US 2262199 A
Description (OCR text may contain errors)
NOV. ll, 1941. N 1 PAULSON 2,262,199
TOY BUILDING BRICK Filed June 6, 1939 2 Sheets-Sheet l Nov. 11, 1941. N. l. PAULsoN v2,262,199
TOY BUILDING BRICK Filed June e, 1939 2 sheetsfsheet 2 i; l i
Patented Nov. 11, 1941 TOY BUILDING BRICK Nils I. Paulson, Chicago, Ill., assigner to Balsam Products Company, Chicago, Ill., a corporation of Illinois Application June 6, 1939, Serial No. 277,663
(Cl. i6-25) 6 Claims.
My invention relates to toy building members in the form of rectangular parallelepipedons, the sides and ends of which simulate in appearance the sides and ends of a plurality of ordinary building bricks.
One of the objects of my invention is to provide an improved set of building members of the type mentioned, each of which is provided with one or more mortar-like joints preferably in the form of grooves in its sides and ends to simulate a number of ordinary building bricks whereby a structure or wall while having the appearance of being constructed of Ia great many individual relationship. mentioned simulate in appearance ordinary building bricks laid in courses with the joints of one course staggered or broken with respect to those of the adjacent top and bottom courses.
My invention contemplates the use of a full size building member and a half size building member of the type described which are adapted to be fitted, as at a door or window opening or a corner, face to face with two sides and an end of the half size member in alignment with two sides and an end of the full size member and with the mortar-like grooves on the two sides and the end of the half size member midway between the grooves of the corresponding sides and end of the full size member whereby the two members when placed in cooperative relation and viewed from a number of points simulate in appearance a plurality of ordinary building brick laid so that the mortar joints in one course are staggered with' respect to the joints of the adjacent courses. In my preferred construction, the ends of the full size member and the sides and ends of-the half size member are grooved to simulate one and one-half ordinary bricks or the side of one brick and the end of another brick, while the sides of the full size member are member is preferably provided on one face with a plurality of dowels and in its opposite face with a plurality of sockets in register with the dowels, the dowels of one member fitting into the sockets or certain sockets of another member to secure the members in the desired face to face relation. It is another object of my invention to arrange the dowels and sockets on each member so that one member may be placed directly underneath, on top of or offset either endwise or sidewise relative to adjacent members thus making it possible to provide for the building of main walls with additions, porticoes, chimneys, porches, steps, canopies or interior partitions in interlocking engagement with the main walls. In my preferred arrangement, the full size members are provided with eight dowels arranged in two parallel rows with the dowels equally spaced in each row and the rows'similarly spaced apart, while the half size members are provided with four dowels similarly arranged and spaced, the sockets of the members being in register 'with the respective dowels.
It is another object of my invention to provide a new and improved form and arrangement of dowels on and sockets in the building members grooved to simulate the sides of three ordinary bricks.
whereby any two members of the set may be quickly and easily secured together in the desired relative positions and yet may be easily separated when it is desired to tear down the structure.
Members embodying the principles of my invention may be made of any suitable material. I prefer to make them of wood, such as hard maple. and it is a further object of my invention to provide an improved building member of Wood which has a plurality of rod-like portions of the body partially displaced relative to the remaining portion of the body in the direction of the grain of the wood to provide dowels on one face and registering sockets in the opposite face.
The invention consists in the novel constructions, arrangements and devices to be hereinafter described and claimed for carrying out the above stated objects and such other objects as will appear from the following specification.
The invention is illustrated in certain preferred embodiments in the accompanying drawings, ,i
whereini Fig. 1 is a perspective view of a building constructed by the use of my improved building members;
Fig. 2 is a perspective view on an enlarged scale of the building members of the three lower courses of the near right corner of the building Fig.- 3 is a plan view also on an enlarged scale of the members forming the steps and the course of bricks directly above them in the illustrated building;
Fig. 4 is a sectional view taken on the line 4-4 of Fig. 3;
Fig. 5- is an inverted plan view on an enlarged scale of the members projecting over the window in the right end of the buildingl illustrated in Fig. 1;
Fig. 6 is a plan View on a still further enlarged scale of one of my improved full size building members;
Fig. 7 is a plan view of a half size building member on the same scale as Figx;
Fig. 8 is a sectional view taken on the line 8-8 of Fig. 6; r
Fig. 9 is a perspective view of a triangular building member used in such places as the gables of a building:
Fig. 10 is a sectional view of a blank in the form of a rectangular parallelepipedon between spaced die members suitable for forming dowels on one a face and sockets in the opposite face of one of my improved building members; and
Fig. 11 is a view similar to Fig. 10 showing the die members in their closed positions with one yof my improved finished building members in position therebetween.
Like characters of reference designate like parts in the several views.
The building shown in Fig. 1 is typical of those that may be constructed of my improved building members. The side and end walls are built by the use of a plurality of full size members A and half size members B. A few triangular shaped pieces C are used in the gables and the chimney.
As best shown in Figs. 6 and 8, the full size members A are in the form of a rectangular parallelepipedon, its opposite sides being grooved at I2 to simulate mortar joints between the ,long sides of three ordinary bricks while the ends are grooved at I3 to-simulate a mortar joint between faces, and recesses I'I are provided in each face of the member. Y
As clearly shown in Fig. 8, the base portions I5a of the dowels are of substantially the same size in cross section as the sockets I6, the side walls of the sockets are parallel, the tip portions I5b of the dowels are tapered and the length of the dowels is substantially less than the depth of the sockets. The arrangement is such, therefore, that the dowels of one member will readily enter the selected sockets of another member but when the members are pressed closely together the base portions I5a of the dowels fit snugly in the sockets engaged therebyV and firmly secure ,together the cooperating members. However, once the two cooperating members are separated a distance equal to the height of the base portion I5a the members readily fall apart.
When my improved members are made of wood, such as hard maple, the dowels and sockets are preferably formed by a partial displacement of rod-like bundles of fibres in the direction of the the long side of one brick and the end of another brick, the end grooves I3 being opposite each other. Edge grooves I4 of half size extend around the member at its top and bottom faces so that mortar joints will appear at the meeting faces of coengagingr members. The full size member A is provided on one face with a plurality of dowels I5, there being two parallel rows of such dowels with four dowels in each row. The dowels are spaced equally in each row and the two rows are spaced the same distance apart. In its opposite face the full size member is provided with the same number of sockets I6 as dowels, the respective sockets being in register with the dowels. On each face of the member rectangular recesses I'I are arranged as shown, the purpose of which will be presently described.
The half size member B shown in Fig. 7. is provided with grooves I8 in its sides opposite each other and with 'grooves I9 in its ends which are opposite to each other, each side and each end therefore simulatingthe long side of one ordinary brick and the end of another ordinary brick with a mortar joint between. On one face the half member is provided with a plurality of dowels I5 arranged and spaced in the same man-4 ner as the dowels of the full size member. Like the full size member, the opposite face of the half size member is provided with fou'r sockets in register with vthe dowels, edge grooves I4'falso of the same cross sectional size.
grain of the wood relative to the main body of the member. The formation of the dowels and the sockets in that manner is readily carried out by 'the insertion of wood blanks D within a sleeve 20 and between cooperative die members 2I and 22 as shown in Figs. 10 and 11. The die member 2I is1 provided With recesses 23 corresponding in size and shape to the dowels I5, each recess having a straight side Wall portion 23a, a tapered side uwall portion 23h and' a bottom 23e. The die member 22 is provided with stationary punches 24 in alignment or register with the recesses 23 of the die member 2 I, the punches corresponding in size and shape to the sockets IB. The blank D is cut and placed within the sleeve 20 and be tween the die members 2I and 22 so that the grain of the wood runs in the same direction as the axes of the punches 24. When the die member 2| descends from the position shown in Fig. l0 to the position shown in Fig. 11, the die member 22 being at such time stationary, the blank D is forced downwardly and simultaneously the punches 24 sink into the bottom end face of the blank and partially displace, relativeto the body of the blank, rod-like bundles of fibers as outlined in Fig. 11 by the dotted lines 25. The punches 24 are of the same cross sectional size as the straight side portions 23a of the recesses 23 resulting in the' displaced bundles of fibersbeing The depth of the recesses 23 is substantially lessthan the projecting ends of the punches 24. `The rod-like bundles of fibers, therefore, are compressed axially and the upper ends of the bundles of fiber are substantially compressed transversely due to the tapered side walls ofthe recesses-23. Each die member is provided withv short rectangular punches 26 whereby the rectangular recesses I1 in the opposite faces of the building members are formed simultaneously with the formation of the dowels I5 and sockets Iii.f The die members .-are also formed so that the half grooves I4`of the building members are simultaneously formed. In
with the dowels I5- projecting from its upperface and registering sockets I6 formed in its lower face, may be readily removed from the sleeve 20.
extend around the member at its top and bottom By the method described, the building members members of the two courses.
are exactlyand uniformly produced, the dowels and sockets thereof being exactly spaced thus insuring a perfect fit of the dowels of one member into the sockets of another member. It will be understood, of course, that .one set of dies will be used for the full size members and another set for the half size members.
The triangular shaped piece C is a special form of half size member but is provided in its base only with four sockets adapted to fit over dowels of a member A or B. 'I'he inclined surface of the member C is smooth whereby the roof may rest thereon when the members are used to complete a gable of a building. When used in the base of the chimney as shown in Fig. 1, two members C are inverted and, after being placed in coengaging relationship with the dowels of a full size member A, are placed on the ridge of the roof. The members C may be made conveniently in pairs by rst forming a half size member twice as high as the member B, then forming sockets in its opposite end faces and then sawing the member so formed across the grain diagonally from the upper edge of one side to the lower edge of the opposite side.
The various ways in which my improved building members may be placed in interlocking relationship are illustrated in Figs. l to of the drawings. At the corners, as clearly shown in Fig. 2, full size membersV 21 and 28 of the foundation course are placed end to end. The full size members 29 and 30 of that course are also placed end to end with the right end of the member 30 against the inner side of the 'member 21. The members 3l, 32 and l33 of the second course are placed in overlapping engagement with the foundation members as shown, with the dowels of the foundation members projecting into the sockets in the adjacent faces of the members of the second course, thus firmly securing together the The engagement between the members 32, 30 and 21, for example, is such that all three members are firmly secured against any lateral movement with respect to each other. In like manner, the members 34 and 35 of the third course are placed in interlocking engagement with the adjacent members of the second course.
When steps or similar structures are to be built, certain of the building members of one course may be oifsetlaterally as shown in detail in Fig. 3 wherein the members 29, 36, 31 and 38 of the foundation course are offset both sidewise and endwise with respect to the members 3|, 39 and 40 of the second course and are in interlocking engagement therewith. It will be noted crosswise with respect to a wall with half ofeach member projecting laterally of the wall as shown in the right end of Fig. 1, and in detail in Fig. 5. ,In that arrangement, the full size members 4l to 44 may be placed side to side in a course, for example over a window opening. -The engagement of the members 4| and 44 with the members in the adjacent course below and the engagement of each of the members 4l to 44 with the members in the adjacent course above firmly secure the projecting members against relative movement.
The door and window openings of a building constructed of my improved building members may be closed by panels of cardboard or other tween the individual bricks.l
suitable material and made to simulate doors or windows. In the embodiment illustrated, window panels 45 are placed in each window opening and a door panel 48 is placed in the door opening. Each panel is provided with projecting tongues 41 of such size and so spaced as to iit in the recesses l1 of the building members in the adjacent top and bottom courses. Since each panel is secured by two tongues at its top and bottom. the panel is effectively locked in position by the coengaging building members surrounding the opening.
It will now be apparent that members embodying the principles of my invention readily lend themselves to the building of houses the main walls of which may have additions, porticoes, porches, steps, canopies, or the like, all in interlocking relationship. The houses may be provided also withinterior partition walls interlocked to the main walls. Structures other than houses, such as towers and monuments, also may be erected by the use of my new building members.
It will be observed that each full building member is the equivalent in volume to nine ordinary bricks and that each half size member is equivalent in volume to four and one-half bricks. By this arrangement, a wall built of my improved members has the appearance of being constructed of a great many individual bricks.-
into the sockets, two members in close face to face engagement are securely locked together and the engaged members may be as readily separated by a child. The vertical grooves of the sides and ends of the building members are such that the members may be readily laid in courses with the grooves representing mortar joints Aof one course broken or staggered with respect to those of the adjacent courses. The half size grooves I4 on the horizontal top and bottom edges of the building members cooperate to provide grooves simulating horizontally extending mortar joints between courses of the members which match the vertically disposed mortar joints be- By means of the method herein disclosed my improved members may be readily produced at low cost.
While I prefer to employ the form of building members shown in the drawings and described above I wish it to be understood that my invention is not limited thereto except only in so far as certain of the appended claims are so limited as changes in the members and in the method of making them may be made without departing from the principles of my invention.
l. In a set of toy building bricks, the combi'- nation of a full size member in the form of a rec-` tangular parallelepipedon having its sides grooved to simulate the sides of at least three bricks and its ends groovedto simulate the sides of at least one and one-half bricks, the side grooves being opposite each other and the end grooves-being to simulate the sides o! at least one and one-half bricks, the side grooves of said half member being opposite each other and the end grooves thereof being opposite each other, said full size member on one face having eight doweis and in its opposite face having in register therewith eight sockets, the haii size member on one face having four dowels and in its opposite face having in register therewith four sockets, the doweis and sockets on each member being arranged in at least two rows and being equally spaced whereby the half size member may be placed. in the desired cooperative relation against either face of the full size member and held against lateral movement relative thereto.
2. In a set of toy building bricks, the combination of two members of non-resilient material each in the form of a rectangular parallelepipedon having on one face a pluralityof dowels arranged in at least two rows and in its opposite face a plurality of sockets in register with the dowels, each of said sockets being straight sided along its entire depth, said doweis and sockets being so arranged that a plurality of dowels of one member may be placed in certain sockets of the other member, each of said dowels comprising base and tip portions, the base portions having straight sides and being adapted to t snugly into said sockets while the tip portions are tapered to facilitate entrance into the sockets.
3. In a set of toy building blocks, the combination of a. full size member inthe form of a rectangular parailelepipedon having its sides marked to simulate the sides of a plurality of bricks and its ends marked to simulate the end of a brick and at least the side of a brick, the side markings being opposite each other and the end markings being opposite each other, a sxrialler size member in the form or a rectangular parallelepipedon having each of its sides and each of its ends marked to simulate the end of a brick and at least the side of a brick, the side markings of said smaller member being opposite each other and the end markings thereof being opposite each other,"and cooperative means `on said members for holding the smaller size member in the desired position in face contact with and against lateral movement relative to the full size member. y
4. A toy building brick in the form of a rectangular parallelepipedon having its sides marked to simulate the sides of av plurality of bricks and its ends marked to simulate the end of a brick and at least the side of a brick, the side markings being opposite each other and the end markings being opposite each other, one face of the .brick having a plurality of doweis arranged in two rows and equally spaced and the other face having sockets in register with the dowels.
5. A toy building-brick in the form of a rectangularparallelepipedon having its sides and its ends marked to simulate the end of a brick and at least the side of a brick, the side markings being opposite each other and the end markings being opposite each other, one face oi the brick having a plurality of doweis arranged in two rows and equally spaced and the other face having sockets in register with the dowels.l
, 6. A wooden toy building member comprising a body provided ywith parallel faces extending acrossthe grain of the wood and having a plurality of rod-like portions therein extending in the direction of the grain and projecting from one of said faces thereby forming dowels on the face, said body being provided with sockets on the other of said `faces in register with and bottomed by said rod-like portions.
NILS I. PAULSON.