US 2260784 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
Oct 2%, 19410 D. c. MORTON DOWELING JIG 7 sheets-sheet 1 Filed May 25, 1940 Dav/0 CMORTON 6m 2% 19410 a. c. MCRTON DOWELING JIG Filed May 23, 1940 7 Sheets-Sheet 2 Dav/0 CMO TON 7, Sheets-Sheet 5 D. s. MORTON DOWELING JIG Filed May 23, 1940 Get. 28, 1941..
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D. C. MORTON DQOWELINGI JIG Filed May 23, 1940 7 Shee'ts Sheet 4 0a. 28, 1941. ID. 0. Mow 2,260;784
DOWELING JIG Filed May 23, 1940 7 Sheets-Sheet 5 Day/0 C. MORTON Oct. 28,1941. D. c. MORTON DOWELING JIG Filed May 23, 1940 7 Sheets-Sheet 6 0a. 28; 1941. D. c; MORTON 2 ,7
DOWELING-JIG Filed May 23, 1940 7 Sheet s-r-Sheet gnaw vio a Dav/0 CMORTON w, Amid;
Patented Oct. 28, 1941 UNIT-ED STATES PATENT T'OFFI'VCE DOWELING are c c David 0. Morton, Richmond, Va. Application May 23, 1940; Serial No. 336,810
This invention relates to certain improvements in-craftsmans tools or implements, having reference to that class of devices known as doweling jigs which are designed for use in gauging and forming dowel-pin joints between the parts of structural manufactures such as cabinets and thelike. More particularly it pertains to special devices of said kind and to methods of using or employing the same in constructing various articles and objects of an assembly nature.
An object-of the invention is primarily to provide means by which the individual cabinetmaker or other article-constructing craftsman engaged in small piece-work business can economically compete with the larger business .manuf-acturer in :the making of high-grade fur-' structural articles with the. greatest facility and precision, which device-will be easilyma-nipulable and, adaptable to..almost-any edge or surface upon which a joint is to be made, regardless of its angle .or.extent. Stated more specifically, the purpose is vtoprovide atool with which to secure .an accurat alignment of dowels in the joints or between the parts -of any material susceptible of-ib'eingdrilled bystandard twist drills andQin cases suchas'iwood where there is a.dis- 'tinct gra'in, to effect joints'with thecomponent parts disposed directionally with, against or angularly to the grain, or in combinations-of with, against and angularly to Zthe grain. In this .con-
nection it 'is proposed to substitutea rseries plurality of dowels for theusual tenon and mortise of the joints, for .two materialreasons; .first, because tenon and mortise joints are difficult to form .with sufficient accuracy .to have the requisite close fit, even'by themost skillful craftsman,
and, second, becausejoints ,of closelyspaced dowiels'have been .found to have a stronger hold and are much more easily .formedand close-fitted.
Moreover, a closely spaced series of dowels actu ally provide a larger holding surface than a tenon and mortise joint of the-same cross-sec- "t'ional extent.
A further-object is to eliminate the necessity for measurement and line to line adjustment in forming the joints, or to incorporate these factorial attainments'fundamentally into the tool itse'lf, -so that not only will the craftsman'beien- 'abled to work with minimized labor and expedition, but an unskilled worker or even a novice can form th required joints between different assemblage parts of a structure with absolute accuracy,jsuch that corresponding parts of the same canflbe interchanged one with another in perfect fit together. In other words, it is designed'to attain, an accurate alignment of dowel holes in the different separateparts orv pieces of an'assemblage structure without .the need ofany measurementas by ruler, scaleor gaugeand certainly without need of any laboriouslyischematic or .precisionary measure by such instruments, suchlneed being removed by inherent capabilities of the tool so 'that'identical location of holes in the various pieces is attained even more accurately than by'hand measure.
Other objects and the particular advantages of the invention will be set forth or readily appear from'the following description with referenceto the attached drawings, which illustrate one. practicable embodiment and form of the same, with modifications, as applied and .used in connection with different constructional members, or parts.
In said drawings: I i r Fig. 1 is a perspective view of the basical device or tool; I Fig-T2 is a perspective view of an extension attachment substitutional for one of the .component'elementsand forming a part of the complete device;
Fig. 3 is a perspective view corresponding to Fig. 1 showing said basical device enlarged .in height by another attachment applied thereto;
Fig.4 is a side elevation, as viewed from the left side of Fig. 1, of the device applied to a structural member such as a table leg .for the drillingof joint holes in the latter, shown broken off;
Fig. 5 is anend elevation, from the left of Fig. ,4, illustrating the clamping onto said member and showing the mode of hole drilling, a corresponding positioning of the member on the opposite sideof the device being indicated in dotted lines; I j a Fig. 6 is-a top plan View of Fig.4, the structural member being :again shown broken off;
Fig. 7 is a view similar to Fig. 5, representing the device applied to a thinner structural mem- ;ber' such as a table leg stretcher or apron piece, with appurtenant. shim-plate inserts for gauging the level of hole drilling therein;
5 Fig. '8 is a top plan view of one of the shim- 0 as formed by the gaugement of the device;
Fig. is a partly sectional side elevation view on the line 10-10 of Fig. 9;
Fig. 11 is a disassembled view of the device in side elevation, with the separated parts disposed in correct unitive relation;
Fig. 12 is an end view of the disassembled device or relatively separated parts;
Fig. 13 is a side elevational view of the device.
with attached extension or substitutional part of modified form, illustrating its application to an elongated structural member represented in dotted lines, the basical part of the device being.
shown broken off;
Fig. 14 is an end View, from the left, of Fig. 13;
Fig. 15 is an end view showing the device with adapting elements applied to a mitered or angular edge of a member, said edge in this instance being at a 45 degree angle.
Fig. 16 is a fragmentary partly sectional view of a joint formed at a 45 degree angle;
Fig. 17 is a view similar to Fig. 15 illustrating the device application to a 30 degree angle;
Fig. 18 is a plan view of a hexagonal member such as formed by the 30 degree angle jointing;
Fig. 19, also like Fig. 15, illustrates the device application to a 22 degree angle;
Fig. 20 is a plan view of an octagonal member such as formed by the 22 degree angle jointing;
Fig. 21 is an end view similar to Fig. 15 illustrating an adaptation of the device to the mitered or angular edge of a member such as a section of a circular column;
Fig. 22 is an opposite end inverted view of the device as it may be employed to form a joint with a metal insert or inlay such as is common in modernistic furniture;
Fig. 23 is a fragmentary partly sectioned View of a joint including a metal insert as in the surface of a table top or the like;
Fig. 24 is a plan View of the joint illustrated in Fig. 23;
Fig. 25 is a view similar to Fig. 13 showing the device with extensional attachment applied to a greatly elongated structuralv member and indicating its mode of use in forming joints at different stages or distances therealong;
Fig. 26 is a plan view illustrating a modification and adaptation of the device to the formation of joints upon a large surface, or at some distance from the edge of a member, as when another member is to be applied in superposition thereon;
Fig. 27 is a similar view illustrating the use of the device in forming corresponding joints in the superpositional member;
Fig. 28 is an end view of Fig. 27;
Fig. 29 is an end elevation of the large surface and superposed member joined together;
Fig. 30 is a detail plan view of an attachment part adapting the device to the fiat surface use illustrated in Figs. 26 to 29;
Fig. 31 is a detail view of one of the spacer parts used in this modificational arrangement; and
Fig. 32 is a plan view of a further modification of the device adapted to form joint perforations on a fiat surface along an angular edge.
Referring first to Figs. 1 to 3, the illustrative device or jig comprises a T-shaped block designated generally by ID and hereinafter called the mandrel. This block is made of metal such as iron or low expansion steel, and for a purpose later explained, is formed preferably in two plate parts,'i.e. with the center angle-forming portion Ill removable from the crossing main portion [0 on which the block ordinarily rests. In this instance, the angle plate part is slide fitted into the main plate part, where it is held by securing screws l l extended through the bottom (see Figs. 4 and 5 or 11 and 12). It is desirable to make such fitting possible in only one end-wise relation, as by locating said securing screws slightly diiferent distances from the main plate ends, so that the angle plate cannot be reversed in position, for the reason that identical gaugements are best assured by having the same ends always together.
Said angle plate or portion ll) has a longitudinal series of closely spaced circular holes l2 extending transversely therethrough. These are of a size corresponding to the dowels to be used in the jointing and are advantageously numbered consecutively upon opposite sides of the plate, beginning at the endbeing the right one in Fig. 1-from which the gauging is intended to be taken. They serve both as guides for a drill or other boring tool and to locate or center the points at which dowel recesses are to be formed in a member to be jointed. To thisend said holes are formed in the plate at that level or distance above the main plate surface which will automatically gauge the recess formations or drill borings the correct distance from the edge of the member. If so desired, these guide holes may be formed instaggered arrangement along the length of the plate instead of in the straight line arrangement shown, this being largely a matter of choice or preference. The principal advantage is to be gained from arranging them as closely together as possible without likelihood of splitting or weakening the material by adjacent borings therethrough, but in cases of such liability the borings can of course be simply restricted to alternate holes in the series.
The main plate or portion Ill is provided with corresponding bearing plates l3 on opposite sides of the center angle portion. These bearing plates are secured thereon as by screws 14 countersunk in the plates and are intended to be loosenable quickly so as to admit or release a shim or raising plate thereunder if desired. It will be noted that the holes into which said screws l4 fit (see Figs. 4 and 5 or 11 and 12) extend all the way through the main plate and are countersunk at the bottom ends. The reason for this will be explained later. Beneath said bearing plates, properly fitted shim or raising plates l5 are shown applied in the organization of Fig. 1. These shim plates are used in certain cases where it is desired or necessary to gauge the drilling of the dowel recesses a lesser distance from the edge of a member, as for instance when an ofi-set is to be made between jointed members. Said shim plates are conveniently made in the form separately illustrated in Fig. 8, i. e. with openended slots IS in one side receptional to the screws I4, so as to be applied and withdrawn sidewise with ready ease. More will be said about these later. In connection with the bearing and shim plates just described, it is desirable that both shall bear marking such as Left and Right to indicate upon which side of the angle portion they correctly belong, so that they may always be restored to the identical position after removal for any purpose.
At the end of the T-shaped block or mandrel from which gaugement is to be made, a rightangular abutment is provided as by an annular plate '11 extending beyond opposite sides of the center part and'which in effect forms a trihedral angle withjthe'blockupon each'sideof the same; Said abutment plate hereinafter called the stop disc or collar is connected to one end of the center part 'or plate portion Ill and is intended to be extensible axially therefrom. In the organization of Fig.1 and as better illustrated in Fig. 11, it is shown to comprise afixed member; in the form of a knob, against the end of said plate, secured thereto .by a threaded shank. Il screwing into a screw-hole [8 in the latter. This arrangement is suitable'to short work or struc ture pieces in which only one joint is to be formed. Alternatively, to accommodate longer Work or pieces in which more than one joint is to be formed, this stop disc may comprise a collar adjustably positionable along an exten-- sion rod l9. secured in the end of the plate part. Such an alternative arrangement is illustratedin Fig. 2, wherein the stop collar is shown to be slidably adjustable on the rod I9 having a threaded tip l9a adapted tobe screwed into the hole l8 of said plate part in place of the threaded shank Il This alternative arrangement of course is a mere substitution and equivalent of the one for the other. It is in fact the preferred form in its provision for extensibility of the stop, as first indicated, and is intended to constitute a part of the device, with the first described form as a' mere substitution on occasion. It will be evident that the extensibly adjustable collar stop bears exactly the same relation to the mandrel as the fixed stop secured thereto; that is, it will slide upon its rod close against the mandrel end and therewith form the same trihedral angle;
correspondence or accuracy purposes to gauge all formations from one end only and for such reason said opposite end duplicate hole is shownto be closed against ordinary use by a plugscrew 20. Means for clamping the device to the work, or vice versa, is advantageously provided by bars 2| screwed into the top of the center plate Ill (see Figs. 11 and 12) and supporting slidably adjustable arms 22 fitted thereon, whicharms in turn carry adjustment screws 23 in their free ends. Said arms are securable in any position on said bars by simply tightening the clamping screws 24 at their back ends and may be swung around to either work engagingside of the mandrel. The adjustment screws in their free ends are similarly tightenable against the work by turn movement theretoward and have footplates 25 on the inward ends of the same .to. prevent bruising or penetration into the work. I
When it is desired to enlarge the height extent of said center plate 10*, as for instance when working on wider than usual material or edges, an auxiliary plate I0 may be fitted thereon as shown in Fig. 3. This auxiliary plate, madewith its edges and opposite surfaces flush therewith, may be formed with a corresponding series of drill-guide holes l2 therethrough and with corresponding stop-extension screw-holes I8 and, [8 in its ends. It is merely mounted on the main center plate,- or interposed'between said main plateand the clamp-supporting bars 2|, and may be very expediently so applied by simply extending said supporting bars clampably therethrough between adjacent guide holes-as indicated in Fig. 15. ,Of course any other preferred means of se-' curing in place to the main center plate may be used instead, as for instance a direct bolting thereto, in which event the clamp supporting bars 2| would be screwed into the top of this auxiliaryplate instead of the main plate itself.
Figs. 4 to 6 show the device applied to work comprising a structural member 26 such as a table'leg. In side, end and plan view it is shown clamped tosaid member with the latter correctly fitting close in the angle thereof against the stop disc I! at one side. Thus positioned, thework memberis receptive to accurate drilling in one side through the guide-holes I2, as indicated in Fig. 5. A drill 21 is represented in applicative position for the drilling and a hole drilled thereby isrepresented in the dotted lines designated by .28. This drilling is automatically gauged to the proper level or distance'from the members edge by the height of said guide-holes above its rest, or, more correctly stated, by the level to which the bearing plates l3 are dispos'edbelow said guide-holes. The drillin itself is accurately regulated by the guide-holes, directing the drill passage therethrough, so that itcan neither be done off-center nor at a slant. Opposite drilling of identical holes, or in corresponding locationin a diiferent side, is attained by applying the work member to'theopposite side of the device or mandrel. -In dotted lines said member 26 is shown. positioned upon the opposite side for like drilling through the opposite ends of the guide-holes and an oppositely drilled hole 28' such as would be thus made is represented in dotted lines in the upper side of said member.
Thus a member need merely be turned from one side to another for the opposite drillings desired therein. 2
Drill borings in the member may be made I through each of said guide-holes, which is ordinarily preferred for the greatest strength of the joint, or they may be made through anyselected holesv of the series. They are numbered consecutively for convenience of identifying those used in such a selection. In Fig. 6 for instance the drillings are shown to be made through alternate holes numbered 2, 4 and 6. The same ones mustof course be used for the jointing of any-two pieces together. Insofar as possible, the spacing between said holes, center from center, is made exactly identical. But with this device, used as intended, it makes no difierence whether they are spaced absolutely equally or not. Accurate alignment and fit of the joints will result if they are unequally spaced, or even if they are variably spaced apart. The reason for this will be explained. I Assumefor-example that the craftsman is constructing a table. He first forms the legs, apron pieces, stretchers and top pieces and lathes them .to accurate dimension and correspondence, so that each piece will conform exactly with its duplicates. He then decides how he desires to arrange the pieces and which ends or surfaces he wishes to join together and will probably'mark said ends for subsequent guidance. Next he would appl the device to each of the legs along their designated edges at the designated top end and drill holes in adjacent sides'thereof as illustrated and, already described in Figs. 4 to 6.
wise of the same.
Thus each of the 'legs will be correspondingly drilled with exactly duplicated dowel holes in each of two sides.
The apron pieces are next correspondingly drilled oppositely in their opposite ends, as illustrated in Fig. '7. These pieces, such as represented by the member 29, are usually of a lesser thickness than the legs and are properly set in a slight distance from the outer edges of the latter, for which reason shim plates l5, hereinbefore described and illustrated in Fig. 8, will be inserted under the bearing plates I3 to off-set or lower the level of the drillings therein so as to automatically provide for such set-in when jointed into place. Also, in the opposite end drilling, the designated top edge of the pieces will be placed against the'stop disc I! on each side of the mandrel so as to ensure that the joint makes an absolutely level and close fit with the top' of the legs. A reversal or turning to opposite end drilling may and oftentimes will cause an inaccurate fit or misfit. The said apron pieces thus prepared may now be jointed with the legs, as represented in Figs. 9 and 10, by insert of the proper dowel pins 40 to fit in or between the holes 28 and 28' formed in each, whereupon automatically they will be correctly positioned with an accurate close fit and with the proper set-in relation to the leg edges indicated by the corners 2:. However, before any of the parts are put together they should all be fully prepared so as to be assembled at the same time.
The stretchers next to be joint formulated are oppositely drilled in their opposite ends exactly the same as the apron pieces. They, like said apron pieces, fit between the legs'with a set-in from the latters outward edges as would also be illustrated by Fig. 9.
To provide for said stretchers, the legs must be correspondingly drilled also further down or below the jointing level of the apron pieces. This requires use of the extensible attachment of Fig. 2 in substitution for the fixed stop of the Fig. 1 organization, with reference to which the description thus far has been confined. Determining at what level or distance down the legs said stretchers shall be jointed thereto, the craftsman slides the adjustable collar stop I1 outwardly upon its rod 19 to a point permitting the mandrel to be brought into position, downwardly or lengthwise of the legs, at said level thereon. In other words, he extends the stop away from the mandrel to the point where the mandrel may be positioned correctly on the legs with the top ends of the latter bearing against said stop, correspondingly to the described instance of the fixed stop. He then secures the stop at said extended point, as by tightening the set-screw l'l Clamping the device in this adjusted extension position as previously described, the worker proceeds as formerly to drill a second series of joint holes in the proper edges or sides of each of the legs, or correspondingly to those first drilled thereabove for the apron pieces. Thus the stretchers like the apron pieces, as illustrated in Figs. 9 and 10, may be jointed in place between the legs.
Similarly, the top sections are drilled and jointed together along their butting longitudinal edges, the mandrel being extensionally adjusted to each subsequent position of joint formation length- Ordinarily there will be at least three joint formations between the sections along their full length and this will call for three different positionings of the mandrel thereto, in
each of which they are oppositely drilledin the proper relation. The jointed top is fastened as usual to the assembled understructure of the table by suitable dowel joints formed with or without the aid of the device as preferred.
The dowels used in the jointingbetween the several parts are of course intended to be glue coated or glue secured in the recesses provided therefor. Said dowels, denominated by 40 throughout the several views, are preferably'close fitted into said recesses or drilled holes soas to have a strong hold. In this connection, referring for illustration again toFig. 10, the'formed joints may be strengthened and in fact rendered virtually inseparable by. drilling therethrough transversely in the pieces on opposite sides of the joint a very small hole and inserting a wire or pin 4| therein, serving to spike or lock the dowels against movement or loosening in either direction.
It will be noted that th gaugement and locat-v ing of all joints between the difierent parts or members is done from the same end or edge of said members, as well as from the same end of the mandrel. Every set or positioning of the mandrel for the dowel hole drillings in the correct opposed relation is determined by the stop I! engaged against said limit of the members. This eliminates the possibility of error and ensures the formation of absolutely accurate or aligned and perfectly fitting joints, wherein the parts brought together meet close andtight'in perfect level and squaring with each other.- All need for actual measurement is also eliminated, the device itself automatically making or inherently including the necessary measurements and fixing the points for drilling identically in each of the members with absolute precision surpassing that even possible by hand rule or other gauge. The only particulars in which care is required to avoid faulty formations are to see that the mandrel is properly applied to each member and to be sure always to drill through the selected guide-holes for each joint,
The applicability and proceedural use of the device in the construction of various other articles and structural objects will be apparent from the foregoing illustrative description. Of course the mandrel may be adapted to any length member for forming as many joints therealong as desired, merely by extending the length of the attached extension rod l9 as far as necessary and this may be done in sections or by jointing shorter lengths of rod together.
Referring now to the modification of Fig. 13, a sectionally formed extension rod I9 is shown provided with fixed station attachments or means for setting the adjustable collar stop I! into different predetermined or previously occupied positions thereon. The purpose of this is that in performing certain kinds of work, such as duplieating previous constructions, the craftsman may find it necessary to shift the stop collar back and forth to different identical positions and such provision enables him both precisely and expeditiously to restore the stop to any particular position or setting that he may wish. In other words, he can establish and maintain fixed stations to which the stop collar may be alternately adjustable and, if so desired, he may make up any number of extension rods with such fixed stations attachable to the mandrel for different kinds of work. The said attachments or means comprise eccentric collars 42 screw-clamped or otherwise fixed securely upon the rod immediately behind two angled blocks inpositionfor drilling as prethe points to which the stop collar is to be adjusted, so as to abut against said stop collar in the correct position of said points. -In advance of each of said eccentric collars a split sleeve 43 concentric with the rod'and of the same diameter as said eccentriccollars is applied slideably on the rod. The stop collar I'I itself is bored to a larger size permitting it to be slipped or passed. over both said eccentric collars and the-split sleeves, but not over both at the same time. Thus, said stop collar may..slide with or on either of the split sleeves alonga length of the rod,but will be obstructed by the eccentric collars unless demounted or removed from said sleeves. In shifting to position at any one of these fixed points, the stop plate is passed alternately over the'intervening split sleeves and eccentric collars, or vice versa. .At the point'where adjustment is to be made, it is slipped over the immediate split sleeve and-moved back against the eccentric collar which isintended to .abut it-in the adjustment. Pressure against said eccentric collar brings the stop flushwith the split sleeve on .Which it ismounted and its setting screw I1? is then tightened tobindsecurely upon the sleeve, the latter contracting slightly upon the rod. vIn this position it is held until occasion for adjustmentto another position as just-described. One of the split sleeves, indicated as 43', located between the mandrel .and the first fixed stop collar therefrom, may be formed as a nut mounted on the rod and tightenable against the mandrel asa lock therefor, onto whicnthe stop. collar may be engaged against the mandrel end in lieuof a directly connected stopdisc or plate.u
1 In said Fig. 13, the stop plate is shown gauge.- ably adjusted to the end of a structuremember 26,;which has previously been drilled with dowel holes and is ready for a subsequent drilling with the mandrel properly positioned at a new location or level. for joint formation. Fig. 14 isan end view of this, adjusted application, looking from the left end of Fi 13. Figs. to illustrate the use of thedevice in forming mitered or angular joints. This involves the drillingof edges which arelnot fittable in the angle of themandrel against the sides of the center plate portion It] thereof and necessitates special adapters or clamping elements. adapters or clamping elements comprise wed e: shaped-blocks 44 and 45 havingan angulation depending upon the angleof the edge to, be drilled, between which the structuralmember or piece 26' isclamped to the device, or vice versa, with its said edge flush against saidcenter plate portion Ill of the mandrel. The lower of these clamping blocks, viz. block 44, is secured upon themandrel by screws 46 engaged thereinto upwardly through the base portion of the mandrel within the holes normally occupied by the screws l4 holding the bearing plates I3 in place, the said substituting screws 46 being of a diameter less than the diameter'of the screws l4 and serving in lieu thereof to hold said plates in place together with said clamping block. The upper of said clamping blocks, viz. block 45, is recessed in its top to [receive the foot plates of the screws .23 which accordingly hold it in place. Iflthe Imemberto be drilled is Wide or thick enough" to require it,'the height extent of the central member H1 is increased by the attachment of an auxiliary plate NW thereto as pre-i viously described (see Fig. .15). Thus, the structural member is securely clamped between the Said V viously described.
Fig. 15 illustratesthe above described adaptation of the delviceto a 45 degr'eeedge or mitre and'Fig. 16 illustrates the jointlformed by the drilling of like structuralmembers or pieces 26. Fig.1? illustrates a like adaptation to a degree mitre or edge, while Fig. 18 represents a formation .such as the cross-section of a hexagonal columnwhi-ch would be formed by the jointing of similar structural pieces 26 of said angula- -tio'-n; Similarly, Fig. 19 illustrates the same adaptation to a22 degree 'mitre and Fig, 20 represents a member, such as the cross-section o'i a column, which would be formed by the jointing of like members 26 having the latter angulation or edge mortising.
A modification of the abovedescribed adapta tionto mitre jointing is shown'in- Fig. 21, wherein the member 26 is curved on one side as for the production of a circular column. In this modification or particular adaptation the lower clamping block 44 is omitted and one of the 'regularbearing plates I3 is replacedwith a substitute plate l3 of greater width or lateral extension having a marginal flange I 3 depending therefrom. Said flange carries a plate 41 clampable in vertical adjustment thereagainst as by bolts flextending through slots formed therein engaged by the wing nuts 49. This plate serves as a support against the curved under side of the member which is rested intermediately thereupon with one end in the angle of the mandrel and is oppositely clamped-by the upper clamping block 45 so as to'be firmly supported for the drilling operation in its mitered or angular edge. It will be obvious that the'plate 41 needs only to be raised or lowered to accommodate members of difierent curvature. As previously described, the device is moved to different positionings along the edge of themember for different locational stage drillings longitudinally, as illustrated more plainly in Fig. 25. 26' is 'shown'with four stages of drillings along one-longitudinal edge and with the mandrel device' lll' in position for the fourth stage drilling along the opposite edge. Itwill'be noted that all positionings or gaugements are taken from the same end of the member, namely,.the left end, where the 'stop collar 11 is shown bearing against'the edge of the same.
Figs. 22 to 24'illustrate how the device maybe used to include a metal insert or trim piece into ajoint so as to be wholly secure and flush in the material. Referring first to Fig. 22, the device is shown inverted so-as to engage the work upon its top surface rather than the lower surface as ordinarily, but-this is not essential as it might also be done with the device in the: normalor non-inverted position and simply inverting the work instead if that should be necessary. Here the'structural member 26 is shown recessed to receive a metal strip insert or inlay along the jointing edge. 'Ifhe said insert is made flush with the top surface'of the member as it properly should be for proper finish and appearance. With the member and insert together in this position against the side ofthe central plate portion H! of the device, the joint holes are drilled as previously described throughthe metal insert as-well as into the structural member itself, thereby providin'g'for' the .dowelpins of the joint to extend entirely through the insert. Such a drilling is indicated in dotted lines designated by 28". Of course an opposite drilling 28" is Here an elongated membermade in the adjacent memberZBf tobe jointed with the former. In addition, the two members are preferably drilled a second time for direct jointing to each other as indicated by the second joint holes 28 and 28 below the first ones, thereby assuring a stronger and more secure joint between the two members with the metal insert. In this connection, the central plate portion Ill of the mandrel can of course be formed with two series of drill-guide holes at different levels to provide for these two different drillings at the same time, or without necessity of applying the device a second time to the members. Such a provision is indicated by the dotted line representation of guide-holes passing through said plate portion at the two separate drilling levels. Fig. 23 illustrates in end section the joint thus formed between the members with the metal insert 58. It will be noted that the dowels 40 passing through said insert hold it secure at both sides within the inlaid member at both sides of the joint, while the ordinary dowels 40 extend only into the members themselves. Fig. 24 illustrates said jointing in plan view, from which it will be appreciated that the metal strip insert lies completely flush with the top surfaces of the members as well as absolutely secure and tight in place.
A modificational adaptation of the device to use in forming joints between large surface members or members superimposed upon a large surface, involving the drilling of holes over a large surface or at some distance from the edges of a member, is illustrated in Figs. 26 to 32. Referring first to Figs. 26 and 27, let it be assumed for example that two panel members and 52 are to be joined one upon the other. The center plate portion H) of the mandrel is removed from drilled through the same guide hole of the the main plate portion 10 thereof, as previously described herein, and is used alone with an attached extensional stop rod I9, preferably a rod formed with fixed stations as hereinbefore previously described. This center plate portion Ill is in this instance laid flatuponthe surface to be drilled and is of course gauged to position longitudinally of said surface for'the several or successive drillings by vsaid extension rod and its stop-collar I! as before. However, in place of the clamping means previously described, a substitute and modified clamping arrangement is provided by a pair of rods 53 screwed into the holes of said plate normally occupied by the bars 2| which extend transversely across the surface to and beyond the opposite side. This pair of rods 53 is engaged by a plate 54 slidably adjustable thereon against said opposite side of the surface and set to different positions thereon by clamp elements 55, similar to the stop collar l1, therebehind formed advantageously as a part thereof (see Fig. 30). In this connection, said rods are desirably provided with fixed stations, similarly to the extension rod 19, to which said plate can be alternately adjusted like the stop collar ll. 'I'hus,it will be seen that the substituted clamp attachment-provides a combined gauge and guide for'the mandrel part at right angles to the primary gauge attachment. The mandrel part is accurately adjusted to different positionings of drilling by the two gauge attachments working against opposite or right-angularly related edges. of the surface in the manner illustrated in the drawings. As before, all pri-- mary adjustment is made from the-same end or surface of the member to be drilled. In this instance, single holes are shown to have been mandrel part along one longitudinal edge and one transverse edge of the surface. v
The superimposed surface or member is then oppositely drilled with identical holes by inverting or oppositely arranging the device on the under side thereof as illustrated in Fig. 27 (see also Fig. 28). However, inasmuch as this superimposed member is of lesser dimension than the lower surface first drilled, adjustment for this difference of marginal width is made by interposing gauge plates 56 (see Fig, 31) on the rods 53 between the plate 54 and the edge of thesurface against which it is applied. This automatically disposes the hole drillings to the proper distance from the margins so as to make them register exactly with the holes previously drilled in the lower surface, said gauge plates being of the same thicknes as the marginal difference between the two members fitted together. Fig. 29 illustrates the jointing of the two members by the inserted dowels after the drilling of the two correspondingly as described.
Fig. 32 illustrates this described device or arrangement applied to a surface or member 5'! having an angular edge. In this instance, an angular adapting plate 58' is pivoted at one end to the gauging guide plate 54 and bears against the angular edge of the member in place of said former plate itself, being adjusted thereto by the link arm 59 connected between their opposite ends holding the same in fixed position by the clamp screws 60. Thus, as formerly, the plate 54 is adjusted upon the rods 53, except that the attached angle compensating plate 58 instead bears against the edge of the surface. In this adjustment use of the device it'will ordinarily be feasible to drill only one hole for each setting or positioning of the mandrel part, although as before the drilling should always be made through the same guide hole of said part.
It will be understood, as previously stated, that in all uses of the device, the holes for jointing can be drilled through any one or more of the series of guide holes formed in the center plate portion I0- of the mandrel. However, it is essential that in any one piece of work, the dowel holes always should be drilled through the same guide holes of the mandrel. Thus there can be no discrepancy which might cause an imperfect fit or jointing and if the guide holes in said mandrel should be unequally spaced apart one from the other, it will make no difference in the jointing because identical hole drillings in opposite edges or surfaces of the structural members will always be brought into register. 7
The various possible uses and advantages of the invention will doubtless be appreciated from the foregoing description of different ways in which it can be used in the jointing of variously formed members for different constructions. Apart from the adaptability and facility with which the device may be employed to form accurate joints between members, it eliminates all need for measuring or meticulous computation as to where and in what dimension a joint shall be formed, having reference not only to the usual tenofi and mortise joint but also to dowel jointings as they have. hitherto been formed. The device automatically produces a precise jointing of a very strong kindstronger indeed than the ordinary tenon and mortise joint, because the several dowels fit close and tight within their recesses and will in most'instances be brought very closetogfether. The devicedtself costs little to construct or buy. and the associated attachments or appurtenant parts. are; likewise most inexpen sive. vAccordingly, the small-business cabinet maker or. other craftsman-working alone or .with very little help is able to constructvarious articles in very much less time and can compete favorably with vthe large manufacturer having expensivemachinery and preoisionary equipment.
It .will be understood that various changesin form, arrangement and. combination of the elementsof the device can be made to suit difierent conditions without departing from the .actual scopeofthis invention, so that theappended claims are not intended to limit the sameuto the specific form or arrangement as hereinbefore. de-
scribed and illustrated.
. Having thus described my. invention, what I claim as new and desire to secure by Letters Pat-' ent of the United States is:
l. A devicefor locating and iorming dowel jointsbetween structural members, comprising a cross-sectionally -T-shaped metal blockfformedin 7 two plate parts-separable from each other, one of said parts forming the base on which theblock normally rests and the other forming the center Ting member at right angles thereto, said center T ing part being providedwith a longitudinal series of closely spaced drill-guide holes extending transversely therethrough along the length thereof,-and a plate extensibly-attached to one end of the center Ting-member of theblock in a trihedral angle forming relation thereto providing agauging stop abutment for the end of a structural member applied tothe device, said plate being removable with-the center Ting part of-the block when-separated from said'base part thereof. I 2. A dowel joint forming device which consists in a cross-sectionally T-shaped metal block composed in two plate parts separable from each other, one of said parts constituting the central angle forming-portion of the block and the other of said parts constituting the crossing main portion of the block on which it normally rests, said angle forming platepart being formed with a. longitudinal series of closely spaced drill-guide holes extendingtransversely therethrough along the length thereof, and a plate attached tosaid angle forming part "of the block at one end of the same in a position to therewith form a trihedral an'gle,*said plate providing a stop abutment for-the'end of a structural member applied to -the-device' for drilling and being adjustably extensible from the'block end.
3. A dowel joint forming-"device, comprising a cross-sectionally T-shaped metal block formedin two plate parts separable from each other, one of said parts constituting the central angle forming portion of the block and the other of said parts constituting the crossing main portion'of the block, said angle forming plate part being formed with a longitudinal series of closely spaced drill-guide holes extending transversely therethrough along the-length thereof and having attached means for clamping a member there-beside against the main plate part on either side of the same, and a plate attached to said angle forming member at one end of the blockproviding a stop against whicha member to bedrilled is endwise positioned correctly therefor upon the device, said plate being adjustably extensible from the end of the-block.
4. A dowel joint forming device, comprising across-sectionally T-shaped metal block. formedin two plate parts'separable from each other, one
of said parts. constituting the baseon which the block normally rests and the other constituting the center Ting member at right angles thereto, said center. Ting part being formedwith a longitudinal series of closely spaced drill-guide holes extending transversely :therethrough along the length thereof, means for changing the top surface level of said base forming part of the block in relation to the longitudinal series of holes in the center Ting part of the same, and a plate attached to one end of the block therewithiorming a trihedral angle, said plate beingattached to the center vTing part and being extensible adjustably therefrom.
5. A dowel jointformihg device, comprising a cross-sectionally Tt-shaped metal block formed in two plate parts separable from each other, one of said parts constituting the base on which the blocknormally rests and the other of said parts. constituting the center Ting member .at
right angles thereto, said center Ting part being formed with a: longitudinal series of closely spaced drill-guide holes extending transversely therethrough, an abutment plate at one end, of the block positioned so as therewith .to form a trihedral angle and constituting a stop against which the end of a member applied .to the device is endwise positioned thereto,.said abutment plate being extensible to adjusted positions from theend of the. block, a rod secured in the end of the center Ting part of the block on which said abutment plate is mounted slideably for extension, and means on said rod for adjusting said abutment platev to fixed positions therealong.
6. A dowel joint forming device, comprising a cross-sectionally'T-shaped metal block .formed in two plate parts separablefrom each other, one of said parts forming the base on which th. block normally rests and the other forming .the center Ting member at rightangles thereto, said center Ting part being formed with a longitudinal series of closely spaced drill-guide-holes extending transversely therethrough and having attached means for clamping a structural mem ber longitudinally. therebeside against the base part oneither side of the block inposition *formounted to the center Ting part of the block so .as to be removable-therewith when. the same is separated from said base part thereof.
7. A dowel joint forming device. comprising a cross-sectionally T-shaped metal block formed in two plate parts separable from each other, one of said parts forming the base on which the block normally rests and the other forming the center Ting member at right angles thereto, said center Ting part being formed with a longitudinal series of closely spaced drill-guide holes extending transversely th'erethrough and said base part being provided with surface plates on either side of the center Ting part determining its level below the level of the drill-guide holes in said Ting part, said plates being removably secured by screws extending through said base part of the block and being adapted to the in-- sertof raising shim plates thereunder to elevate its level below said holes, and a plate extensibly .attached to one end of the block in a trihedral angle forming relation thereto providing a gauging stop abutment for the end of a member applied to the device, said plate being mounted to the center Ting part of the block so as to be removable therewith when the same is separated from said base part thereof.
8. A dowel joint forming device, comprising a cross-sectionally T-shaped metal block formed in two plate parts separable from each other, one of said parts forming the base on which the block normally rests and the other forming the center Ting member at right angles thereto, said center Ting part being formed with a longitudinal series of closely spaced drill-guide holes extending transversely therethrough and having attached means for clamping a member longitudinally therebeside against the base part on either side of the block in position for drilling operation thereon, said clamping means constituting rods screwed into the top of said Ting member, laterally extended arms slidably adjustable clampably on said rods and screws carried by said arms threadably projectable therethrough so as to be tightened against the member positioned on the base for drilling, and said base part being provided with surface plates on either side of the center Ting part determining the rest level of a structural member thereon below the level of the drill-guide holes in said Ting part, an abutment plate at the end of the block disposed to therewith form a trihedral angle and providing a gauging stop for the end of member applied to the device for drilling, and a screw element secured in the Ting part of the block on which said plate is mounted and adapted to extensional adjustment therefrom.
9. A dowel joint forming device, comprising a cross-sectionally T-shaped metal block formed in two plate parts separable from each other, one of said parts constituting the base on which the block normally rests and the other of said parts constituting the center Ting member at right angles thereto, said center Ting part being formed with a longitudinal series of closely spaced drill-guide holes extending transversely therethrough, and a plate extensibly attached to one end of the block in .a trihedral angle forming relation thereto providing a gauging stop abutment for the end of a structural member applied to the device, said plate being attached directly to the center Ting part of the block so as to be separable therefrom and usable therewith independently of the base part of the block for gauging or locating and forming dowel joint holes over a wide fiat surface.
10. A dowel joint forming device, comprising a cross-sectionally T-shaped metal block formed in two plate parts separable from each other, one of said parts forming the base on which the block normally rests and the other forming the center Ting member at right angles thereto, said center Ting part being formed with a longitudinal series of closely spaced drill-guide holes extending transversely therethrough, an abutment plate mounted at one end of the block in right angular relation to both of said plate parts thereof, said abutment plate providing a gauging stop for and against the end of a structural member applied to the device, and a rod on which said abutment plate is mounted for slide adjustment extensionally from the end of the block, said rod being secured in the center Ting part of the block so as to be removable therewith from the base part and usable therewith independently of said base part for certain dowel joint forming operations.
11. A dowel joint forming device, comprising a cross-sectionally T-shaped metal block formed in two plate parts separable from each other, one of said parts forming the base on which the block normally rests and the other forming the center Tingmember at right angles thereto, said center Ting part being formed with a longitudinal series of closely spaced drill-guide holes extending transversely therethrough, an abutment plate mounted at one end of the block in right angular relation to both of said plate parts thereof, said abutment plate providing a gauging stop for and against the end of a structural member applied to the device, a rod attached to the center Ting part of the block on which said abutment plate, is mounted, and means on said rod for adjusting said abutment plate to fixed station positions thereon, said means constituting eccentric collars fixed on the rod immediately behind the points of, fixed station positioning so as to abut the abutment plate, in such positions and concentric split sleeves slideable on the rod in advance of each of, said eccentric collars, the abutment plate being bored to size so as to pass or slide over each of said eccentric collars and concentric sleeves lengthwiseof the rod but not over both simultaneously and being clampable on any one of said concentric sleeves against any one of said eccentric collars in fixed station position.
12. Adowel joint forming device which consists in a cross sectionally T-shaped metal block composed in two plate parts separable from each other, one of said parts constituting the central angle forming part of the device and the other of said parts constituting the crossing main part of the device on which it normally rests, said angleforming part being provided with a longitudinal series of closely spaced drill guide holes extending transversely therethrough along the length thereof; means extending axially from one end of the angle forming part adapted to form a stop abutment for the end of a structural member applied to the device; and means on the device for clamping a structural member having a mitered edge thereon in such position that said edge is disposed flush against the face of the said center angle forming part of the device.
13. In a device as set forth in claim 12, said clamping means comprising a block secured on the main portion of the device and having its upper face disposed in a plane passing through the heel of the angle formed between the two separable parts of the device; one face of said structural member resting upon the said upper face of the block and with said mitered edge flush against the center angle forming part of the device; and a second block engaging the opposite face of the structural member; and means on the device for urging the second block towards the first block.
14. In a device as set forth in claim 12, said clamping means comprising a plate vertically adjustably mounted on the crossing main part of the device offset from the central angle forming part; andadapted to engage the underside of a structural member mounted in the device with its beveled edge flush with the face of the central angle forming part; a block engaging the upper face of said structural member; and means for urging the block towards the main crossing part of the device.
' DAVID C. MORTON.