|Publication number||US2260453 A|
|Publication date||Oct 28, 1941|
|Filing date||Aug 1, 1939|
|Priority date||Aug 1, 1939|
|Publication number||US 2260453 A, US 2260453A, US-A-2260453, US2260453 A, US2260453A|
|Inventors||Hartman Samuel H|
|Original Assignee||Armstrong Cork Co|
|Export Citation||BiBTeX, EndNote, RefMan|
|Referenced by (18), Classifications (9)|
|External Links: USPTO, USPTO Assignment, Espacenet|
Oct. 28, 1941-.
s. H. HARTMAN METHOD OF MAKING DECORATIVE SHEETS Filed Aug. 1, 1939 Patented Oct. 28, 1941 METHOD OF MAKING DECORATIVE. S HEETS Samuel H. Hartman, Lancaster Township, Lancaster County, ,Pa., assignor to Armstrong Cork Company, Lancaster, Pa., a corporation of Pennsylvania Application Augustl, 1939, ,Serial No. 287,699.
This invention relates to a method .of manu: facturing decorative sheets suitable for useas floor or wall coverings and, more particularly, to a method of making linoleum having a variegated surface effect, the word linoleum? being used as a word of general definition and not of limitation, it being intended to include, other or equivalent materials.
The chief object of my invention is to provide a method of manufacturing decorative sheets suitable for use as floor or wall coverings. object of my invention is to provide a method of manufacturing decorative sheets which is more economical than the processes heretofore in use and which produces a highly desirable variegated surface eflect. A further object .is to provide a method adapted to produce substantially the same variegated, grained, or marble appearance, and color value in linoleum sheets so that a sheet made at one time from given materials can be used successfully with a sheet made at another time from similar. materials. A still further object is to eliminate, in the manufacture of continuous decorative. sheets, any visible joint or discontinuity usually discernible when a number of separate, independent sheets are united to form a single, continuous sheet.
I will describe my invention with particular reference to the manufacture of linoleum having a variegated surface effect. In my process, a blend or mix of differentlyv coloredigranular compositions is formed into a cohesive sheet having a predetermined direction of graining, ribs or grooves being formed in the sheet after its formation or during its formation, such ribs or grooves, preferably, extending in the same direction as the direction of graining. A grooved rib formation of the overlapped sheets in ac-- .cordance with my invention.
The sheet may then be employed with other sheets of plain or variegated colorin the formation of block inlaid linoleum by means of the well-known automatic inlaying machines of the Walton or Batten type.
sheet so formed is severed into sections, the
sections then being overlapped to some extent, and thereafter subjected to pressure applied in a direction normal to the direction of graining. Such pressure removes the grooves in the overlapped sections and forms a continuous sheet having a plane surface. By subjecting the ribbed, grained sections to such pressure, the graining effect is shortened and spread in adirection normal to the direction of graining thus presenting a variegated surface effect in whichindividual colors appear without substantial blending or smearing. It will be appreciated, heretofore. a visible joint or discontinuity, commonly denoted in the industry as a hook-on, was discernible after the formation of the continuous sheet. Such discontinuity is obviated in the variegation of the continuous sheetby the and subjecting it to my process.
Usually, however, it will be applied in continuous lengths to a suitable backing, such as burlap,
saturated felt or the like. The general trend 'of the pattern is determined by the. make-up of the granular compositions from which the sheet is formed. Differently col-. ored compositions are used, any number of colors being used as desired. Once the make-up of .a mix is determined, comparable effects can be produced at will simply by reproducing the, mix
The accompanying drawing illustrates a pre-. ferred manner of carrying out my invention, in which r Figure 1 is a diagrammatic view illustrating the preferred method of carrying out my invention;
and v a Figure '2 is an isometric view, exaggerated in size, of overlapped sheets serving to illustrate the manner in which visible joints are eliminated in the formation of a continuous sheet. x 1
Suitable mixing equipment is provided. for forming two differently colored linoleum compo- It will be appreciated suitable equip:- ment may be provided for any required number of differently colored compositions. As shown in Figure 1, the differently colored compositions are blended into a cohesive vari-colored mass which is fed to a two-roll calender, the roll 4 of such calender having a smooth, plane surface while the roll 5 thereof is ribbed or grooved, thus forming the mass into a non-planar sheet 6 provided with grooves or. depressed portions 1 and upstanding portions or ribs la. The roll 5, of course, may be provided with any desired forms or shapes. of .ribs or grooves. In the calender, preferably. the face roll, roll 5 as illustrated in Figure 1, is maintained at a lower temperature than the back roll. The roll 5 is rotated at the same or a slightly greater speed than the roll 4 which extrudes the granules and permits a"wiping. action spreading the differently colored granules to some extent, thus forming what is knownin the industry as a .jaspe sheet. It will be appreciated the ribbed roll 5 forms grooves T and ribs la in the sheet 6 extending longitudinally thereof in the same direction as the graininggwithout disturbing or interfering in any way with the formation of such graining overlapped: sections.
the,-.thickness of: the overlapped sheets at the, juncturebetween sheetsis considerably less than Preferably, such ribs and grooves are formed in the face of the sheet, although they may be formed in its back, if desired.
The sheet 6 is then severed by any suitable device or manually in sections 8. The sections 8 are then turned at right angles to the direction of graining and cross-rolled. In other words, the
' section's Bare calendered'or compacted by being passed through a two-roll calender similar to the calender above described except that both rolls.v
2,260,453 v formed in a jaspe sheet, then providing such sheet with grooves and ribs by passing it through a calender having a ribbed 'roll or any other means suitable for forming ribs and grooves in the sheet, and following the remaining steps of the method above described.
thereof have smooth surfaces. .By careful con trol of the roll temperatures, variegatedeffects can be obtained regardless whether the grooves and ribs were formed in the faceori'n the back 1 of the sheet. a v I V The step of cross-rolling removes the grooves v and ribs in the sections- '8 and shortens and H spreads the directional graining thereby presenting a variegated surface in which individual colors appear without substantial blending or smearing: Preferably, the sections Bareoverlapped asishown at 9 before the step of. 'crossrolling. in .order that a continuous sheet IOI may v be. formed by thecross-rolling operation. The ribbed. formation of the overlapped sheets obviatesany visiblediscontinuity where the sheets The arefsjoined. to form the continuous sheet.. sheet I0 so formed may'thenbe applied in continuous lengths to a suitable backing, such as:
burlap, saturated felt or the like, or. may be.
employedwithother-sheets of plain or variegated colors, the. formation of block. inlaid linoleum.
In. Figure 2; ,I. haveillustrated a. modification of the rib. formation which likewise serves to obviate any visible discontinuity in acontinuous sheet caused'by' the overlappingv of separate individual sheets. In the formation of the individual sections. 8, a depressed portion. Tis provided ad- I jacent the edge of the section 8 designed to overthe thickness ofthe overlapped. portions ofisuch sheets sothat. anyzvisib'le discontinuity or joint betweenthe sheets is eliminated when the sheets arelcompacted' or calendered toforrn a continuous sheet.'..:.; g i
Whilelhave described a method of eliminating a' vi'si'blejoint or discontinuity in a. continuous I sheet caused by the. juncture between overlapped sheets conjunction with a particular variegated surface effect, it will be understood my inventionf'is notlimited to such use, since visible joints caused by overlapping, individual sheets. in the formation of a single continuous sheet of any desiredsurface appearance may be substantially eliminated by forming. a depressed portion adjacent the edge of the overlappedsheet thus. reducingthe'thickness of the overlapped sheets at their juncture.
While I have described the sections 8 as being turned at right angles to the direction of' graining'before' the cross-rolling operation, it will be understood such sections may be calendered in the direction of the grooves, if desired, since such calen'dering permits a variegated surface effect to be obtained, althoughsuch. effect: is not so satisfactory as the effect obtained by cross-rolling.
modification of my preferred process,
vari-colored granular compositions. may be "above.
If desired, a series of knives maybe placed adjacent thetwo-roll calenderwhich forms the sheet 6 to'cut grooves in such sheet, thus permitting.
the formation'of a ribbed sheet as described effect is obtained since the graining on the jaspe sheet varies to some extent throughout the thickness of such sheet.
It will be appreciated the essential features of my invention reside in the formation of a ribbed jaspesheet andcompacting or calendering such sheet to remove the ribs and render the surface of the sheet planar in form, thereby shortening and spreading the 'jasp'e graining. thus providing a variegated surface: effect in whichthe individual colors appear or stand out without substantial: blending or smearing, and in the elimination of visible joints or discontinuities Where overlapped shets o r sections. are joined to form a continuous' sheet.
While I have described my. invention with particular reference to. the manufacture of a variegatedJinoleum-sheet, it willbe understood my in vention may be used in the manufacture of rub.- ber, asphalt or similar types of floor or wall cover-- ing to produce. the desired variegated surface effect. The advantages of. my invention are readily perceived; An. entirely new and. different typeof surface ornamentation is providedv at lessjcost thanother types of; surface ornamentation since my meth od provides various manufacturingadvantages over processesheretofore in: generalluse; Higher'temp'eratures maybe used at the rolls of thefisheeting calenders than has, heretofore be'en cust'omary in. the; industry thus effecting; a
savingiinrefrigeratingv costs; chill marks frequentlyxcausedibyextremelylow temperaturesat the. rolls of: the sheeting calender are eliminated; and. the cement. content of the mix may be reduced! sincehigher roll. temperatures are perstood my. invention is"v not so limited' but may be.
otherwise embodied and. practiced Within the scopeofth'e: following claims- .I claim: 1..'In, the method of: manufacturing a decorative sheetthe steps comprising, blending dif ferently colored} granular compositions to forma cohesive vari-colored mass, forming said mass in asheetzhaving a defi'nite directional graining de-q pressing portions ofv said sheet below the-plane surface thereof; severing said sheet in sections, and calendaring said sections at an angle to't-he direction of: graining. thereby shortening and spreading the 'directionalgraining and presenting a variegated surf-ace efiect in which individual colors appear, I j 2;. In the method of manufacturing a decorative'sheet; the. steps comprising, blending differently' colored: granular compositions to form: a cohesive vari-colored mass, calen'dering said mass in: a; shetihaving a definite directional graining and-:having .a plurality of: grooves, in a surface thereof,fandgcalendering said sheet ina direction It should be understood, however, if this process be followecLa slightly different variegated normal to the direction of graining thereby shortening and spreading the directional graining and presenting a variegated surface effect in which individual colors appear.
3. In the method of manufacturing a decorative sheet, the steps comprising, blending differently colored granular compositions to form a cohesive vari-colored mass, calendering said mass in a sheet having a definite directional graining and having a plurality of grooves in a surface thereof, the grooves in said sheet extending in the same direction as the graining, severing said sheet in sections, turning said sheets at an angle to the direction of graining, and calendering said sections thereby shortening and spreading the directional graining and presenting a Variegated surface efiect in which individual colors appear.
4. In the method of manufacturing a continuous sheet from separate individual sheets Without substantial visible discontinuity Where the sheets are joined to form a continuous sheet, the steps comprising, forming a depressed portion adjacent the edge of a sheet, overlapping similar sheets, the overlapped thickness of said sheets being greater than the thickness at the juncture thereof, and compacting said sheets to form a continuous sheet.
5. In the method, of manufacturing a continuous sheet from separate individual sheets without substantial visible discontinuity where the sheets are joined to form a continuous sheet, the steps comprising, forming a depressed portion adjacent the edge of a sheet, forming a depressed portion in a second sheet, overlapping said sheets so that the depressed portion adjacent the edge of said sheet lies adjacent the depressed portion in said second sheet, and compacting said sheets to form a continuous sheet.
6. In the method of making linoleum having a variegated surface effect, the steps comprising, blending differently colored granular compositions to form a cohesive vari-colored miX, forming said mix in a sheet having a definite directional graining and having a plurality of grooves in a surface thereof, the grooves in said sheet extending in the same direction as the graining, and subjecting said sheet to pressure to remove said grooves thereby shortening and spreading the directional graining and presenting a varigeated surface effect in which individual colors appear.
'7. In the method of making a decorative sheet, the steps comprising, forming a vari-colored'mass of difierently colored granular compositions, subjecting said mass to pressure to form a sheet having a definite directional graining, forming a plurality of grooves in said sheet without substantially disturbing the directional graining, said grooves extending in the same direction as the graining, severing said sheet in sections, overlapping said sections, and thereafter subjecting said overlapped sections to cross-rolling to remove said grooves and to shorten and spread the directional graining.
SAMUEL H. HARTMAN.
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|U.S. Classification||264/76, 264/175, 264/118, 264/145, 264/152, 156/242|