|Publication number||US225945 A|
|Publication date||Mar 30, 1880|
|Filing date||Jan 21, 1880|
|Publication number||US 225945 A, US 225945A, US-A-225945, US225945 A, US225945A|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
2 Sheets-Sheet 1 J. PE RGHMENT. Brick or Building Block, and Method of Laying the same.
ten Mar. 30,1880.
11v VENTOR WITNESSES:
Z ATTORNEY NPEIERS PfiOTO-LITMOGRAPHER, WASHINGTD". D (L 2 Sheets-Sheet 2.-
J. PERGHMENT. Brick or Building Block, and Method of Laying the same.
Pat ted Mar. 30,1880.
12v VENTOR WITNESSES.-
H M 0 T. A
UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE,
JOHN PEROHMENT, OF PITTSBURG, PENNSYLVANIA.
" BRICK OR BUILDING-BLOCK AND METHOD OF LAYING THE SAME.
SPECIFICATION forming part of Letters Patent No. 225,945, dated March 30, 1880. Application filed January 21, 1880.
To all whom it may concern:
Be it known that I, JOHN PERGHMENT, of Pittsburg, in the county of Allegheny, State of Pennsylvania, have invented a new and useful Improvement in Bricks or Building- Blocks, and Method of Laying the Same; and I do hereby declare that the following is a full and exact description thereof, reference being had to the accompanying drawings, and to the letters of reference marked thereon.
My invention relates to an improvement in bricks or building-blocks and the method of laying the same in walls, whereby continuous air spaces and chambers are formed throughout the entire walls of thebuilding more than equal to that obtained by the construction of Flemish walls, and at the same time securing greater strength, economy of mortar, and facility in the construction of walls.
To enable others skilled in the art to make and use my invention, I will proceed to describe its construction and method of laying.
In the accompanying drawings, which form part of my specification, Figure 1 is a front elevation of a section of wall with window and frame. Fig. 2 is a top view of the same. Fig. 3 is a top view or plan of the second course of brick when constructed of a single course, or what is known as the ordinary nineinch wall. Fig. 4 is the base row of the same. Fig. 5 is a perspective view of my improved brick or building-block. Fig. 6 is a three-quarter section of the same. Fig. 7 is a one-quarter section of the same. Fig. Sis a corner-section of a plain eighteeninch wall. Fig. 9 is a top view or plan of the second row of brick of said wall. Fig. 10 is a top view or plan of the base row of said wall.
In the accompanying drawings, A represents my improvement in building brick or block, which is constructed of any of theknown clays used in the manufacture of brick, which clay is prepared in the same manner as that used in the making of brick, and the brick, after being molded, are manipulated and burned in kilns in the same manner as the common brick.
The form of my improved building brick or block is clearly shown in Fig. 5, and is about nine inches square and about two and one-half inches thick, with an opening, B,
through it, which is about four inches long and two inches wide at line C and two and onehalf inches wide at line D.
The opening B in the brick is for forming the chambers in the walls of the building, the size and form being such that in the laying of the walls and breaking of the joints the opening of one brick will communicate with the openings or spaces f between bricks below and above it. By reason of said opening B and the space marked f between two of the bricks, as indicated in Figs. 2, 3, 4:, 9, and 10, a continuous line of communications between the chambers B can be made throughout the entire walls of the building, thereby securing dry walls, which are an essential thing to the construction of a comfortable and healthy dwelling, and very important in buildings used for stores or warehouses.
In the drawings, 6 represents the mortar between the bricks, a space always being left, as atf, not filled with mortar. Figs.1, 2,3, 4 represent a nine-inch wall constructed with my improved brick, and also represent the method of laying them and manner of breaking joints. 9 represents the belt course, constructed of dressed stone. On this belt course is laid the first course of brick, leaving spaces between the brick and belt course unfilled with mortar,
as indicated at h in Fig. 1, which spaces are for the inlet of air to the chambers B, which air passes from said chambers through the spaces f up into the chambers B in the brick of the second course, and from said chambers up through the spaces f between the bricks of the second course into the chambers B in the third course of bricks, and in like manner the air passes up through the spaces 1' and cham- B through the entire walls of the building.
The corners of the walls are formed as indicated in Figs. 3 and 4, the former figure representing the second course of the brick, in
which the corner is formed by a quarter of a brick and three-quarters of a brick, such as represented in Figs. 6 and 7 formed by cutting the whole brick, (represented in Fig. 5 at lines '5.)
In building in the window-frame 7' (shown in Figs. 1 and'2) it is necessary to use a half of a brick, as shown in Fig. 2 at k, which halfthe brick and seams of the front brick is obtained by cutting the whole brick at lines '5 or Z, and may be laid in the wall with relation to the frame as indicated in Figs. 1 and 2.
The nine-inch wall hereinbefore described may be increased in thickness to a thirteeninch wall by laying a course of the ordinary brick against the inner edge of my improved brick, as indicated by the dotted lines m in Fig. 4.
The manner of laying the eighteeirinch wall is clearly shown in Figs. 8, 9, and 10, the inner and other parts of the wall being tied by means of a half-brick and two three-quarter bricks, as shown at n 0 0 in Fig. 9.
Other modifications of tying or binding the two parts of the wall together by means of the sections at and 0 will readily be suggested to the mind of the skilled bricklayer without further description.
The binding operation of two or more parts of a wall by the sections at and 0 of my improved brick may be done by laying the hinders in a zigzag course from bottom to top of the Wall, without breaking the symmetry of walls of the building, giving to said walls the appearance shown in Figs. 1 and 8.
In constructing walls with my improved bricks the vertical seams between the bricks and that portion of the seams next to the inner surface of the walls should be left open and free from mortar, as indicated at r in Figs. 2, 3, and 9, which open seams will serve the pun pose of securely locking the plaster to walls in the process of plastering the building.
The curvature at s of the opening B is for a twofold purposefirst, for giving strength through the brick at line I i, and, second, for forming a finger-hold for the bricklayer in handling the bricks in the process of laying them in the wall, the inward bulge at 8 being adapted to the gripe of the four fingers of the hand, each finger having a firm hold, thereby making the handling of the brick less tiresome and exhausting on the hands and fingers in the process of laying the bricks.
The advantages of my improvement, briefly stated, consist in strength of the wall and dryness thereof, facility and speed in the construction of the walls, with economy of mortar and efficient means for keying the plaster to the walls without the labor of wedging and lathin g.
I am aware that bricks provided with ventilating opening or openings through them are old, and such I do not wish to be understood as claiming, broadly, as of my invention; but,
Having thus described my improvement, what I claim as of my invention is l. The brick A, having the opening B, with the inward bulges 8, said brick and opening being of the form and size herein described,
. and for the purpose set forth.
2. In the construction of walls of buildings with bricks of the form and size hereinbefore described, the air-spaces h and f, in combination with openings or chambers B, substantially as and for the purpose set forth.
JOHN PEROHMEN T.
Witnesses A. 0. J onNs'roN, JAMES J. JOHNSTON.