable cam having a bearing portion companion to the bearing portion on said stationary yjaw members for lshifting the latter horizontally ina straight line path toward said movable member; a rod secured to each jaw member and extending through a slot in the adjacent cam, and a spring acting on each rod for urging its attached jaw member away from the opposed jaw member. 12. A Crusher, including cooperable stationary and movable jaw members having opposed faces for crushing materials therebetween, said members having bearing portions inclined upwardly toward each other, opposed similar slidable cams each having an inclined bearing portion companion to the inclined bearing portion of an adjacent jaw member, means for shifting said cams to move said members toward each other, separate means for yieldably urging said jaw members away from each other, a flexible shield attached to the top of said movable jaw member and extending upwardly to exclude foreign matter Vfrom said inclined bearing portions, and an opposed shield extending upwardly from said stationary jaw member, said vshields cooperably forming a hopper for directing material between said faces.
. ROBERT P. FISHER.