US 2261065 A
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Description (OCR text may contain errors)
4 R; KIRCHNER L.- oct. 2 8, 1941.
v* IAPPAIRATUS Fon AND METoD oF BLOOD INFUsIoN Filed June 5, 1940 u U D M bmx..
Patented Oct. 28, 1941 www UNI-TED STATES... PATENT OFFICE i INFUsIo Ricardo Kirchner, Mexico City, Mexico Application June 5, 1940, Serial No. 339,012
2 Claims. 128-214) This invention relates to an apparatus for and a method of blood infusion.
The invention aims to provide, in a manner as hereinafter set forth, for enriching the blood to be infused in the patient.
The invention further aims to provide, in a manner as hereinafter set forth, for utilizing the pressure of the enriching medium for the blood for infusing the latter into the patient. y
The invention further aims to provide, in a manner as hereinafter set forth, whereby a small sized needle may be employed for the infusion operation, this being particularly advantageous when dealing with children or patients in whom access to a vein is difficult.
The invention further aims to provide, in a manner as hereinafter set forth, whereby an infusion operation may be expeditiously carried out by the utilization of enriched blood under gaseous pressure and with the pressure being provided by the enriching medium for the blood.
The invention further aims to provide, in a manner as hereinafter set forth, whereby the blood prior to its infusion is combined with an enriching medium in the proportions of threefifths blood and two-fifths of such medium.
Embodying the aims aforesaid, and others which may hereinafter appear, the invention relates to an'apparatus and a method to be hereinafter more specifically referred to, but it is to be understood that changes, variations and modications may be resorted to in the apparatus and in the method which falls within the scope of the invention or claims.
In the drawing:-
Figure 1 is a side elevation, partly in section of an ampoule forming an element of the apparatus,
Figure 2 -is afragmentary View in vertical section of the ampoule, and y Figure 3 is a section on line 3-3, Figure 2.
With reference to the drawing, an ampoule is generally indicated at l0 and it includes a transparent hollow receiver formed of any suitable material (preferably glass) and providing a blood receiving chamber I2. The chamber I2 is shown as for a content of 500 c. c. but can be of any desired size or dimensions. The receiver includes a cylindrical intermediate portion |3 and a pair of oppositely disposed rounded end por-I tions |4, I5. The end portion |4 is closed. 'Ihe end portion I5 centrally thereof is formed with anopem'ng I6 and a combined intake and outlet glass nipple Il. The latter is integral with and depends from end portion I5 and has its inner nipple I1 is formed of a part I8 of uniform diameter and a pair of parts I9, each decreasing in diameter from the transverse median to its ends. The part I 8 at one end merges into the end portion I5 and at its outer end merges into the inner end of part I9. The outer end of part I9 merges into the inner end of part 20.
The parts I9, 20 are shown as of greater diameter than part I8, and they constitute couplers for a flexible conducting tube 2| to bemore fully referred to, but obviously these parts may vary in specific size or dimensions. The inner face of the receiver, wall of opening I6 andthe nipple I1 are coated throughout with chemically pure parafilne 22 preferably with what is termed German parafilne. Formed integral with and centrally of the outer face of the end portion |4 is' a hook 23 for suspending .the receiver when desired. This hook is of the samematerial as the receiver. The receiver |I is formed lengthwise of the outer face and aligned vwith its lon. gitudinal axis With a cubic centimeter scale 24, as shown by Way of example graduated in hundredths from one hundred to ve hundred. It is to be understood that the scale 24 will vary depending on the length and dimensions of the chamber I2. 'I'he end terminal portion 25 of the tube 2| is coupled to the nipple v |I by over-v lapping the parts I9, 20 of the latter. The other end terminal portion 26 of tube 2| yis coupled to a valve casing 2l. The latter yat one side is formed with a lateral tubular extension -28 formed with a pair of parts 29, 30 corresponding in form to that of the parts I9, 20 of nipplel I'l.V The parts 29, 30 constitute couplers for the tube 2|. The end terminal portion 26 of tube 2| over? laps the parts 29, 30 of extension 28. The other side of the casing 2l is formed with a tapered tubular nipple 3| which constitutes a combined intake and outlet for casing 2l and also` a coupler for connecting a small needle 32 to saidcasing. The latter has. mounted therein a shiftable normally closed valve 33 which is common to and provides for simultaneously opening and closing the extension 28 and nipple 3| to and from the interior of the casing 26. A removable glass or hard rubber cap 34 detachably engages with the nipple 3| to protect the needle 32 when the latter is not in use.
The tubing 2| heretofore mentioned is preferably of rubber or the like flexible material and such flexibility serves the purpose not only of permitting the apparatus to be readily compacted for storage, etc., but in the case of a transfusion face registering with the Wall of opening I6. The to a patient who moves about during the transfusion, the flexibility of the tube will prevent harm to the patient and eliminate such danger as bending and breaking of the needle of the reservoir for the blood.
After having been coated With the paraine, as before described, the blood receiving chamber and conducting tube are first evacuated to create a vacuum in the ampoule. The valve is then closed, after Which the needle is inserted in the vein of the person from whom the blood is to be extracted and the Valve is carefully gradually opened. The suction effect of the Vacuum will cause the blood to enter the receiving chamber of the ampoule. After the said chamber has been filled with blood to the desired extent, the valve is again closed and the needle extracted from the patient or donor. The needle is then detached from the valve, the needle side of the valve is attached to a. suitable pumping means and an enriching medium such as pure air or oxygen or carboxide (which is a mixture of oxygen and carbon dioxide), under pressure, is directedfor pumped into the ampoule. During the mixing of the enriching medium Withthe blood, the 'blood While in the ampoule is gently agitated to provide for a thorough admixing of the enriching medium (gas) with the blood. The admxing of the enriching medium with the blood is had under a pressure of preferably thirty pounds per square inch when the ampoule has a receiving chamber of about five hundred cubic centimeters capacity, but the pressure will vary proportionately depending upon the size of the receiving chamber. The ampoule, Whatever its capacity may be, is never iilled to more than 60% with blood so that the mixture of pure air or oxygen or carboxide and blood will be in the proportion of three-fifths of blood and twofths gas. The enriching medium thus admixed with the blood will not only provide an infusion having no deleterious eiect `on the patient but in addition it will be unusually beneficial to the patient. With the proportions of ingredients set forth, and the pressure described, the gas bubbles Will be very tiny.
After the admixing step the va-lve'is closed, the pumping means rdetached and the ampoule with the enriched infusion is stored in the member |20 to be suitably refrigerated. The member |`0 4with the ampoule therein is transported to the place Where the infusion operation is -tobe carried on. When ready to be used, the ampoule is removed from `member lil, and the cap 34 `is then removed from the needle, the latter inserted i-n the patient and the pressure from the enriching medium will act to force the mixture from the ampoule through the needle into the patient. Prior to the storing of the ampoule in the lmember I-U, the needle is attached Yto the Valve casing and the cap 34 mounted in protecting relation with respect to the needle.
The venriching medium is preferably carboxide or pure air or oxygen, as stated, but it is contemplated that other suitable gases o'r mixtures thereof may be used which will have the effect, and properties described.
The use and purpose of the parafne is to prevent coagulation of the blood from What would otherwise be contact directly with the glass. It is the practice in some instances to add suitable agents to the blood to prevent coagulation, so that possibly the use of the parane could be eliminated, but it has been found that even in such cases, it is still preferable to use theI paraine coating and that better results are had from such use than otherwise. Coagulation of the blood, even to a small extent, will result not only in possible danger to the patient, but in addition Vwill -clog the needle.
The descriptive Word infusion as used in this case is intended to include transfusions or transfusing of the blood.
`What I claim is:
1. A method of enriching blood'for infusion and for infusing the enriched blood into a patient, .said method yconsisting in creating a vacuum in an ampoule, communicating the evacuated ampoule for a predetermined period with a source of blood supply to thereby cause a flow of blood into the ampoule, closing the ampoule, pum-ping yunder pressure `ior a predetermined period a gaseous enriching medium for the blood into the `ampoule While the blood Within the ampoule ,is under a lstate of agitation and in the presence of a preventative for blood coagulation to 'thereby intimately vmix the blood and said medium .to thereby provide an enriched mixture, closing the ampoule, and then utilizing, after opening the ampoule, the pressure within the ampoule of the residual enriching medium for the infusing of the enriched mixture from Within the 'ampoule into the patient.
2. A method of enriching blood for infusing and for infusing the enriched blood into a patient, said method consisting in creating a vacuum in an ampoule, communicating the evacuated ampoule for a predetermined period with a source of blood supply to thereby cause a flow of blood into 'the ampoule to an extent of about sixty percent of the capacity of the ampoule, closing the ampoule, then pumping `under pressure -for a predetermined period, into the ampoule a Ygaseous `enriching medium for the blood While the 'blood in lthe ampoule is under a state of agitation and is in the lpresence of a preventative for blood coagulation to "thereby 'intimately mix the blood and said medium to provide an enriched mixture Within the ampoule of about three-fifths blood and about two-fifths of said' enriching medium, closing the ampoule, and then utilizing after opening the ampoule the pressure Within the ampoule of the residual enriching medium `for infusing `from Within the `ampoule of the enriched mixture into the patient.