US 2258725 A
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Oct. 14, 1941. A. H. WILKlNSON AIR COOLER Filed Feb. 28, 1938 4 Sheets-Sheet l Alvin/H martow ATTOR N EYS WITNESS Oct. 14, 1941. A; H. WILKINS ON AIR COOLER Filed Feb. 28, 1938 4 Sheets-Sheet 2 I INVENTOR my Ami a I ATTORNEYS Alvin ZZ mmwm Oct. 14, 1941; A. H. WILKIINSON AIR COOLER 4 She ets-Sheet 3 Filed Feb. 28, 1938 WITNESS ATTORNEYS Oct. 14, 1941. A. H. WILKINSON AIR COOLER Filed Feb. 2a, 1938 4 Sheets-Sheet 4 Allin/H ml/thw om WlTNESS Patented. Get. 14, 1941 UNITED STATES PATENT oFFrc AIR COOLER Alvin H. Wilkinson, Tulsa, Okla. Application February 28, 1938, Serial No. 193,174
This invention relates to air coolers operating on the vaporization principle produced by a partial vacuum, and has for the primary object the provision of a device of this character which will be economical to manufacture, install and maintain in operation and which will be eflicient, durable and compact so that it may be used to cool comparatively large spaces as well as a restricted or small space such as the interior of an automobile body.
Withthese and other objects in view, this invention consists in certain novel features of construction, combination and arrangement of parts to be hereinafter more fully described and claimed.
For a complete understanding of my invention, reference is to be had to the following description and accompanying drawings, in which Figure 1 is a side elevation, partly in section, illustrating a cooling device constructed in accordance with my invention.
Figure 2 is a top plan view illustrating the device.
Figure 3 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view illustrating a heat exchanger including an air vent pipe. r
Figure 4 is a fragmentary side elevation illustrating a modified form of my invention especially adaptable 'for installation on an automobile, the latter shown partially in section.
Figure 5 is a fragmentary vertical sectional view illustrating a portion of the vacuum chamber and the liquid circulating pipe therefor.
Figure 6 is a fragmentary side elevation showing another modification of my invention.
Figure '7 is afront elevation illustrating the same.
Figure 8 is a sectional View taken on line 8-8 of Figure 6.
Figure 9 is a side elevation, partly in section, illustrating the form of my invention shown in Figures 6 to 8 adapted to an automobile with a slight alteration of parts.
Figure 10 is a front elevation, partly in section, showing the form of my invention disclosed in Figure 9.
Referring in detail to the drawings, the numeral I indicates a base on which is mounted a liquid supply tank 2, a vacuum chamber 3, a heat exchanger 4, a vacuum pump 5 driven by an electric motor 1 which also drives a fan 8 for circulating air relation to the heat exchanger for the purpose of cooling the air. The liquid supply tank 2' has a filling neck 9 and connected to the lower end of said tank is asupply pipe ll] leading to the vacuum chamber 3 and in which is located deflector I2 is located in the vacuum chamber 3 slightly above the liquid level and located above the deflector in the vacuum chamber is a screen 13.
The vacuum pump 5 may be of any desired type and is connected to the top of the vacuum chamber by a pipe [4 so that a partial vacuum will be established in the upper portion of the vacuum chamber during the operation of the vacuum pump, The exhaust of the vacuum pump 5 is connected to the upper end of the liquid supply tank 2 by a pipe I5.
The heat exchanger 4 is arranged directly in front of the fan 8 so that the latter may draw or force air therethrough, depending on the type of fan employed. The heat exchanger is in the form of a radiator consisting of upper and lower chambers l6 and I! connected by series of tubes [8 forming a core through which the air may be drawn or forced by the fan. Instead of employing the tubes l8 any other form of core may be used. In this instance, the tubes 18 are shown as provided with fins or plates 19. A pipe 20 connects the lower chamber l'l to the bottom of the vacuum tank 3 to allow the liquid in the vacuum tank to seek a level in the heat exchanger to the level of the liquid in said vacuum tank. A return pipe 2| connects the upper chamber I6 with the vacuum chamber, discharging into the latter above the deflector I2 and below the screen- I3. An air vent pipe 22 equipped with a control valve 23 extends into the chamber [1 in the form of a perforated portion 24 extending substantially the full length of the chamber ll placing the lower chamber [1 incommunication with atmospheric air. g
In operation, the fan and vacuum pump are driven by the electric motor 1. Any suitable source of electrical energy may be employed for the operation of the electric motor. The vacuum pump in operation creates a partial vacuum in the upper portion of the vacuum chamber 3 and the upper chamber it of the heat exchanger being in direct communication therewith will also have a partial vacuum established therein; Thispartial vacuum will bring about a flow of atmospheric air from the pipe 22 intl the lower chamber II through the liquid or water therein and the air bubbling upwardly through the liquid or water vaporizes a portion of this water and also brings about circulation of the water in the chamber 3 and the heat exchanger. This lowers the temperature of the water and the air and moisture with a certain amount of water passing upwardly through the tubes chills said tubes of theheat exchanger so that the air flowing between said tubes under'the influence of the fan will have heat absorbed therefrom, consequently lowering the temperature of the air. The air, vapor and water entering the chamber l6 passes into the upper portion of the vacuum chamber 3 above the deflector, condensation of vapor takes place to some extent which the water falls over the deflector and returns to the liquid in the vacuum chamber below the deflector while the air and non-condensed vapor pass through the screen, the latter acting to condense more of the vapor so that the air reaching the supply tank 2 by way of the vacuum pump will only contain a limited amount of vapor which may condense in the supply tank, the air exhausting to the a mosphere by the neck 9. Thus it will be seen t at a cooling device constructed in accordance with the foregoing will be economical to manufacture and maintain in operation and will be efficient in the cooling of air within a room or like device.
The flow of liquid from the supply tank 2 to the vacuum chamber 3 will be aided by the partial vacuum within said vacuum chamber and.
the level of the liquid in the vacuum chamber is controlled by the float actuated valve II.
To adapt a cooling device of the character described to an automobile it will be advantageous to make certain parts thereof compact which is clearly shown in Figures 4 and 5. In this form of my invention the vacuum chamber is indicated by the character 24 shown mounted on a partition 25 of an automobile body 26 and the upper end of said vacuum chamber is connectedto an intake manifold 21 of an internal combustion engine 28 employed for the propulsion of the automobile. Whenever the engine is in operation, a partial vacuum will be constant in the intake manifold thereby establishing a partial vacuum in the vacuum chamber 24'. The vacuum chamber is fed with water or some other suitable liquid by a supply pipe 29 having a float controlled valve 30. The supply pipe 29 may be connected to any form of supply such as the tank 2 of the form of the invention shown in Figure 1, this tank being suitably mounted within some part of the body of the automobile. The pipe preferably of the type to operate 08 of the body of the automobile and is controlled by a switch 40 mounted on the instrument board. Whenwhich connects the intake manifold 21 to the vacuum chamber 24' is indicated by the character 3| and has a cutoff valve 32 provided with a control 3| mounted on the instrument board of the motor vehicle.
The heat exchanger is indicated by the character 32' and is located within the body of the automobile and the return pipe .33 thereof is connected to the vacuum chamber 24'. The heat exchanger 32 is of the type shown in Figure 3 and the inlet pipe 34 thereof is connected to a manifold 35, a portion of which is disposed vertically and its lower portion angularly, related and connected tothe vacuum chamber adjacent the lower end of the latter. The level of the liquid-in the vacuum chamber seeks a corresponding level in the heat exchanger 32'. Entering the manifold 35 is an air vent pipe 36 having a control valve 31. The electric motor of this formot my invention is indicated by the the partial vacuum formed above the liquid, the v ever it is desired to cool the air in the automobile body, the circuit is closed to the electric nctor and the valve 32 is opened and with the engine 28 operating a partial vacuum is established in the vacuum chamber 24' and the upper portion of the heat exchanger. This brings about a flow of atmospheric air through the liquid of the manifold 35 and through the liquid of the heat exchanger. Said flow of air through the liquidalong with the decreased surface tension due to partial vacuum brings about a vaporization of some of the liquid and the circulation of the latter, consequently cooling the liquid. The air, vapor and a certain amount of liquid passing through the heat exchanger back to the vacuum chamber cools the tubes or core of the heat exchanger so that the air drawn or forced through the heat exchanger by the fan will be lowered in temperature, consequently cooling the interior of the automobile body.
Referring to my modified form of invention shown in Figures 6 to 8, inclusive, the heat exchanger is indicated by the character 4| and located below the latter is a liquid supply tank 42 having a filling neck 43. The heat exchanger 4| is of the construction shown in Figure 3. The electric motor for driving the fan 44 of the heat exchanger is indicated by the character 45 which also drives the vacuum pump 46. A liquid circulating pipe 41 of substantially U-shape has a portion thereof located below the supply tank 42 and includes vertical portions 48, 49 and a hori- "zontal portion 50. The vertical portion 48 terpheric air into the vertical portion 48 adjacent the lower end thereof. The liquid feed pipe 54 connects the bottom of the supply tank 42 with the horizontal portion 50 of the liquid circulating pipe 41. A pressure equalizing pipe 55 connects the vertical portion 49 of the liquid circulating pipe to the top portion of the supply tank above the level of the liquid therein. The vertical portion 49 of the liquid circulating pipe 41 is connected to the lower end of what may be termed a scrubber 56 in the form of a tank. The lower portion of the heat exchanger is connected to the lower portion of the scrubber 56 by a return pipe 51. The vacuum pump 46 is connected tothe upper end of the scrubber 56 by a pipe 58. With the pump 46 in operation a partial vacuum is established on the scrubber 55 and consequently the air will be partially withdrawn from the heat exchanger through the pipe 51. The flow of atmospheric air will discharge from the lower end of the vent pipe 52 because the air is of lesser specific gravity than theliquid, and because of air will rise upwardly through the vertical portion 48 of the fluid circulating pipe 41. The reduced pressure above the liquid, and the steady stream of rising bubbles of air will lift the liquid therein, a certain amount of the water and air will spill into the upper portion of the heat exchanger wherein vaporization of some of the liquid takes place.
therefrom. The core of the heat exchanger is not flooded with liquid but only a film oi liquid will flow "over the inner walls 01 the tubes of the core whereby maximum cooling of the air circulated relative to the core by the fan will be had. The air along with the vapor given oil by the film of liquid in the core and unvaporized liquid from the heat exchanger pass into the scrubber 50, The excess or unvaporized liquid passes from the scrubber into the vertical portion 49 of the liquid circulating pipe 41, while the air and vapor passes to the vacuum pump and escapes therefrom by the latters exhaust. This form of the invention can be used for cooling the air in rooms or the air within the interior of an automobile body. The last application of the invention is illustrated in Figures 9 and 10 of the drawings and when thus applied the vacuum pump is omitted and the upper-end of the scrubber 56 is connected to the intake manifold of the engine bya pipejl having a cutofl valve 62. Also, itis preferable that the supply tank 42 be located below the floor boards of the automobile and properly insulated against heat The supply tank when thus located has the vertical portion l 01' the circulating pipe ll extendi therethrough and is provided with ports 83 and M. The port 64 is 10- 'cated above the level of the liquid in the su ly.
tank while the port it is located adjacent the bottomoi' the s pply tank. The operation of this form of the inventionis in accordance with that described in connection with the form shown in Figures 6 to 8, inclusive.
What is claimed is:
.An air cooler comprising a combined vacuum and liquid chamber; a liquid chamber and maintaining a predetermined level of liquid therein, a heat exchanger, means for connecting said heat exchanger to said chamber, anairventpipeadmittingairtotheliquidtor passing therethrough andthrough the heat exchanzer, a vacuum pump connected with said chamber, means tor operating said pump, a tan actuated by the last named means forthe circulation' of air relative to the heat exchanger,
an inverted conical-shaped deflector arranged in said'chamber above the level or the liquid, and a screen arranged in the chamber between the deflector and, the upper end of the chamber.
' ALVIN H. WILKINSON.
supply for said